Geographical source

Synonyms: Belladonna Herb, Belladonna Leaf,
Belladonnae Herba, Deadly Nightshade Leaves,
Folia Belladonnae
Botanical source: Belladonna consists of the
leaves and other aerial parts of Atropa
belladonna Linn. of the family Solanaceae,
collected when the plant is in flower.
Geographical source: The plant is indigenous to
central and southern Europe and is cultivated in
England, other European countries and the
United States of America.
Chemical constituents:
0.2 to 0.6 percent tropanc alkaloids, the
principal one being hyoscyamine.
small amounts of some other tropane alkaloids
and some volatile bases.
1. Belladonna is used externally as a painkiller
2. It is used internally to check excessive
secretions, as a sedative and antispasmodic.
3.It is a mydriatic drug
4. It also acts as a local aesthetic and anodyne.
Synonyms: Caryophyllum, Caryophyllus, Caryophylli
Botanical source: Clove is the dried flower buds of Eugerua
caryophyllus. Spraque, and evergreen tree of the family Myrtaceae.
Geographical source: Eugenia caryophyllus is indigenous to
Molucca islands and is now commercially cultivated in Zanzibar and
Pamba (Tanzania) Islands and also in many other Island countries
of the world.
Chemical constituents:
-15 to 20 percent of volatile oil, the chief constituent of which is
-It also contains -vanillin,
-10 to 13 percent of tannin, terpenic acid, gum,
resin and a crystalline substance called caryophyllin
 Clove is used as an aromatic stimulant,
antispasmodic and carminative and for the
preparation of Clove oil.
Synonyms: Strychni Semina, Crow Fig.
 Botanical source: Nux-vomica consists
of the dried seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica Linn., a small tree of the family
 Geographical source: plant grows wild
in India, West Indies and Cameroon and
sporadically in Chittagong Hill Tracts of
Chemical constituents:
 The seed drug Nux-vomica contains the indole alkaloids,
strychnine (about 1.24 %) and brucine (about 1.5 %).
 2. It also contains caffeotannic acid, a glycoside, loganin
and a fixed oil.
 Uses:
 It is used as a tonic and stomachic and is given in
 It increases blood pressure. Thus it is also useful in
certain cases of heart failure
 In large doses it causes convulsions and thus is used in
pharmacological research.
Synonyms: Cinchona Bark, Peruvian Bark, Cinchonae
Botanical source: Cinchona consists of the dried bark
of various species, races and hybrids of Cirichona,
particularly of Cinchona succirubra Pavon (Red
Cinchona), Cinchona calisaya Weddell (Yellow Cinchona),
Cinchona ledgeriafla Moens, and Cinchona officinalis
Linn. Cirichona species are large trees. They belong to
the family Rubiaceae.
Geographical source: Cinchona is indigenous to
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and cultivated
commercially in Java (Indonesia) and India.
Cinchona bark contains four important quinoline
alkaloids, which are quinine, quinidine,
cinchonine and cinchonidine.
It also contains quinic acid, cinchotannic acid,
cinchona red and many minor alkaloids.
Cinchona possesses febrifuge properties and has
been used in the treatment of malaria fever
Synonyms: Rauwolfia Serpentina, Rauwolfia
Root, Indian Snri’ root, Sarpagondha,
 Botanical source: Rauwolfia consists of the
dried roots Rauvolfia serpentina Benth., a large
shrub of the farnil, Apocynaceae.
 Geographical source: The Plant is indigenous
to Bangladesh, India, Burma, Thailand, Malaysia
and Indonesia.
Chemical constituents:
Rauwolfia contains 1.2 to 1.4 percent of total
indole alkaloids , the most important of which
are rcscrpjne, descrpidine and recinnamine.
It also includes resinous matter, fatty acids,
unsaturated alcohols, dextrose and sucrose.
It is used in reducing high blood pressure
it is also used as a sedative in the treatment of
insomnia, anxiety, insanity and certain other
neurophychiatric dishorders.
Biological source: Opium is the dried latex
obtained from the mature but unripe capsules of
Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum Linn., a
cultivated annual plant of the family
 Geographical source: The official
geographical sources of the drug are Turkey,
Russia, Yugoslavia and India, where the plant is
cultivated under strict Government control. The
drug is also produced in China, Iran and some
South-Eastern Asian countries.
Chemical constituents:
It contains
25% of isoquinolone alkaloids, the most important of which is
4-8 % narcotine
0.8-2.5 % codeine
0.5-2.5 % papaverine
0.5-2.0% thebaine.
It also contains meconic acid, meconin, resin and gum.
Opium is a narcotic drug. It is chiefly used as a strong analgesic
agent to relieve pain.
It is also used as a hypnotic drug and as a diaphoretic.
Biological source: Aloe consists of the evaporated
juice, which drains from the cut leaves of various species
of Aloe (Fanuly Liliaceae). According to their natural
sources, the following thi commercial varieties of Aloe
are recognised.
1. Cape aloe (obtained from Aloe ferox Mill.)
2. Curacao aloe (obtained from Aloe vera Linn.)
3. Socotrinc aloe (obtained from Aloe perryi Baker)
Geographical source: Aloe plants are indigenously
grown various East African countries and in South Africa.
They are cultivated in West Indian Islands.
Chemical constituents:
 1. The principal constituents of Aloe are
anthraquinone giveosides, the most
important of which is barbaloin.
 2. The others include iso-barbaloin, Betabarbaloin and aloe-emodin.
 3. Aloe also contains a pale yellow volatile
oil and resin.
Uses: 1. Aloe is used as a cathartic drug.
It is a valuable purgative in different forms
of constipation, particularly the habitual
 2. Aloe is also used as a pharmaceutic
necessity in Compound Benzoin Tincture.
Synonyms: Acacia Gum, Gum Arabic, Acaciae
 Biological source: Acacia consists of the dried
gummy exudate from the stems and branches of
Acacia senegal Wild and otherrelated African
species of Acacia. They belong to the family
 Leguminosae.
 Geographical source: Acacia plants grow
freely in both East and West African countries.
Chemical constituents: The principal
constituent of Acacia is arabin, which is a
complex mixture of calcium, potassium
and magnesium salts of arabic acid. On
hydrolysis it yields L- arabnose, Lrhamnose, galactose and glucuronic units.
 Acacia is used as a suspending agent,
 a demulcent and in tablet granulation.
 It is a gum of choice for pharmaceutical
Synonyms: Oleum Morrhuae, Morrhua oil
Biological source: Cod-liver oil is obtained by
extracting the fresh liver of the cod, Gadus morrhua
Linn. and other species of Gadus (Family Gadidae).
Geographical source: North coast of Norway,
Newfoundl and Iceland are the principal sources of the
Cod-liver oil.
Macroscopical and microscopical characters: Codliver oil is a pale yellow oily liquid with a fishy odor and a
bland fishy taste. It is slightly soluble in alcohol, but
miscible with chloroform, ether and light petroleum. The
specific gravity of the oil varies from 0.922 to 0.929. It
remains clear on standing for three hours at 0°C.
Chemical constituents: Cod-liver oil contains
about of glycosides of unsaturated fatty acids,
cholesterol and Vitamin A and Vitamin D.
 Uses:
 Cod liver oil is used as a nutritional supplement
 and in prevention, treatment and cure of
vitamin A and D deficiency diseases like rickets
and xerophthalmia and also in treating
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