Session 3.2 Charles - World Agroforestry Centre

advertisement
Germplasm supply systems: Marketbased and Decentralized interventions
Charles Wambugu, ICRAF
Which way do we go?
Topics to be covered
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Evolution of germplasm supply systems in
Kenya: The case of fodder shrubs – Charles
Wambugu
Seed packaging and distribution to smallholder
farmers: The small pack case – Esther Karanja
Germplasm supply system through Kenya
Association of Tree Seed and Nursery Operators
(KATRESNO) - Juma Gichohi & Simon Githambo
Seed supply system through KEFRI - Tree Seed
Centre – Peter Angaine
Experience of Kenya Seed Company in crop
seed supply systems – Mwangi Nderito
The Scope of Coverage
Presentation of personal and institutional experience:
 Rationale behind specific pathways used in
germplasm distribution
 Internal checks that ensure distribution of
quality germplasm
 Mechanisms used in promotion and marketing of
germplasm
 Challenges and constraints faced in germplasm
supply
 Lessons learnt from various approaches used by
different organizations
 Strategies in place/suggested to overcome these
challenges
Evolution of germplasm supply systems in Kenya:
The case of fodder shrubs
Scaling up the adoption of fodder
Charles Wambugu, ICRAF
trees in the central highlands of
Kenya
Charles Wambugu
Steve Franzel
Which way do we go?
Outline


Introduction to fodder shrubs production in the East
African region
Background information on promotion of fodder shrubs
in Kenya
Justification to improved seed supply systems in
Kenya
Interventions in seed supply systems
Decentralised seed supply systems
Challenges
The way forward

Questions and answers





Introduction to fodder shrubs production
in the EA region
Note:
Our target in research and promotion strategies are smallholder farmers
 The shrubs are meant to meet several needs such as protein supplementation
in livestock feeds, soil erosion control, soil fertility improvements, wood
energy, stakes and poles, bee forage, fencing, etc

Criteria for assessing appropriate fodder shrub species








Compatibility with existing farming systems
Provide high quality forage materials
Fast growing
Persistence - can survive over a long period of time
Easy to manage
Can be coppiced
Can withstand frequent harvesting
Provide multiple benefits – forage, fuelwood, erosion control,
etc
Some of the commonly used fodder shrub species
in the East African region
Calliandra calothyrsus
Leucaena trichandra
Sesbania sesban
Chamaecytisus
palmensis
(tree lucerne)
Gliricidia sepium
Several indigenous
species - specific to
locality
Morus alba (mulberry)
Adoption of fodder shrubs in the EA region
Country
Number of
organizations
promoting
fodder shrubs
Kenya
Uganda
Tanzania
Rwanda
Total
60
80
15
69
224
Number of
farmers
planting
according
to records
51,645
77,369
17,519
9,590
156,123
Rough
Total
Numbers Proportion
estimate of
of trees per of woman
additional
farmer
planters
farmers
planting
30,000
81,645
75
5,000
82369
306
59
10,000
27,519
99
4,400
13,990
266
48
49,400 205,523
184
Distribution of the 30,000 farmers planting fodder trees in Kenya by district, as of 2004
TRANS NZ OIA
7260
Lak e Victo ria
109
TES O
KAKA MEG A
BUTE RE/
MUMIA S
113
LA IKIPIA
257
NA NDI
246
SIA YA
VIHIGA
KIS UM U
NY ANDO
N
MERU CE NTRAL
Mt. Kenya
1000
KERICHO
7539
NY ERI
237
10 - 1 00
1177 MERU
168
RA CHUONYO
KIS II
$
NY ANDARUA
NA KURU
Lake Victoria
LE GEN D
Number of farmers
665
110
109
378
101 - 999
100 0 - 49 99
500 0 - 80 00
2054
MARAG UA
BOM ET
1190
500
KIA MBU
Y Nairobi
#
District B oundary
Major water body
About three quarters of the farmers have planted Calliandra c alothyrsus , about one-third have each planted Leucaena trichandra , or Morus alba .
Data are from Steven Franzel and the projec t, Scaling up the us e of c alliandra and other fodder trees in E as t Africa, financed by the
United K ingdom D epartment f or International D ev elopment, Project 6549, Forestry R esearch P rogramme.
Map layers from ILRI and ICRA F.Map compiled by George A ike of GIS Unit, ICRA F - The W orld Agrof orestry Centre.
Adoption of fodder shrubs in Kenya
EMBU
MURANG A KIRINYAG A
NY AMIRA
GUCHA
SOUT H
6127
Research and promotion of fodder
shrubs in Kenya: Historical Background

1980s: Fodder shrubs were introduced in Kenya through
NGOs - mainly as source of wood energy
 Late 1980s and early 1990s: Research on best practices in
production and utilization of various fodder shrub species
by IRS (ICRAF, ILRI) and NARS (KARI, KEFRI)
 Late 1990s to mid 2000: Intensive research and promotion
efforts that targeted dairy farmers through research and
extension services
 Early 2000: Research into calliandra seed supply systems
(ICRAF & Technoserve initiative) - identification of
bottlenecks in demand and supply mechanisms
 Mid 2000: Focus on effective and sustainable seed supply
systems
 2006: Experiment on a low cost scaling up process through
strategic communication (use of SCALE approach)
Justification for improved seed supply
systems in Kenya








