PHOBIAS

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PHOBIAS
By: Amanda MacInnis, Becca Wade
and Staci Martin
A phobia is a situation of fear
during an activity, or thing that
causes the person to want to
avoid it.
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THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF PHOBIAS:
1. Specific Phobias
2. Social Phobias
3. Agoraphobias
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SPECIFIC PHOBIA
Extreme fear of a specific
living thing, object or
situation.
CRITERIA
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 Individual experiences excessive and persistent fear of a
specific object or situation and has feelings of anxiety,
fear, or panic right when encountering it
 The person knows that their reaction of fear is
unreasonable
 Individual’s fear, anxiety, or avoidance causes significant
distress or it interferes with the person’s day to day life
 In children younger than 18 years old, the problem must
be present for at least six months before diagnosing a
specific phobia
 The person’s fear, panic, and avoidance aren’t better
explained by another disorder
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TYPES
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 Animal- fear of animals
 Natural Environment- fear of heights,
storms and being near water
 Blood-Injection/Injury- fear of seeing
blood, having a blood test or injection,
watching medical procedures
 Situational- driving, flying, elevators, and
enclosed places
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 Other- other specific fears
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CAUSES
LEARNING HISTORY
 Direct learning experiences- can begin
following a traumatic experience
 Observational learning experiences- learn
to fear a situation by watching others show
signs of a fear in the same situation
 Informational Learning- learning to fear an
object or situation by hearing or reading
that the situation is dangerous
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ATTENTION AND MEMORY
 People with specific phobias tend to
pay more attention to threatening
information that relates to the fear
 Also tend to have distortions in their
memories for encounters of fear
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=605
BELEIFS AND INTERPRETATIONS
 People with specific phobias tend to
hold beliefs and to interpret situations
in a way that increases anxiety
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AVOIDANCE AND OTHER
BEHAVIORS
 Avoidance of fear prevents people
with specific phobias from learning
that the situations they fear are not
as “dangerous” as they think it is
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p=18&ved=1t:429,r:17,s:34&tx=79&ty=53
BIOLOGICAL
 Sometimes a phobia may run in the
family and genetics may play a role
 When exposed to fear biological
changes occur in the body and these
can increase physical symptoms
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TREATMENTS
EXPOSURE TO FEARED
SITUATIONS
 Confronting a feared situation
repeatedly, until the situation no
longer triggers fear this technique
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&bih=605
APPLIED MUSCLE TENSION
 This technique is used specifically to treat
people with blood and needle phobias
 Combines exposure to blood and needles
with exercises that involve tensing all of the
muscles of the body
 Temporarily raises the person’s blood
pressure and prevents fainting
COGNITIVE THERAPY
 Learning to identify one’s anxious
thoughts and to replace them with
more realistic thoughts
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BIOLOGICAL THERAPY
 Selective serotonin reuptake
inhibitors, such as paroxetine (Paxil)
and similar medications
 Anti-anxiety medications such as
diazepam (Valium) and related drugs
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SOCIAL PHOBIAS
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Individuals with social phobia are very
fearful of being in a performance or
social situations. The anxiety they get
is either due to the feelings of being
judged by others or behaving in a
way that could cause embarrassment.
CAUSES
HEREDITY
 In many cases the individual’s
parents have social phobia, which
results in their children having it as
well due to their genetics
ENVRIONMENTAL
When children live in certain types of
environments, they are effected and
behaviors can change
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&oei=Vn4BTfyFG8uw8QOLqNGbCA&esq=2&page=2&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:19
&tx=148&ty=35
NEUROLOGICAL
 A chemical unbalance can occur
within the brain which causes a social
phobia
 The imbalance of serotonin in the
brain cells can cause social situations
can be seen very frightening for the
individual
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SYMPTOMS
PHYSICAL
 Blushing
 Shaky voice and trembling of hands and
feet
 Sweaty or cold hands
 Panic attacks
 Muscular tension
 Diarrhea
 Confusion
 Difficulty making eye contact
COGNITIVE
 Fear of being judged or criticized
 Anxiety or fear of having attention
put on you
 The belief that others see you as
anxious, weak, crazy or stupid
 Fear of meeting strangers
 Fear of authority figures
PERSONALITY TRAITS
 Low self-confidence and self-esteem
 Negative thought patterns
 Undeveloped social skills
TREATMENTS
MEDICINES




Paroxetine
Sertraline
Fluvoxamine
Fluoxetine
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=1t:429,r:18,s:21&tx=50&ty=30
THERAPIES
 Two Types: Group and Private
 By taking therapies the person will be
able to learn to face social situations
and key ways on how to stop
avoiding them
 Learn different exercises you can do
to control you symptoms
ANALYZING NEGATIVE
THOUGHTS
 A major symptom of someone with a
social phobia is having anxiety caused
by negative thoughts
 Individual has to ask themselves why
they would be so scared to do certain
things
AGORAPHOBIA
AGORAPHOBIA
Is the fear of being outside or being in a
situation, which one either cannot
escape from, or escaping would be
difficult or humiliating.
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Boutside%26hl%3Den%26biw%3D1276%26bih%3D605%26gbv%3D2%26tbs%3Di
sch:1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=187&ei=RoEBTYbgLseV8QPHrMSdCA&oei=RoEBTYbgLse
V8QPHrMSdCA&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=97&ty=55
CHARACTERISTICS OF
AGORAPHOBIA
CHARACTERISTICS
There are two characteristics that are
associated with this phobia:
1) Anxiety: it starts to develop for
people with agoraphobia when they
start to think about being in a
situation out of their comfort zone.
2) Panic: When people avoid these
situations it brings them to panic and
anxiety.
HOW AGORAPHOBIA IS
DIAGONOSED
 A mental health professional
diagnosis’ agoraphobia by taking a
personal history from the
client/patient.
 No physical conditions that can be
met to determine if someone has
agoraphobia.
TREATMENT
There are three ways Agoraphobia is
treated:
1) Therapy
2) Medication
3) Both therapy and medication
combined
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SOURCES



http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/social-anxiety
http://apt.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/9/4/258.pdf
http://www.mentalhealth.com/rx/p23-an03.html

http://www.socialphobiaworld.com/social-phobiasymptoms-16960/
http://www.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fhelpg
uide.org%2Fmental%2Fsocial_anxiety_support_symptom_c
auses_treatment.htm&h=75c49CWs1Xv8IaAgvRAbjH835Ig
http://www.socialanxietysupport.com/disorder/
http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/mental_health/social
_phobia.html#
http://www.socialphobia.org/whatis.html#whatis1
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

 http://www.medicinenet.com/agoraphobia/article.htm
 http://www.athealth.com/Consumer/disorders/Agorap
hobia.html
 http://www.books.google.ca%2Fbooks%3Fid%3DsZQ
oPHyEJoC%26pg%3DPA65%26lpg%3DPA65%26dq%
3Dagoraphobia%2Brates%2Bin%2Bcanada%26source
%3Dbl%26ots%3D2Jzq5pczC_%26sig%3DQhR66zC2
c07gniHnGSmq5L8gEWQ%26hl%3Den%26ei%3DJ23
2TIeJHYWPnwfUrNmjCQ%26sa%3DX%26oi%3Dbook
_result%26ct%3Dresult%26resnum%3D8%26ved%3
D0CDgQ6AEwBw&h=75c49V7W2i4SE6hpmyGWnr9Vw
hQ#
 http://www.videomd.com/Phobias-fv-2165.aspx
 http://anxiety.stjoes.ca/specificP.htm
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