Overview of Public Health Law in Texas

advertisement
An Introduction to Public
Health Law in Texas
Anne Kimbol
University of Houston Health Law and Policy
Institute
What is Public Health Law?
Intersection between public health
professionals and government/regulation
Largely deals with authority and the
balance between the need to protect the
public health and individuals’ rights
Authority in Texas - Federal
Police powers v. Commerce Clause.
President – communicable disease
definition
Secretary of HHS/CDC – regulations
relating to communicable diseases and
help states
Authority in Texas - Governor
Texas Disaster Act
Evacuations
Emergency management plan
Authority in Texas - DSHS
Implementation of communicable disease
control measures
Declare public health disaster
Define reportable diseases
Help/preempt local authorities
Investigate cases
Authority in Texas - Local
Local health authority is in charge of
control measures locally and most
communication between locals and DSHS
Authority generally overlaps with DSHS
but with area limitations
For certain actions, LHA must consult
DSHS
Authority in Texas - Courts
Courts largely play a role of ensuring
adequate balance between public safety
and individual rights
Mostly get involved when a party refuses
to comply with an order from the LHA or
DSHS
Reportable Diseases - Who?
Dentists
Vets
Local school authorities
Person in charge of clinical or hospital lab, blood bank, mobile unit,
or other facility performing labs
RN
Administrator or director of nursing home, personal care home,
maternity home, adult respite care center, adult day-care center,
home health agency, institution of higher ed, public or private camp,
home, or institution, correctional institution
Owner or manager of restaurant, dairy, other good handling or
processing place
EMT
Peace officer
Firefighter
Reportable Disease – What And
When?
Defined by DSHS
http://www.dshs.state.
tx.us/idcu/investigatio
n/conditions/
Additional organisms
Information to be
reported
Reportable Diseases - Animals
Multiple species diseases












Akabane - Akabane virus
Anthrax** - Bacillus anthracis
Aujeszky’s disease - Pseudorabies virus, herpesvirus suis
Leishmaniasis** - Leishmania infantum and L donavani
Foot and mouth disease - Aphthovirus, types A,O,C, SAT, Asia
Heartworm - Cowdria ruminantium
African Trypanosomosis (Nagana) - Trypanosoma brucei, T. vivax,
T. brucei
Rinderpest - Morbillivirus
Rift Valley fever - Bunya virus
Vesicular stomatitis - Rhabdovirus; 2 serotypes; New Jersey and Indiana
Screwworm - Cochliomyia hominivorax
Cattle diseases (including Exotic Bovidae)










Bovine babesiosis - B. bovis, B. divergens, Babesia microti
Bovine brucellosis - Brucella abortus
Bovine ephemeral fever - Rhabdovirus
Bovine tuberculosis - Mycobacterium bovis
East coast fever (Theileriosis) - Theileria parva
Malignant catarrhal fever (wildebeest associated) – Alcelaphine herpesvirus (AHV 1)
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia - Mycoplasma mycoides
Lumpy skin disease - Neethling poxvirus
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy Scabies - Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes bovis, Chorioptes bovis
Reportable Diseases - Animals
Cervidae



Brucellosis - Brucella abortus, Brucella suis (biotype 4)
Chronic Wasting Disease Tuberculosis - Mycobacterium bovis
Sheep and goat diseases








Caprine and ovine brucellosis (not B. ovis infection) - Brucella melitensis
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia - Mycoplasma capri (biotype 78)
Louping ill - Flavovirus
Nairobi sheep disease - Bunyaviridae
Peste des petits ruminants - Morbillivirus, Paramyxoviridae family
Sheep pox and goat pox - Capripoxvirus
Scrapie
Scabies - Sarcoptes scabiei
Equine diseases














African horse sickness - Orbivirus
Contagious equine metritis - Tayorella equigenitalis
Dourine - Trypanosoma equiperdum
Epizootic lymphangitis - Histoplasma farciminosum
Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern and Western)** - Alphavirus
Equine infectious anemia - Lentivirus
Equine morbillivirus pneumonia - Morbillivirus
Equine piroplasmosis - Babesia equi, B. caballi
Glanders - Pseudomonas mallei
Japanese encephalitis - Flavovirus
Surra - Trypanosoma evansi
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis** - Alphavirus; Togaviridae family
Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)* ***
Equine Herpes Virus-1 (EHV-1)*
Reportable Diseases - Animals
Swine diseases






African swine fever - Poxvirus
Classical swine fever (hog cholera) - Togovirus
Pseudorabies - Herpesvirus suis
Porcine brucellosis - Brucella suis
Swine vesicular disease - Picornavirus
Vesicular Exanthema - Calicivirus
Poultry diseases












