R&D in Indian Agriculture: Status and Scope

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R&D IN INDIAN AGRICULTURE:
STATUS, SCOPE AND FUTURE ROAD MAP
Prof. Anil Kumar Srivastava
Director
National Dairy Research Institute
Karnal-132001 (India)
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
R&D in Indian Agriculture
• India has one of the largest and well coordinated
public agricultural research systems in the world.
• Agricultural R&D is almost completely funded by the
federal and states governments
• Private investment in agricultural R&D has increased
fivefold since the mid-1990s.
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Private Sector in Agriculture R&D
• Seed industry for field crops, fruits, and vegetables;
• Pesticide industry;
• Farm machinery industry
• Poultry Husbandry
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Indian Agriculture as Today
 > 17% of the world’s human & 12% livestock population
 4.2% of the global water
 2.4% of the world’s land
 142 m ha cultivated & 60 m ha net irrigated
 137% cropping intensity
 52% of population earns livelihood in agriculture
 16.6% contribution in GDP
 10.23% earning of total exports (Rs. 86,000 crores)
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Productivity Gains
Productivity
Commodity
1950
2009
Times
Food Grains, kg/ha
522
1898
3.6
Fruits, kg/ha
8600
13700
1.6
Vegetables, kg/ha
7500
15600
2.1
Fish, kg/ha (Aquaculture)
400
2700
6.8
Milk litre/lactation
583
1080
1.8
Eggs, No./bird
50
238
4.8
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Production of Food Grains (Million Ton)
300
250
200
198.36
208.6
217.28
230.78
234.47
244.78
257.44
218.11
150
100
50
0
2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
Source: Ministry of Agriculture
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Commodity Wise Production (million ton)
Year
Wheat
Rice
Pulses Oilseeds Cotton Sugarcane
2010-11
93.90
104.32
17.21
30.01
35.20
357.67
2011-12
86.87
95.98
18.24
32.47
34.08
342.38
Source: Ministry of Agriculture
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Growth Rate in Sub-sectors of Agriculture
(percent / year)
Period
Crop sector
Livestock
Horticulture crops
1950-1960
3.06
1.42
0.74
1960-1970
1.70
0.41
4.87
1970-1980
1.79
3.92
2.86
1980-1990
2.24
4.91
2.63
1990-2000
3.02
3.79
5.95
2000-2009
3.06
3.90
3.35
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Growth Rate in Productivity of Major Crops
(% / year)
Crops
Cotton
Bajra
Groundnut
Soybean
Jowar
Maize
Sunflower
Rapeseed & Mustard
Rice
Wheat
2000-01 to 2008-09
12.96
4.38
3.81
3.15
3.03
2.58
2.51
1.93
1.69
0.24
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Production of Important Livestock Products in India
70
Meat (mt)
Eggs (billion)
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source: Planning Commission’s Working Group for 12th Plan on Animal Husbandry
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Percent Annual Growth in
Livestock Products in India
Year
Meat
Eggs
1991-92 to 1999-2000
1.01
4.18
2000-01 to 2010-11
1.11
5.60
Source: Planning Commission’s Working Group for 12th Plan on Animal Husbandry
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Estimated and Targeted Growth Rates for
Horticultural and Plantation Crops
9
11th Plan
12th Plan
8
7.57
7
7
6
8
6.5
5.55
6
5.16
5.16
5.5
4.99
5
4
4
3
4
2.04
2
1.5
1
0
Fruit
Vegetables
Spices Plantation Crops Flowers
Nuts
Overall
Source: Planning Commission’s Working Group on Hrticultural and Plantation Crops for 12th Plan
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Growth Rate in Milk Production
Year
Growth rate
(% per annum)
1950-51 to 1960-61
1.64
1960-61 to 1973-74
1.15
1973-74 to 1980-81
4.51
1980-81 to 1990-91
5.50
1990-91 to 2000-01
4.21
2000-01 to 2008
4.10
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Dairying Wealth of India
 About 70% of milk is produced by marginal and small
farmers having 2-4 animals
 The productivity of Indian milch animal is 1012 kg/ year
(world average is 2200 kg/ year)
World
•
•
Production of milk stands at •
720
million
tones.
Asia
produces 256 million tones
•
Growth rate is only 1.1%
India
Highest milk producer with 130
million tones
Nearly 3.5 – 4 times higher than
world average growth rate,
despite minimal investment
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Trend in Milk Production in India
140
130.8
120
100
80.6
80
60
53.9
40
20
31.6
17
20
22
1950-51
1960-61
1970-71
0
1980-81
1990-91
2000-01
2011-12
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Trend in Per Capita Availability of
Milk in India
300
281
250
220
200
150
176
124
124
1950-51
1960-61
128
112
100
50
0
1970-71
1980-81
1990-91
2000-01
2011-12
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Contribution of Different Animal
to Milk Pool
70
CB/EXOTIC
INDIGENOUS
BUFFALO
GOATS
60
Percentage
50
40
30
20
10
0
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Projected Food Demands (mt)
Commodity
2020-21
Cereals
262.0
Pulses
22.2
Food grains
284.2
Egg (number billion)
87.6
Meat
4.1
Fish
11.9
Oilseeds
68.6
Vegetables
159.7
Fresh fruits
96.5
Sugarcane
435.6
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Projected Milk Demand
2012
2015 (Projected)
2020 (Projected)
127.3 MT
142.9 MT
191.3 MT
At the existing rate of growth in milk production, in next ten years,
supply is likely to fall short of the demand.
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Major Concerns

