BELLADONNA Synonyms: Belladonna Herb, Belladonna Leaf, Belladonnae Herba, Deadly Nightshade Leaves, Folia Belladonnae Botanical source: Belladonna consists of the leaves and other aerial parts of Atropa belladonna Linn. of the family Solanaceae, collected when the plant is in flower. Geographical source: The plant is indigenous to central and southern Europe and is cultivated in England, other European countries and the United States of America. Chemical constituents: 0.2 to 0.6 percent tropanc alkaloids, the principal one being hyoscyamine. small amounts of some other tropane alkaloids and some volatile bases. Uses: 1. Belladonna is used externally as a painkiller 2. It is used internally to check excessive secretions, as a sedative and antispasmodic. 3.It is a mydriatic drug 4. It also acts as a local aesthetic and anodyne. CLOVE Synonyms: Caryophyllum, Caryophyllus, Caryophylli Botanical source: Clove is the dried flower buds of Eugerua caryophyllus. Spraque, and evergreen tree of the family Myrtaceae. Geographical source: Eugenia caryophyllus is indigenous to Molucca islands and is now commercially cultivated in Zanzibar and Pamba (Tanzania) Islands and also in many other Island countries of the world. Chemical constituents: -15 to 20 percent of volatile oil, the chief constituent of which is eugenol. -It also contains -vanillin, -10 to 13 percent of tannin, terpenic acid, gum, resin and a crystalline substance called caryophyllin Uses: Clove is used as an aromatic stimulant, antispasmodic and carminative and for the preparation of Clove oil. NUX-VOMICA Synonyms: Strychni Semina, Crow Fig. Botanical source: Nux-vomica consists of the dried seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica Linn., a small tree of the family Loganiaceae. Geographical source: plant grows wild in India, West Indies and Cameroon and sporadically in Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Chemical constituents: The seed drug Nux-vomica contains the indole alkaloids, strychnine (about 1.24 %) and brucine (about 1.5 %). 2. It also contains caffeotannic acid, a glycoside, loganin and a fixed oil. Uses: It is used as a tonic and stomachic and is given in constipation. It increases blood pressure. Thus it is also useful in certain cases of heart failure In large doses it causes convulsions and thus is used in pharmacological research. CINCHONA Synonyms: Cinchona Bark, Peruvian Bark, Cinchonae Cortex Botanical source: Cinchona consists of the dried bark of various species, races and hybrids of Cirichona, particularly of Cinchona succirubra Pavon (Red Cinchona), Cinchona calisaya Weddell (Yellow Cinchona), Cinchona ledgeriafla Moens, and Cinchona officinalis Linn. Cirichona species are large trees. They belong to the family Rubiaceae. Geographical source: Cinchona is indigenous to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and cultivated commercially in Java (Indonesia) and India. Constituents: Cinchona bark contains four important quinoline alkaloids, which are quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine. It also contains quinic acid, cinchotannic acid, cinchona red and many minor alkaloids. Uses: Cinchona possesses febrifuge properties and has been used in the treatment of malaria fever RAUWOLFIA Synonyms: Rauwolfia Serpentina, Rauwolfia Root, Indian Snri’ root, Sarpagondha, Chhotachand Botanical source: Rauwolfia consists of the dried roots Rauvolfia serpentina Benth., a large shrub of the farnil, Apocynaceae. Geographical source: The Plant is indigenous to Bangladesh, India, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. Chemical constituents: Rauwolfia contains 1.2 to 1.4 percent of total indole alkaloids , the most important of which are rcscrpjne, descrpidine and recinnamine. It also includes resinous matter, fatty acids, unsaturated alcohols, dextrose and sucrose. Uses: It is used in reducing high blood pressure it is also used as a sedative in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, insanity and certain other neurophychiatric dishorders. OPIUM Biological source: Opium is the dried latex obtained from the mature but unripe capsules of Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum Linn., a cultivated annual plant of the family Papaveraceae. Geographical source: The official geographical sources of the drug are Turkey, Russia, Yugoslavia and India, where the plant is cultivated under strict Government control. The drug is also produced in China, Iran and some South-Eastern Asian countries. Chemical constituents: It contains 25% of isoquinolone alkaloids, the most important of which is morphine. 4-8 % narcotine 0.8-2.5 % codeine 0.5-2.5 % papaverine 0.5-2.0% thebaine. It also contains meconic acid, meconin, resin and gum. Uses: Opium is a narcotic drug. It is chiefly used as a strong analgesic agent to relieve pain. It is also used as a hypnotic drug and as a diaphoretic. ALOE Biological source: Aloe consists of the evaporated juice, which drains from the cut leaves of various species of Aloe (Fanuly Liliaceae). According to their natural sources, the following thi commercial varieties of Aloe are recognised. 1. Cape aloe (obtained from Aloe ferox Mill.) 2. Curacao aloe (obtained from Aloe vera Linn.) 3. Socotrinc aloe (obtained from Aloe perryi Baker) Geographical source: Aloe plants are indigenously grown various East African countries and in South Africa. They are cultivated in West Indian Islands. Chemical constituents: 1. The principal constituents of Aloe are anthraquinone giveosides, the most important of which is barbaloin. 2. The others include iso-barbaloin, Betabarbaloin and aloe-emodin. 3. Aloe also contains a pale yellow volatile oil and resin. Uses: 1. Aloe is used as a cathartic drug. It is a valuable purgative in different forms of constipation, particularly the habitual constipation. 2. Aloe is also used as a pharmaceutic necessity in Compound Benzoin Tincture. ACACIA Synonyms: Acacia Gum, Gum Arabic, Acaciae Gummi Biological source: Acacia consists of the dried gummy exudate from the stems and branches of Acacia senegal Wild and otherrelated African species of Acacia. They belong to the family Leguminosae. Geographical source: Acacia plants grow freely in both East and West African countries. Chemical constituents: The principal constituent of Acacia is arabin, which is a complex mixture of calcium, potassium and magnesium salts of arabic acid. On hydrolysis it yields L- arabnose, Lrhamnose, galactose and glucuronic units. Uses: Acacia is used as a suspending agent, a demulcent and in tablet granulation. It is a gum of choice for pharmaceutical preparations. DRUGS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN COD-LIVER OIL Synonyms: Oleum Morrhuae, Morrhua oil Biological source: Cod-liver oil is obtained by extracting the fresh liver of the cod, Gadus morrhua Linn. and other species of Gadus (Family Gadidae). Geographical source: North coast of Norway, Newfoundl and Iceland are the principal sources of the Cod-liver oil. Macroscopical and microscopical characters: Codliver oil is a pale yellow oily liquid with a fishy odor and a bland fishy taste. It is slightly soluble in alcohol, but miscible with chloroform, ether and light petroleum. The specific gravity of the oil varies from 0.922 to 0.929. It remains clear on standing for three hours at 0°C. Chemical constituents: Cod-liver oil contains about of glycosides of unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and Vitamin A and Vitamin D. Uses: Cod liver oil is used as a nutritional supplement and in prevention, treatment and cure of vitamin A and D deficiency diseases like rickets and xerophthalmia and also in treating tuberculosis.