1600-1700 Review

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Zack Funk
Harrison Holtslander
Kristina Liskiewicz
Ariana Miraglia
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Women were seen as homemakers, caretakers,
and an influential religious instructor for children
in Protestant homes.
Acceptable jobs outside the home
◦ Nun
◦ Artist
◦ Writers (first was Aphra Behn)
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There were several prominent women in
government
◦ Christina of Sweden
◦ Queen Mary II
◦ Anne of Austria
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Absolutism: The acceptance of or belief in
absolute principles in political, philosophical,
ethical, or theological matters.
“Divine Right” of Kings
◦ Rulers ordained by God
◦ Sin to oppose
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Nobility of the Robe: Most often members of
aristocratic families who had curried the favor
of the Ruler and were given honorary titles
and privileges. HIGHLY depended upon the
Sovereign.
Nobility of the Sword: Individuals who either
had ancestors who played a key role in
military of feudal affairs or currently hold
positions of vital importance. EARNED
privileges. DO NOT typically favor monarchs.
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Key difference between absolute rulers of the
17th century and totalitarian rulers of the 20th
century
Total participation was not necessary; rulers
would be satisfied if subjects simply obeyed
the laws and did not oppose them.
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Serfs
◦ Peasants tethered to the land
◦ Duty to the feudal lord
◦ Agricultural laborers
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Corvee
◦ Public service works performed by a feudal lord’s
serfs with the aim of receiving tax exemptions
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Government must abide by predetermined
and concrete rules
◦ Power is usually divided amongst several bodies
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System adopted by England, PolandLithuania, and the Dutch Republic in the latter
half of the century
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Flaw in the Polish-Lithuanian constitutiton
◦ Required unanimous decisions in order to pass any
act of legislation
◦ Led to a highly ineffective government
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Mercantilism
◦ Overseas colonies were founded to provide raw
materials, labor, and economic gain for the European
mother countries
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Bullionism
◦ A nation’s wealth is measured by the amount of precious
metals it possessed
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Price Revolution
◦ A dramatic rise in the price of commodities in the late
16th and early 17th centuries
◦ Due to the influx of precious metals from the New World
(inflation)
◦ Caused economic collapse in Spain
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French Empire
British Empire
Habsburg Empire (Austrian Empire)
Ottoman Empire
Poland-Lithuania
Prussia-Brandenburg
Tsarist Russia
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Henry IV (1589-1610)
◦ Ended French Wars of Religion by signing the
Edict of Nantes
◦ Moved France toward Absolutism
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Louis XIII (1610-1643)
◦ Cardinal Richelieu
 Appointed to be Louis’ chief minister
 Established the Intendant system, which strengthened
royal power
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Louis XIV “the Sun King” (1643-1715)
◦ Made France the model of Absolutism
◦ Issued the Edict of Fontainebleau
◦ Cardinal Mazarin
 Prime Minister when Louis was young
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House of Commons
◦ Lower house of Parliament
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House of Lords
◦ Upper house of Parliament
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Stuart line of Kings
◦ Believed their authority came from God
◦ Wanted a monarchy with no Parliament
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James I (1603-1625)
◦ Asserted the divine right of kings
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Charles I (1625-1649)
◦ Ship money
◦ Petition of Right, 1628
◦ Long Parliament (1640-1660)
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English Civil War (1642-1649)
◦ The Cavaliers
◦ The Roundheads
◦ New Model Army
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Pride’s Purge
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Charles II (1660-1685)
Cavalier Parliament (1660-1679)
◦ Tory and Whig parties
◦ Declaration of Indulgence, 1672
◦ Test Act of 1672
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The Commonwealth (1649-1653)
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Oliver Cromwell
Destroyed the monarchy and the House of Lords
Levellers
Quakers
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The Stuart Restoration
James II (1685-1688)
The Glorious Revolution
◦ William and Mary invited to take the throne
◦ Bill of Rights (1689)
◦ Placed limits on power of English monarchy
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Toleration Act of 1689
◦ Gave Puritan Dissenters the right to free public
worship
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Albert Frederick (1568- 1618)
John Sigismund (1618-1619)
George William (1619-1640)
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Frederick William the Great Elector (16401688)
◦ Hohenzollern ruler who rebuilt Prussia after the
Thirty Years’ War
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Frederick I (1688-1713)
◦ Reigned as Elector of Brandenburg from 16881701
◦ Crowned the first King of Prussia in 1701