Avian influenza - Orthomyxoviruse
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis - Orthomyxovirus, herpesvirus
Avian tuberculosis - Mycobacterium avium serovars 1,2
Duck virus hepatitis - Picornavirus
Duck virus enteritis - Herpesvirus
Fowl typhoid - Salmonella gallinarum
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (fowl plague) - Orthomyxovirus (type H5 or H7)
Infectious encephalomyelitis - Arbovirus
Ornithosis (psitticosis) - Chlamydia psittaci
Pullorum disease - Salmonella pullorum
Newcastle disease (VVND) - Paramyxovirus-1 (PMV-1)
Paramyxovirus infections (other than Newcastle disease) - PMV-2 to PMV-9
Rabbit diseases


Myxomatosis - Myxomatosis virus
Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits - Calciviral disease
*These diseases will only be reportable through the last day of the 81st Texas Legislative Session unless
continued in effect by act of the legislature.
**These diseases are also reportable to the Department of State Health Services (DSHS)
***This disease has reporting standards in Chapter 49, §49.4 of this title (relating to Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA):
Reporting and Handling for Breeding of Infected Equine).
Reportable Diseases – Where?
To DSHS or Local Health Authority
Local Health Authority must report to
DSHS
Texas Animal Health Commission
Reportable Diseases – Why?
Tracking
Class B Misdemeanor
Liability protection for good faith reporting
Protection of those handling dead bodies
Communicable Diseases - Schools
LHA may close school if needed to protect public health
Exclusionary conditions

























Amebiasis
Campylobacteriosis
Chickenpox Amebiasis
Common cold
Conjunctivitis, bacterial and/or viral
Fever
Fifth disease
Gastroenteritis
Giardiasis
Head lice
Hepatitis A
Impetigo
Infections mononucleosis
Influenza
Measles
Meningitis bacterial
Mumps
Whopping cough
Ringworm
Rubella
Salmonellosis
Scabies
Shigellosis
Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever
– until antibiotic treatment has begun and physician certificate or health permit is obtained
Quarantine and Isolation - Terms
Quarantine


Not defined in Texas H&S Code
PH definition – Separation and restriction of
movement of individuals who are not yet ill but have
been exposed to a communicable disease
Isolation


Also not defined in law
Separation of individuals ill with a communicable
disease
Terms are often used interchangeably in law
Quarantine and Isolation - Property
Quarantine of Property
(Texas Health & Safety Code §§ 81.063-065, 067-068, 084, 087-088)
Suspect property
is infected or
contaminated
Failure to comply
is a Class B
misdemeanor
Provide notice to
owner and
quarantine
property
Class B misdemeanor
to knowingly remove,
conceal, or dispose of
property under
investigation
Take samples for
testing; offer
similar samples to
the owner
Class A
misdemeanor to
refuse entry or
inspection
Determine
appropriate control
measures
If no appropriate control measures
exist, require owner to destroy
property. If land, require secure fencing
and sealing off of all structures
Release quarantine if
no contamination or
infection found
Release
quarantine when
safe
Q&I – Property - DSHS
Right of entry
Samples
Impose control measures



Quarantine
Restrict access
Destruction
Q&I – Property – LHA
Same as DSHS within region
Q&I – Property – Courts
Penalties
Enforcement
Quarantine and Isolation - Carriers
Actions Involving Carrier or Private Conveyances
(Texas Health & Safety Code §§ 81.086, 089)
Vehicle or craft in
Texas
Reasonable cause to believe it traveled
through or from an area infected or
contaminated by a communicable
disease
Determine control measures and issue
related order – order vehicle stopped
and obtain information on the
passengers and cargo
Owner may be ordered to pay costs of
any technically feasible control
measures
Release
Knowingly transporting infected or
contaminated people or property is a
Class A misdemeanor; if intent to
cause harm or defraud then felony of
the third degree
Q&I – Carriers - DSHS
Order the vehicle stopped
Get information on people aboard
Impose control measures
Q&I – Carriers – LHA
Same as DSHS
Q&I – Carriers - Courts
Penalties
Enforcement
Quarantine and Isolation - Areas
Area Quarantines
(Texas Health & Safety Code § 81.085)
Issue area quarantine order upon
reasonable cause to believe persons or
property contaminated (if HA, must
consult with DSHS and give notice to
impacted governing bodies)
If needed, cooperative agreements
with neighboring states
Publish notice in newspaper of general
circulation each week
Use other reasonable means to
communicate with persons in the area
of the quarantine and needed actions
If needed, request disclosure of
individuals’ immunization records and
take any appropriate action
If needed, commissioner’s court of
affected county or governing body of
municipality or hospital district may
suspend admission of patients seeking
elective treatment; does not impact
responsibilities to indigent residents
Termination by DSHS
(HA may only terminate with DSHS consent )
Failure to comply with
area quarantine and
related orders is a
felony of the third
degree
Q&I – Areas – DSHS
Quarantine
Investigations
Work with neighboring states
Publish notice
Obtain immunization records
Q&I – Areas – LHA
Quarantine after
DSHS consult
Written notice


