Stress! What is Stress? How is Stress Related To Disease? What Systems of the Body Are Involved in the Stress Response? How Can We Effectively Reduce The Stress In Our Lives? Nervous Tension Aches and Pain Infectious and Chronic ….DISEASE and Possible DEATH!! Balancing Demands…. Stress: "The Nonspecific response of the body to any demand" Body's Biological Response increased heart rate & blood pressure cold hands & feet release of stress hormones bladder & intestines relax sweats - dry mouth hair stands on end Body's response to stress is limited to these physiological changes no matter what the stressful situation Stressors - stress producing factors Stress Response - the physiological & emotional changes depression diabetes hair loss heart disease hyperthyroidism obesity obsessive-compulsive or anxiety disorder sexual dysfunction tooth and gum disease ulcers cancer (possibly) Stress is defined as “the general and emotional state that accompanies stressful events.” There are many causes of stress. No two people are alike. Either in how they experience stress, or how they respond to stress. Eustress - (coined by Dr. Hans Selye) Pleasant and beneficial The stimultion that helps the mind & body function properly Exercise Positive emotional response Eustress….. Distress Eustress Distress - unpleasant Negative effects rejection failure loss apprehension discrimination persecution ridicule pain helplessness Distress…. Fear Distress…. Fear Distress…. Conflict Eustress Distress Physiological effects are the same. Emotional component differs The point is..... Selye identifies the two kinds of stress...... The emotional component can have a profound effect on what is otherwise the same physiological function. How do you know when you are over-mobilizing? Physical Signs….. 1. Pounding heart 2. Trembling w/ nervous tics 3. Grinding of teeth 4. Dry mouth 5. Excessive perspiration 6. Gastrointestinal problems 7. Ache in neck or lower back 8. Migraine or tension headaches 9. Frequent colds or low grade infections 10. Cold hands & feet 11. Allergy or asthma attacks Outward Emotional & Behavioral Signs…. 1) Irritability, hyper-excitedness, depression 2) Impulsiveness, aggressiveness, emotional instability 3) Urge to cry or to run & hide 4) Inability to concentrate, general disorientation 5) Weakness, dizziness, sense of unreality 6) Fatigue: loss of joy of living 7) Floating Anxiety (fear without an obvious reason) 8) Keyed up feeling 9) Jumpy-(easily startled by small sounds) 10) Nervous high-pitched laughter - (choked speech) Outward Emotional & Behavioral Signs…. 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) Fidgeting Increased smoking Increased use of prescription drugs Alcohol or drug addiction TV addiction Frequent feeling of boredom Sleep disturbances or excessive sleep Speech difficulties (stuttering) Overeating or undereating Sexual problems - decreased libido Response to stress, can be counterproductive drinking smoking drugs denial flight withdrawal suicide Response is under control of Autonomic Nervous System independent of conscious thought controls organs & glands Autonomic N.S…… A) Sympathetic - mobilizes body for action B) Parasympathetic - calms - restores Constantly interacting to maintain homeostasis A) Sympathetic Nervous System B) Parasympathetic Nervous System Know the short and long term responses. Adrenal gland Kidney This is how these two systems affect various organs of your body. Think about each of these carefully. Can be defined as a “Steady State” State of stability and consistency. ***Stressors disrupt homeostasis (external and internal stimuli are the stressors) *** Adaptive Reactions occur after “fight or flight” to restore homeostasis During times of Extreme or Chronic Stress ( Placing a mouse out in freezing temperature would qualify this) The Hypothalamus Releases Corticotropin Releasing Hormone or CRH CRH then stimulates the Pituitary Gland to releases AdrenocorticoTropic (ACTH)Hormone into the blood which stimulates the adrenal glands ACTH stimulates the Adrenal Cortex (outer part of adrenal gland) to release CORTISOL which is stress hormone…but protects the mouse from dying from the cold….without it….it dies! Hans Selye in 1936: Studying Rats: He discovered the role of the pituitary and adrenal glands. Found a predictable pattern to STRESSORS: Called pleasant stressors Eustress Unpleasant stressors Distress He is also the guy who discovered that there are 3 stages of stress and coined this the General Adaptation Syndrome or (GAS): Alarm, resistance and exhaustion. . Alarm This is any signal that is recognized as stress. This causes the activation of adrenal glands. 1 2. Resistance This takes place as your body tries to adjust to the stressful event. Readjustment of your body to a normal state. This is called “homeostasis.” 3. Exhaustion Once you have experienced a stressful event, have you ever felt like you could sleep for days? Exhaustion allows your body to heal itself, and recharge its batteries. If this stage is not complete, sickness or death could result. The Stress Response: Rest state = Homeostasis = steady state external or internal stimulus disrupts steady state adaptive reactions to restore steady state ALARM= Surge of emotion Rush of adrenalin Heightened sense of surroundings (all of these things expend metabolic energy) Alarm prepares for “fight or flight” GAS develops in 3 stages 1) alarm 2) resistance 3) exhaustion all of these expend metabolic energy ADAPTIVE RESISTANCE ADAPTIVE(RESISTANCE) Body readjusts-regulating body systems for a new level of homeostasis. Begins Body Repair, if any During resistance a person learns to cope with newly added stress. If stress ends, Parasympathetic nervous system restores body to its resting state. I.e. slows heart beat, reduces perspiration etc.. GAS 2) Resistance Or Adaptive Stage body readjusts - regulating body