Recent improvements in dairy sub-sector in Kenya has led to an
increase in milk prices leading to rapid adoption of fodder
shrubs
However, availability of seed has been a major constraint in
rapid expansion and adoption of fodder shrubs
There is need for innovative ways to ensure quality seeds are
supplied to an expanding demand
Seed production is mainly in western Kenya but the demand is
primarily in central Kenya
Social networks were used in germplasm distribution, thus
quality issues were difficulty to address
Calliandra calothyrsus is the most preferred species by dairy
farmers but it is a “shy seeder” thus contributing towards seed
scarcity
Many organizations were distributing seeds and seedlings for
free making the private sector lack the incentives to get
involved
Farmers in new areas may not know the benefits of fodder
shrubs and thus may be unwilling to invest in buying seeds
There was need for a shift in paradigm
……….……
Interventions in seed supply systems
Task: The need to meet a huge seed demand




but in a rapid way
Identification and assessment of existing
mechanisms and pathways for seed production
and distribution
Experiments on ways to improve the mechanisms
for quality germplasm production and distribution
Sensitization of policy makers, researchers and
development agencies on how to scale up
production and distribution of quality seed
Promotion strategy: targeting the private sector to
link supply and demand more efficiently – an
attempt to replace projects and extension services
with private entrepreneurs in the seed chain
Seed market chain: Analytical tool to understand calliandra seed market
Western
Kenya
Central
Kenya
Projects/NGOs
KEFRI / KARI
ICRAF
Smallholder Dairy
Farmers
Seed
Dealers/
Producers
Smallholder Seed
Producers
Projects/NGOs
Problems:
1. Seed producers not
linked to final demand
2. Little seed production
in area of demand
3. Free seed, a
disincentive
to seed marketing
Smallholder Dairy
Farmers
The situation in Kenya: Market Chain for calliandra seed
Seed market chain: ICRAF interventions- improving market linkages
Western
Kenya
Projects/NGOs
KEFRI / KARI
ICRAF
Central
Kenya
Smallholder Dairy
Farmers
Seed
Dealers
Projects/NGOs
Small Seed
Producers
Dairy coops &
societies
Seed stockists
Smallholder Seed
Producers
Smallholder Dairy
Farmers
Linking farmers to buyers: Market Chain for calliandra seed
Decentralised seed supply systems
Aim: To develop mechanisms for sustainable germplasm supply
The steps that were used:









Free seed distributed to fodder shrub groups in new areas
Enhancement of technical capacity of smallholder seed producers
Involvement of farmers in seed supply – recruitment of seed vendors
Development of mechanisms for reductions in seed wastage - Seed
packaging into small packets and attaching monetary value to the seed
– outlets were extension services, farm input stockists and lead
farmers
Attempts to involve both formal and informal sectors in seed supply Approached major seed companies but low turn-over from sales and
difficulties in quality control discouraged them
Advocacy role - Consultations with KEPHIS and KEFRI Tree Seed
Centre (regulatory bodies) in support of the private sector
Facilitating linkages between demand and supply ends – more
involvement of the private sector leading to the birth of KATRESNO
Key stakeholders involved in training of KATRESNO members –
enhancement of their technical and entrepreneurial skills
Deliberate efforts to discourage extension services from distributing
free seeds in areas where KATRESNO is active
Decentralised seed supply systems
conti------
Experimentation on SCALE approach in germplasm
distribution
 Strategic communication- bombarding potential
consumers with information from print and electronic
media - radio, TV, newspapers, leaflets, etc leading to
huge demand for germplasm necessitating improved
linkages of seed dealers in western and central
regions
 Results – in 2006, >3 tons of fodder shrub seed and
> 1m seedlings was distributed by only 25 members
of KATRESNO whom we were able to track their
activities in that year
Developing market-based seed and seedlings distribution
Challenges

Many of the tree seed dealers are unable to meet the
requirements by Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services
(KEPHIS)
 Whose responsibility is it to ensure seed dealers meet quality
standards and adhere to business ethics in a decentralised
system? ….. self regulation?....... but how??
 Large scale farmers are also interested in seed production but
need to be assured of markets before venturing into production
 Extension services in government and NGOs are still
distributing free seeds and seedlings and thus kill the seed
market
 Emerging diseases and pests
 Need for species diversification as a means of risk evasion
 How can leading seed companies be involved to help in tree
seed distribution through their developed outlets?
The way forward

Support and strengthen seed dealers association through:
 Building their technical and entrepreneurial capacity
 Assist association to identify and meet large seed orders
from within and outside the country
 Assist association to form networks with stakeholders in tree
seed market to make it easy to collect and assemble seeds
 Solicit for support of policymakers and KEPHIS to facilitate
marketing of tree seeds through small-scale seed dealers
 Sensitize development agencies on the negative effects of
distributing free seeds in areas where market forces are in
operation
 Find better ways of promoting private sector in tree seed supply
mechanisms
 Research into sustainable ways of enforcing quality control and
adherence to business ethics
Download
Related flashcards

Biogeography

20 cards

Mountains of Austria

29 cards

Biogeography

25 cards

Cuban sport wrestlers

45 cards

Mojave Desert

76 cards

Create Flashcards