Minimizing Stress and Anxiety During Euthanasia

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Minimizing Stress and Anxiety
During Euthanasia
Theresia Andersen BVSC (Hons)
[email protected]
Sedation of Animals Prior to
Euthanasia
• Wherever possible, animals are sedated prior
to euthanasia (exceptions – perinatal pups
and kittens, birds, pinkie rats and mice)
• This minimizes the stress of the procedure to
the animals and the staff carrying out the
procedure
Sedating Cats
• WHAT?
• - equal volumes of Zoletil (Zolazepam
50 mg/ml and Tiletamine 50 mg/ml) and
Hypnovel (Midazolam 5 mg/ml)
• HOW?
• - subcutaneously
• HOW MUCH?
Weight of cat
Zoletil Premix
Sodium
Bicarbonate
Cost
< 1 kg
0.2 mls
0.2 mls
$ 1.13
1 – 2 kg
0.3 mls
0.2 mls
$1.67
2-5 kg
0.5 mls
$ 2.72
> 5 kg
0.7 mls
$ 3.80
• ADVANTAGES
• - no restricted drugs needed (compared with
xylazine/ketamine sedation)
• - can be give subcutaneously (no painful
intramuscular injections)
• - gives full anaesthesia with recovery possible (in
most cases – old/sick cats)
• - maintains blood pressure
• - rapid onset of action (approx 5 mins)
• - Hypnovel minimizes disorientation
• DISADVANTAGES
• -cost
• - stings on injection (buffer with 0.2 mls of
8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate mixed in syringe
immediately before administering to
kittens/juveniles)
Sedating Dogs
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
WHAT?
- A.C.P 10 (10 mg Acepromazine maleate)
- Phenomav 100 mg(100 mg Phenobarbitone)
- Xylazil -20 (20 mg/ml Xylazine Hydrochloride)
and Ketamil (50 mg/ml Ketamine hydrochloride)
HOW MUCH
- A.C.P : 1 – 3 mg/kg
- Phenobarbitone : 8 mg/kg
- Xylazine/Ketamine : 0.5 ml of each per 10 kg
bodyweight mixed in a syringe
• ADVANTAGES
• - Cheap (ACP $0.08 per tablet; Phenomav $0.14
per tablet; Xylazine /Ketamine mix $0.42 per ml)
• - oral sedation for most dogs
• DISADVANTAGES
• - Need to ensure tablets are eaten (small
breeds/stressed dogs)
• - Ketamine is a restricted drug, therefore must be
administered by a vet
Sedating Rabbits and Rodents
•
•
•
•
What?
-Xylazine (20 mg/ml)/Ketamine (50 mg/ml)
How?
-Intraperitoneally (liver - right side of
abdomen just below ribs)
• How much?
Species and Size
Amount of Xylazine
Amount of Ketamine
Large Rabbit (>3 kg)
1.0 mls
1.0 mls
Small Rabbit (<3 kg)
0.7 mls
0.7 mls
Guinea Pig
0.3 mls
0.3 mls
Rat
0.1 mls
0.1 mls
Mouse
0.1 mls
0.1 mls
•
•
•
•
ADVANTAGES
- non-irritant intraperitoneal injection
- fully anaesthetized
- less hazardous to handle than gaseous
sedation
• - less equipment needed than gaseous
sedation
• DISADVANTAGES
• - Ketamine is a restricted drug, therefore only
able to be used by a vet
Tips, Tricks and Techniques
• When injecting sedatives, face cat into carrier
• When transfering cats, make the destination
dark
• When scared cats can’t be handled, use the
E-Z Nabber
• No intraperitoneal injections of Lethabarb
unless the animal is fully anaesthetised
(generally only necessary in neonatal animals,
rats, mice and guinea pigs).
Questions?
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