WELCOME TO THE MIDDLE AGES Vocab ◦ Feudalism: a way of organizing and governing people based on land and service ◦ Homage: a formal ceremony establishing feudal ties between a lord and a vassal ◦ Code of Chivalry: a code of conduct for knights based on courtesy, honor, and loyalty to the church ◦ Manorialism: a self-contained economic and agricultural system ◦ Fief: an estate with peasants, led by a nobleman in exchange for loyalty and military help ◦ Vassal: a nobleman who served a higher-ranking lord and who held land for that lord Lord: a nobleman who controlled a fief Lady: a noblewoman Serf: a peasant laborer bound to a nobleman ◦ What role did ladies play in the feudal system? ◦ They raised children, wove textiles, and managed the fiefs while the lord was away at war. ◦ Could a lord be both a lord and a vassal? _______ How? ◦ Yes: he could own his own fiefdom and pay allegiance to a higher-ranking lord (or several higher-ranking lords). ◦ What were some advantages of the manorial system? ◦ It provided all its inhabitants with food, shelter, and protection; inhabitants did not have to depend on trade or outside sources for anything. ◦ What were some disadvantages? ◦ Serfs could not leave the manors without permission; if disease or war destroyed the land, people could not go elsewhere for food. THE CRUSADES Eight major wars undertaken by Christians to recapture the Holy Land in Palestine from the Muslims. Crusade means “war of the cross”. The Holy Land was sacred to Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. The Muslims capture Jerusalem in 638. The Arab Muslims did not stop Christians from visiting the Holy Land. The Turkish Muslims capture Jerusalem in 1076 Different points of view and interests during the Crusades 1st Crusade Christians – Want to recapture the Holy Land in Palistine from Muslims Turkish Muslims – Block the pilgrimage routes that Christians used to visit the Holy Land Emperor of the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople (Alexius I) – Needs help from the Roman Catholic Church to defend the Byzantine Empire Pope of the Catholic Church (Pope Urban II) – Believes that it is God’s will to defeat the Muslims and promises God’s forgiveness of past sins to all who join the army 3rd Crusade Salidin (Sultan of Egypt) – United the Muslim people in the Holy Land and recaptured Jerusalem King Richard Lionhearted of England – Negotiates an agreement to allow Christian pilgrimages it Jerusalem. 4th Crusade Greek prince Alexius – Wants to be the emperor of the Byzantine Empire and promises to help Christians re-conquer the holy land if they help him claim the throne Children’s Crusade German and French children believed they could accomplish what the older crusaders could not. Many died while crossing the Alps, and many others were sold as slaves. 6th Crusade Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II – Regains Jerusalem for 10 years by diplomacy Changes that took place because of the Crusades •The Crusades were the first united effort of Western Europe. •There was a religious motive for fighting rather than the usual reasons for fighting: greed, ambition, and revenge. •The Crusades stopped the Muslim expansion. •The Crusades increased the power of kings, since many of their more powerful vassals were away. •They accelerated the rise of cities since the feudal lords needed the cities’ help to finance their trips. •The Crusades improved relations between lords and peasants and tended to unite the society. •Europeans became more familiar with geography, not only of the Mediterranean region, but their own countries. •Europeans became aware of new products, new methods of farming, and the writings of Greeks and Romans that had been long forgotten in Europe. •Europeans discovered that the Muslims were scholars, not idolaters or barbarians. •The idea that religious wars were pleasing to God caused the bloodshed and persecution of small minority groups in Europe. The Importance of trade routes and the rise of cultural and economic centers Trade – the exchange of goods for other goods or for money Middle Ages Trade Timeline •Early years of the Byzantine Empire, luxury items such as spices and pearls were brought from the Far East, traded in Constantinople, and then carried farther west for sale throughout Europe. •In the 600s, war and disease caused a decline in the Byzantine population and thus trade. Example – Farmers only produced enough for their families instead of growing enough to trade. By the 1000s, new cities began to develop and older cities expanded into giant trading centers. ◦ Places to Trade ◦ Fair – Merchants came great distances to trade their goods in a place temporarily (similar to Carmel Fest!) ◦ Markets – Local, often weekly, events intended for the buying and selling of goods among ordinary townspeople (similar to the Carmel Farmer’s Market) In the early Middle Ages, trade was usually carried out over short distances because travel was difficult and dangerous. Over time, as travel became easier and safer, fairs became more frequent. Land routes were problematic because of the slow journey and the threat of attack by robbers. Important trading centers: London (England); Bruges (Belgium); Genoa, Paris, Venice, and Florence (Italy); Paris and Flanders (France) The great center of trade in the medieval period was the Mediterranean. The Crusades made it possible for pilgrims and merchants to travel to the East, and so helped trade develop. ◦ What would you make, buy, and sell? ◦ After working as an apprentice for seven years, you might become a master, selling jewelry, embroidered silks, and beautiful dishes of silver or gold to wealthy visitors. ◦ Prefer to set up a business to cater to more down-to-earth needs? You could run a mobile food stall! ◦ If you were studious, you could train for one of the professions: doctor, apothecary lawyer, or scribe. ◦ List some of the other jobs you could do: Potter Embroiderer Tapestry maker Banker Cobbler Sculptor Skilled carpenter Money Changer Blacksmith Goldsmith Stained-glass workers Money Lender Glassblower Silk Weaver Stone Carvers The Black Death HOW IT STARTED IN WESTERN EUROPE A ship carrying infected rats docked in the Sicily. The bubonic plague spreads when bacteria infect the blood, causing swellings, and purplish blotches from broken blood vessels. It is spread as easily as a common cold. DEATH TOLL •The bubonic plague killed between 25 and 45 percent of the European population. •Reports in Paris of 800 people dying a day •In just a few years, it spread to Spain, Germany, England, Scandinavia, Russia, and even Greenland. EFFECTS Many people became more religious, thinking that the Black Death was a punishment from God. Hurt the Economy o Too few workers o Abandoned farms created serious food shortages o Fewer craftspeople in the cities meant fewer products to buy o Shortages cause prices to rise High demand for workers cause higher wages Higher standard of living for those who survived Decline Factors that led to the decline of medieval society •Growth of stronger central governments •Growth of cities •A renewed interest in education and trade •Kings challenged the power of the Catholic church •Decline of feudalism and the manorial system Decline Continued… •The Black Death killed many; those who survived, however, often had a better life, especially the peasants of Western Europe, who won both greater freedom and greater prosperity. •Only a few of the greater nobles went through the increasingly complex and costly ritual of becoming a knight. •Students attended the universities for their intellectual and social life, whether or not they wished to become clergy or to teach or to practice a profession. This emphasis on knowledge for its own sake led to the Renaissance.