Governing body
Public
Designate facilities
Q&I – Area – Courts
Penalties
Enforcement
Suspend admission of patients seeking
elective treatment
Quarantine and Isolation - People
Quarantine Process – Individual (Texas Health & Safety Code §§ 81.066, 082-083, 151-199)
Diagnosis and Reporting
Implementation of control measures by health authority or department by means of written orders . (Delivery and non-compliance with HA or DSHS order not
required during disaster.)
Violation of orders
Compliance with Orders
Seek court-ordered treatment (Person may make religious objection unless there is a proclaimed disaster , public
health emergency, or area quarantine; in which case seek only protective custody)
Criminal Penalty – Class B
Misdemeanor
Motion for order for temporary protective custody ; must allege:
1. Application for an order for protective custody and an application for a court order for management of a person with a commun icable
disease will be filed the next business day ; and 2. There is probable cause to find a substantial risk of serious harm without the order .
Order for temporary protective custody
1. Terminates by 4 p.m. the following business day. Termination delayed to allow court to rule if applications for an order for protective
custody and for a court order for management of a person with a communicable disease have been filed .
2. Order is issued based on representations in the court filings and not an adversary hearing .
Person remains free pending order for protective custody and /or court for management if TPC order not granted .
Motion for Order for Protective Custody; must allege:
1. Person meets all criteria for commitment ; and
2. Person presents immediate threat to the public health .
Application for court order for management of person with a communicable disease ; must contain:
1. Person’s name and address; 2. Person’s county of residence;
3. Person is infected with communicable disease ; 4. Copy of written order; 5. Medical evaluation
Appointment of attorney within 24 hours of application
Apprehension and detention under court order
Hearing within 14 days (cannot be held within first 3 days if person or attorney
objects; good faith continuances allowed but hearing must be held within 30 days)
Appointment of attorney
Notice to appropriate parties
Probable cause hearing within 72 hours of detention
(delay allowed if location of person or court is in a
public health disaster).
Disclosure of information/document to person’s attorney
Recommendation of treatment and designation of facility by health authority or department
(eligible facilities designated by Commissioner of Health )
Hearing on application
Order for continued
detention (requires finding of
risk of serious harm to self or
others).
Court-ordered
outpatient services
Release
Order for release
Motion for modification order
Order for
temporary
management (1-90
days)
Order for
extended
management
(90 days – 1
year)
Appeal or rehearing
Compliance with
order
Order for temporary detention pending
modification
Motion denied
Designation of
facility
Modification of order for outpatient treatment
Person released
Appeal
Modification upheld
Compliance with order, including transportation to
facility and acknowledgement of delivery
Quarantine and Isolation - People
Quarantine Process – Group of 5 or more (Texas Health & Safety Code §§ 81.066, 082-083, 151-199)
Diagnosis and Reporting
Implementation of control measures by health authority or department by means of written orders . (Delivery and non-compliance with HA or DSHS order not
required during disaster.)
Violation of orders
Compliance with Orders
Seek court-ordered treatment; statements in application should be based on group actions (Person may make
religious objection unless there is a proclaimed disaster, public health emergency, or area quarantine; in which
case seek only protective custody)
Criminal Penalty – Class B
Misdemeanor
Motion for order for temporary protective custody; must allege:
1. Application for an order for protective custody and an application for a court order for management of a group with a communi cable
disease will be filed the next business day; and 2. There is probable cause to find a substantial risk of serious harm without the order .
Order for temporary protective custody
1. Terminates by 4 p.m. the following business day. Termination delayed to allow court to rule if applications for an order for protective
custody and for a court order for management of a group with a communicable disease have been filed .
2. Order is issued based on representations in the court filings and not an adversary hearing .
Group remains free pending order for protective custody and/or court for management if TPC order not granted.
Motion for Order for Protective Custody; must allege:
1. Group meets all criteria for commitment; and
2. Group presents immediate threat to the public health.
Application for court order for management of group with a communicable disease; must contain:
1. Description and location of group; 2. Narrative on how group was exposed or infected; 3. Estimate on number
in group; 4. Names, addresses, and counties of residence if known (if not known statement of how sought and
why unknown); 5. Statement that the members failed to comply with control measure orders; and 6. Medical
evaluation of group – may be based on individual evaluation if doctor believes it to be representative of the
group.
Appointment of attorney within 24 hours of application; one for
group is fine unless anyone requests an individual attorney
Apprehension and detention under court order
Hearing within 14 days (cannot be held within first 3 days if group or attorney
objects; good faith continuances allowed but hearing must be held within 30 days)
Appointment of attorney
Notice to appropriate parties
Probable cause hearing within 72 hours of detention
(delay allowed if location of group or court is in a
public health disaster).
Disclosure of information/document to group’s attorney(s)
Recommendation of treatment and designation of facility by health authority or department
(eligible facilities designated by Commissioner of Health )
Hearing on application
Order for continued
detention (requires finding of
risk of serious harm to selves
or others).
Court-ordered
outpatient services
Release
Order for release
Motion for modification order
Order for
temporary
management (1-90
days)
Order for
extended
management
(90 days – 1
year)
Appeal or rehearing
Compliance with
order
Order for temporary detention pending
modification
Motion denied
Designation of
facility
Modification of order for outpatient treatment
Group released
Appeal
Modification upheld
Compliance with order, including transportation to
facility and acknowledgement of delivery
Q&I – People – DSHS
Preempt LHA
Return other states’ residents
Impose control measures