(remained so until his death in 1713)
◦ Made Prussia a kingdom
 “Sparta of the North”
 Prussia
 Hohenzollerns
 Ruling family in Prussia beginning in the 16th century
 Junkers
 Nobility which the rulers heavily relied upon
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Rudolf II 1576–1612
◦ Proponent of the Counter Reformation
◦ Pro- Catholic
◦ Overthrown by his brother Matthias in 1612
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Matthias 1612–1619
◦ Sought compromise between the Catholic and
Protestant factions
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Ferdinand II 1619–1637
◦ Supporter of Catholics in the Thirty Years’ War
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Ferdinand III 1637–1657
◦ Signed Peace of Westphalia which ended the Thirty
Years’ War in 1648
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Leopold I- Austria◦ 1655 – 1705
◦ Known for conflict with the Ottomans
 As seen in the Siege of Vienna (1683)
◦ Rival of Louis XIV (his cousin)
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Joseph I- Successor to Austrian Throne (after
Leopold I)
◦ 1690 – 1711
◦ Continued war of Spanish Succession
◦ Attempted to place Charles VI in power in the
Spanish Throne
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Mehmed IV
◦ 1648–1687
◦ The Hunter
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Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa
◦ Mastermind of the Siege of Vienna (1683)
◦ Defeated by Polish and its Holy League allies
◦ Executed for his failure
 Head presented to Mehmed IV
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Muscovy
◦ A medieval principality in west central Russia that
was centered around Moscow and formed the
nucleus of modern Russia.
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Boyars
◦ A member of the old aristocracy in Russia, next in
rank to a prince.
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Romanov Dynasty
◦ “Russian ruling dynasty (1613-1917) that began
with the accession of Czar Michael (1596-1645;
ruled 1613-1645) and ended with the abdication of
Nicholas II during the Russian Revolution.”
(Dictionary.com)
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Old Believers”
◦ A group of Russian Orthodox members who
separated from the church after the reforms of
1666.
◦ Led by Patriarch Nikon
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Peter the Great (1689-1725)
◦ Was determined to westernize Russia after traveling
west in 1697-1698
◦ Formed the first Russian navy
◦ Built St. Petersburg
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Thirty Years’ War
◦ a major conflict involving principally Austria,
Denmark, France, Holland, the German states,
Spain, and Sweden, that devastated central Europe,
esp large areas of Germany (1618-48).
◦ Catholics vs. Protestants
◦ Ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
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Treaty of Pyreness, 1659
◦ Ended fighting between France and Spain that
continued after the Thirty Years’ War
◦ Marked the end of Spain’s status as a major
European power
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League of Augsburg (Spain, the HRE, the
United Provinces, Sweden, and England)
formed against France’s annexation of Alsace
and Lorraine
War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697)
◦ brought economic depression and famine to France
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Treaty of Ryswick ended the war
◦ Louis lost most of his conquests
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Siege of Vienna, 1683
◦ a Turkish army invaded Vienna
◦ Austrian, Polish, and German forces repelled them,
marking the beginning of a decline in Ottoman
power
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Arminianism
-Based on the teachings of Dutch theologian Jacob
Arminius
-Contrasts Calvinism with their views on the
sovereignty of God and predestination
-Opposition to some of the teachings of the Belgic
Confession were formalized into five articles of
Remonstrance published by Arminius followers in 1610
Calvinism
-associated with the Reformer John Calvin
-Emphasizes the rule of God over all things as reflected
in its understanding of Scripture, God, humanity,
salvation, and the church.
-Often refers to the Five Points of Calvinistic doctrine
regarding salvation, which make up the acrostic TULIP
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Protestantism
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Catholicism
-Movement within Christianity, representing a split from the
Roman Catholic Church, which occurred during the 16th
century in Europe in what is called the Protestant
Reformation.
-Represents a diverse range of theological and social
perspectives, denominations and related organizations.
-Considered one of the three major branches of Christianity
-The Roman Catholic Church encountered division in
Protestant Reformation, led initially by Martin Luther,
although Luther's intention was not to create a new
Christianity but to internally reform the teachings of the
church.
-excommunicated the "reformers" which gave rise to
Protestantism with its numerous denominations, many of
which developed distinctive theological perspectives.
Roman Catholicism contains a number of doctrines
which Protestants view as unbiblical, such as the
doctrine of Transubstantiation, the veneration and
intercession of deceased saints, prayers for the
dead, purgatory, the immaculate conception and
bodily assumption of Mary, and papal infallibility.
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Jansenism
- a Christian theological movement, primarily in
France, that emphasized original sin, human
depravity, the necessity of divine grace, and
predestination.
