NOTES ELEMENTS OF FICTION The way a writer reveals the personality of the character 2 basic ways an author uses characterization 1. Direct—the author supplies all the information 2. Indirect—the author provides hints or clues and allows the reader to form ideas about the character. (infer) Types of characters Protagonist— main character; who the story is about Types of characters Antagonist— person or thing against the protagonist Types of characters Dynamic: changes as a result of a story’s events (protagonist must be dynamic!!) Static: does not change much in the course of a story A struggle between opposing forces or sides Char. Vs. Char.—Bilbo vs. Gollum Char. Vs. Self—John Adams’ decision to defend the British soldiers because of even though he didn’t agree with their actions, he believed they had a right to be defended Char. Vs. Society—Goldilocks decides to break into the Bears’ house (against the law!) Char. Vs. Nature—shipwrecked on an island because of a storm Char. Vs. Fate— Frederick became prince because he happened to be born to royalty. Setting: The time and place in which the action takes place. It often sets the mood for the story. A statement about life the author is trying to get across. In most cases, it will be implied. There may be more than one theme in a story. small version of something larger: it represents or symbolizes something larger A classroom = society A tide pool = life cycles, all of Earth’s oceans A small town = America The attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, characters, and audience. Humorous as in “Ode to a Toad” Sincere & Passionate as in “I Have a Dream” Dictionary Definition A meaning, association, or emotion associated with a word DETERMINED VS. PIGHEADED They have similar denotations but different connotations. Determined has a positive connotation / Pigheaded has a negative connotation Bullheaded Willful Firm Persistent Resolute A writer’s or speaker’s choice of words. Slang words would be suitable for a humorous piece but not for a serious essay. An expression peculiar to a particular language that means something different from the literal meaning of the words. “Hold your tongue” “A smart cookie” “Bury your head in the sand” A way of speaking that is characteristic of a certain geographical area or a certain group of people. The sequence of events that occur in a story The point in the plot when the tension is greatest and when a main conflict is resolved A Minor Plot that relates in some way to the main plot. Most novels have various subplots connecting characters & events together. An introduction of a story. Tells us about characters, setting, and usually the basic conflicts The final part of the story, in which the conflict is resolved and the story is brought to a close. An interruption in the present action of a plot to show events that happened at an earlier time. The use of CLUES or HINTS to suggest events that will occur later in the plot. Epilogue Final section of a novel or story, which provides a comment or conclusion to what has happened. It follows the book's climax, and ties up any loose knots. Repeated elements of the plot. For example: “The 3 Little Pigs” POINT OF VIEW Third-Person Omniscient: Narrator knows everything about \all the characters and their problems. Can go anywhere in the story But the narrator does not take part in the story’s action. POINT OF VIEW Third-Person Limited: The narrator focuses on the thoughts and feelings of only one character. From this point of view, we observe the action through the eyes of only one of the characters in the story. POINT OF VIEW First-Person: One of the characters, using the personal pronoun I, tells the story. We can only know what this character knows and observe only what this character observes. There are 3 types: VERBAL IRONY: contrast between what is said or written and what is really meant. Example: Calling a baseball player who just struck out “Slugger” or “Another Babe Ruth” SITUATIONAL IRONY: occurs when what happens is very different from what we expect will happen. Example: Casey, in “Casey at the Bat”, strikes out when we are led to believe that he will save the day. DRAMATIC IRONY: occurs when the audience or reader knows something a character does not know. Example: The Diary of Anne Frank is filled with dramatic irony; we know about the tragic fate of the people in the play, but they do not.