Individuals
Groups
Q&I – People – LHA
Same as DSHS
Q&I – People – Courts
Penalties
Different types/levels/procedures for
enforcement

Order for Management of Person with a
Communicable Disease
Temporary
Extended

Protective Custody Orders
Q&I – People – Courts – PCO
Motion for Order for temporary protective
custody
Order for TPC
Motion for Order for Protective Custody
Attorney
Probable Cause hearing
Court order – continued detention or
release
Q&I – People – Courts – OMPCD
Application
Appointment of attorney
Timing
Notice
Recommendations
Hearing
Court decision – release, outpatient,
temporary, extended
Q&I – People – Modifications
Cause
Notice
Hearing
Detention
Counsel
Court decision
Q&I – People – Renewal
For extended management order
Application
Affidavit
Attorney
Hearing
Q&I – People – Rehearings
Rehearing
Appeal
Examination
Timing
Q&I – People – Treatment
Facility
Temporary Passes
Release/discharge
Q&I – People – Groups
Any statement or determination regarding the
conduct of a member of the group must apply to the
majority of its members;
Any finding or statement regarding compliance must
apply to all members of the group;
Any notice being sent to the group must also be
published in the local newspaper of general
circulation, state that the group is appointed one
attorney but any individual member may request an
individual attorney, and include instructions for
people who suspect they may be part of the group to
contact DSHS or the LHA.
Rabies
A reportable condition in humans and animals
For animals


Report within one working day of diagnosis for animal
Report to regional zoonosis control office of Zoonosis
Control Division in Austin
For humans – report immediately to LHA or
DSHS regional director (considered public
health emergency)
Rabies – DSHS
H&S Code Chapter 826
Set minimum standards
Provide vaccine or serum
Adopt control measure rules
Hold hearings
Regulate facilities
Override locals
Rabies – Local/Professionals
Local rabies control authority
Animal licensing
Quarantine and other control measures
Liability protection for veterinarians
Exemptions for police dogs
Penalties for facilities
Rabies biologicals
Rabies – Individuals
Vaccinate cats and dogs

Penalties for failure
Reporting of suspected rabies and/or
possible transmission to humans
Rabies – Area Quarantines
Area quarantine if rabies exists in an area
Borders and rules adopted
Restraint provisions
Penalty for failure to comply
Contact Information; Other
UH Health Law and Policy Institute will be
releasing a bench book for judges on
isolation and quarantine issues. Will
include charts shown here as well as
sample forms and simplified language
summarizing the key statutes.
Anne Kimbol, [email protected],
713-743-2198
Further Contacts/Information
FEDERAL





Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (800) CDC-INFO
Federal Emergency Management Agency (800) 621-FEMA
National Institutes of Health (301) 496-4000
Office of the Surgeon General (301) 443-4000
Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (240) 453-6000
STATE





Commissioner of Health (888) 963-7111
Governor’s Office (800) 843-5789
Office of General Counsel, TDSHS (512) 458-7236
Office of Public Health Practice, TDSHS (512) 458-7700
Center for Public Health Preparedness and Response, TDSHS
(512) 458-7219
Further Contacts/Information
SUGGESTED LOCAL CONTACTS







County Commissioners’ Court
County and/or municipal departments of health
City Council
City Attorney’s Office
Local office of public health preparedness
County Attorney
County Appraisal District
Information Available on the Internet







Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/
Federal Emergency Management Agency http://www.fema.gov/
National Institutes of Health http://www.nih.gov/
Governor’s Office http:///www.governor.state.tx.us
Texas Department of State Health Services http://www.dshs.state.tx.us
Communicable Disease Control Measures in Texas, DSHS Report
http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/comprep/ogc/cdmanual.pdf
Avian Flu Pandemic Litigation Forms, Office of the Attorney General
http://www.oag.state.tx.us/notice/emergency /birdflu/index_forms.php
Download