-Originated from work of the Dutch theologian
Cornelius Jansen
-Jansenism was opposed by many in the Catholic
hierarchy, especially the Jesuits
Galileo:
-The Heliocentric Theory (Sun
was the center of universe)
was widely disapproved by
Catholics
Galileo stood trial for heresy in 1633 after
he published his book, Dialogue Concerning
the Two Chief World System, which
discussed the theory.
Isaac Newton:
-Philosophae Naturalis Principia
Mathematica describes universal
gravitation and the three laws of
motion.
-Other works include the principles of
conservation related to momentum and
angular momentum, the refraction of
light, an empirical law of cooling, the
building of the first practical telescope.
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Vesalius:
-Founder of Modern
Anatomy
- De Humani Commis
Fabrica (On the Structure of
the Human Body) is one of
the most important works
about human anatomy.
William Harvey:
-His works include An
Anatomical Study of the
Motion of the Heart and of
the Blood in Animals (blood
circulation) and Essays on
the Generation of Animals
(embryology)
- Famous for correctly
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
- “The Father of
Microbiology” and one of the
first microscopists in history
-Discovered protozoa and
created the first-ever
description of red blood cell.
John Harrison
-English clockmaker and
carpenter
-Invented the marine
chronometer in order to
establish a position of a
ship at sea
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
John Locke
-Most noted works are “An
Essay Concerning Human
Understanding”, “Two
Treatises of Government”,
and “A Letter Concerning
Toleration”.
-Shaped
both the American
Pierre Bayles
Constitution
and theand
-a French philosopher
French
Revolution
writer best
known forand
his laid
the groundwork
for liberal
seminal
work Historical
and
Critical
Dictionary
political
thought.
-Advocated a separation
between the spheres of
faith and reason and the
principle of the toleration
of divergent beliefs
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Baron de Montesquieu
-Famous for his theory of
“seperation of powers” in
government.
-His work Spirit of The Laws
placed an emphasis on
environmental influences being
material conditions for life.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-An advocate for the “general will” of the
people
-His beliefs majorly influenced the
French Revolution
- Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
and On the Social Contract impacted
modern political and social thought.
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Voltaire
-Advocated freedom of
religion, freedom of
expression, and
separation of church and
state.
-Criticized and attacked
the Catholic Church
Denis Diderot
-best known for serving as
co-founder, chief editor of,
and contributor to the
Encyclopédie.
-His novel, Jacques the
Fatalist and his Master
examined the idea of free will.
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Cesare de Beccaria
-Best known for his treatise
On Crimes and
Punishments, which
condemned torture and the
death penalty, and was a
founding work in the field of
penology.
François Quesnay
-His Economic Table
provided the foundations of
the ideas of the Physiocrats
-First work to attempt to
describe the workings of the
economy in an analytical
way
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Adam Smith
-Father of Modern Economics
-Best known for Wealth of
Nations (free economy) and
The Theory of Moral
Sentiments (discusses morality)
-Neoclassical economists
believe in his “invisible hand”
theory
Madame de Geoffrin
-Leading female figure in the
French Enlightenment
-Her actions as a Parisian
salonnière exemplify many of the
most important characteristics of
Enlightenment sociability.
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Madame de Staël
-A French-Swiss woman of
letters and novelist that greatly
influenced European thought
and literature with her
enthusiasm for German
romanticism.
Mary Wollstonecraft
-Her most famous work was A
Vindication of the Rights of
Woman
-Famous Feminist
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Jean de Condorcet
-a French philosopher,
mathematician, and early
political scientist whose
Condorcet method in voting tally
selects the candidate who would
beat each of the other
candidates in a run-off election.
Immanuel Kant
-Argued that human perception
structures natural laws, and that
reason is the source of morality
-The Critique of Pure Reason aimed
to unite reason with experience to
move beyond what he took to be
failures of traditional philosophy and
metaphysics.
Philosophers and Enlightened
Thinkers
Thomas Hobbes
-His 1651 book Leviathan
established the foundation
for most of Western political
philosophy from the
perspective of social
contract theory
book Leviathan established
the foundation for most of
Western political philosophy
from the perspective of
social contract theory
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1. How did Peter the Great’s policy of
Westernization influence the cultural
landscape of 17th century Russia?
2. Elaborate upon Louis XIV’s implementation
of the theory of politique and how it
influenced his governing policies.
3. How did the decline of feudalism
contribute to the rise of mercantilism and the
“price revolution”?
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