Water crisis

Soil degradation and fatigue

Genetic erosion

High post-harvest losses

Inadequate markets and unfavourable trade

Fragile policy support
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Pesticides Registered in Different Countries
800
700
755
682
600
600
475
500
430
400
300
238
200
100
0
Tanzania
India
Vietnam
USA
Pakistan
Europe
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Pesticides Used in Different Countries
12
10
11
9.4
8
kg/ ha
6.6
6
4.6
4.17
4
2.5
2
2.4
2.25
1.3
0.57
0.5
0
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Improving Reproduction would fill the gap
How?
Tapping the Untapped Animal Population
Breedable Population (millions)
Breedable but not calved (millions)
1.26
16.16
4.18
54.48
56.76
CB Cattle
Ind. Cattle
Buffalo
6.05
CB Cattle
Ind. Cattle
Buffalo
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Rise in Milk Production, if we make “uncalved” to
“Calved” status…
Category
Milk production (Est.)
Crossbred cattle
2.64 MT
Indigenous cattle
3.97 MT
Buffaloes
5.78 MT
Total
12.39 MT
Additional 12.39 MT (total milk production would be 142.39 MT)
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Calving Interval: Desired vs Existing
Cattle
Calving to conception = 85 d Vs 136 d
Calving
Cyclicity
Conception
Gestation
Calving
Calving interval = 365 d Vs 414 d
Buffaloes
Calving to conception 85 d Vs 169 d
Calving
Cyclicity
Conception
Gestation
Calving
Calving interval = 425 d Vs 479 d
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Missing of Heat: Economic Losses
• Each missed heat is a missed opportunity. It delays calving
by at least 21 days and implies a loss of at least 21 days of
milk.
• Assuming a production average of only 5 liters per day, it
translates into 105 litres or Rs. 3150. Added to this is the
cost of maintenance for 21 [email protected] 65 /- (Rs 1365).
• Hence each missed heat leads to a loss of Rs. 4515/- for the
farmer.
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Age at puberty of buffaloes
( Exotic vs. Indigenous )
35
33.1
30
28.2
30.1
Age (month)
25
20
15.5
16
Italian
Egyptian
15
10
5
0
Surti
Mehsana
Murrah
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Availability & Demand of Male Germplasm
(million)
Adult
Female
Cattle
Adult
Female
Buffalo
Total
Adult
Female
In-milk
cattle and
buffalo
Semen
Straws
Available
AI
Covered
In-milk
cattle and
buffalo
AI Not
Covered
In-milk
cattle and
buffalo
72.91
54.47
127.38
77. 04
52
27
45.49
Additional demand of male germplasm = 91 million straws
Assume 15% animal served through natural services
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Focused Research Priorities
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Ovum Pick-up Technology from Clinically Infertile/
Sub-Fertile Animals
OPU-IVF, Calf ‘Holi’ born on March 7, 2012
Cloned Calf “Garima-II” born on August 22, 2010:
Delivered female calf “Mahima” on January 25, 2013
(Success Story of NAIP Project)
Cloned Calf “Shrestha”
born on August 26th, 2010
Summary
• Let us work together towards the common global
goal i.e. for accelerating food production to provide
food and nutritional security for every citizen of the
world.
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
Workshop on “India-ICSTI Cooperation in Science and Innovation; February 28, 2013
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