systems begins damage repair (if any) if stress ends parasympathetic slows heart beat cuts off perspiration adjusts skin temp etc. If no end to stress…alarm reaction persists. Body’s ability to adjust diminishes. Energy is used up for “fight or flight” Distorted Perceptions, disorganized thinking….DEATH!! The long-term wear and tear of the stress response is called allostatic load. This is actually your body’s response to longterm over-exposure to cortisol. High levels of cortisol have been associated with CUSHING’s Disease. This is a disease associated where unusually high levels of cortisol are secreted by the adrenal cortex often resulting in cardiovascular and other diseases such as type II diabetes. People with Cushing's disease have too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a stress hormone. Too much ACTH means too much cortisol “Moon Face” Can also be caused by a tumor on the pituitary gland or adrenal gland. Fight or flight produces chemicals that promote alertness and ward off sleep. Sleep loss leads to fatigue, memory loss and in the long-term cognitive decline. Amount of sleep varies among adults (ave. 5-9 hrs/night) Sleep occurs in 2 phases REM and Non-REM. Stress hormones are found more in REM sleep: Hence they disrupt your dreams; you don’t dream as much when you are highly stressed! The effects of excessive stress on brain has been seen on structure in midbrain called hippocampus. This structure is responsible for short-term and long-term memory. Chronic stress causes neurons in hippocampus to shrink or die, thereby impairing this process. 1.Time Management 2. Relaxing Techniques Relax your body: your heart rate will slow, breathing becomes slower, BP decreases, Brain waves will shift from Beta (alert) to Alpha (relaxed),blood flow to skin will increase. Deep Muscle Relaxation, Meditation Cortisol is another word for Hydrocortisone Produced from the progesterone hormone precursors. It is synthesized in the cortex of adrenal glands Bone formation is lowered by cortisol. Suppresses Immune system Increases blood Pressure Acute 1.Short-term 5-100 minutes, WBCs are redistributed and there is ENHANCEMENT of immune system. 2. STRESSFUL EVENT. someone in family dies), you suffer a personal trauma (break-up), rough semester. (You may get a cold) Chronic- Brought on by long-term stressors such as unemployment, caregiving to sickly. Causes prolonged secretion of cortisol. May accelerate the course of diseases that involve inflammation including MS, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Take note that our stress response is something Primal which did not evolve to cope with the rigors of the modern world -- It is rooted in TRIBAL behavior characteristic of primates. Most primates show stress the same way and much of it boils down to the same reasons. Tribal pecking order Corporate pecking order Economic pecking order Primate threat displays: Adapted to cause stress in other individuals 1. 2. 3. 4. large body size in males hair display around teeth eye white (sclera) visible naked skin on face "Modern Stress" generally can't be handled physically"strangling" the boss"mating" with the secretary "running off" with the profits these work better in primitive tribal groups "Primal stress” is fleeting - momentary "Modern Stress" can be continual - indefinite •overcrowding •overwork •competition •unpleasant surroundings •economic pressures •bad relationships •crime This can induce constant resistance -it becomes the norm. Routine…… up too early coffee & donuts in the car commuter traffic repetitive meaningless work coffee high fat- low nutrition lunch coffee commuter traffic home flop on the couch veg till 1:00am not enough sleep repeat…. Modern stress can ultimately lead to: •nervous tension •aches & pain •disease •death Role of stress in disease…… heart disease hypertension headaches asthma arthritis digestive problems skin conditions cancersuppression of immune system infections set in (opportunistic) To relieve the causes of Modern Stress, modern techniques are required Behavior Management Program 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Monitor your behavior & gather data Analyze the data - identify patterns Set specific goals Make a personal contract Devise a strategy or plan an action Keep track of your progress Revise plan if necessary Coping with stress: 1) Time management 2) Relaxation techniques Relaxation …… heart rate slows breathing becomes slower blood pressure decreases •oxygen consumption is reduced metabolism is reduced brain waves shift from beta (alert) to alpha (relaxed) Blood flow to brain & skin increases feelings of (1) warmth (2) quiet mental alertness Practiced regularly, relaxation techniques can counteract the effects of chronic stress Stress Relief Techniques…. 1) Progressive Relaxation – • Deep muscle relaxation • Imagery • Meditation 2) Exercise • Weight reduction • Cardio vascular health • Endorphins Exercise…. If she can do it, WE can do it….. Diversion….. Meditation…. Actually, some are known to release cortisol AND they are addictive Coping with Stress 1. Manage your time productively and creatively. Good time management strategies include: Setting priorities. Scheduling tasks for peak efficiency. Setting and writing down realistic goals. Delegating responsibilities. Taking breaks and saying no when necessary. 2. Practice relaxation techniques. Choose and practice a relaxation technique until it becomes natural. Use it whenever you feel the need. 3. Incorporate regular exercise into your daily life. Even small amounts of exercise can help relieve tension. 4. Eat a sensible diet. 5. See things with humor. A smile or laughter is a natural antidote to stress. 6. Change your thinking. Try the following to diffuse short and long-term stress: Worry constructively. Moderate expectations. Weed out trivia. Live in the present. Be flexible.