Dairy Farming The developed world has one-third of the cattle, 23 percent of the people and produces over 80 percent of the milk, while the developing world, with three-quarters of the human population and two-thirds of all cattle stocks and produces less than 20 percent of all milk Overview of the Dairy Industry in the CARICOM Region The dairy industry in the CARICOM (comprised of the English speaking Caribbean islands as well as Belize in Central America, and Guyana in South America) region is dominated by small-scale producers scattered across the countries. Most of these producers operate on a subsistence level on the most marginal lands, where the dairy operation is usually a part of a mixed farming system. The major dairy producers are Guyana, Jamaica, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago. Importance of the Dairy Industry Milk is highly nutritious (milk consists of 80 to 90 % water and supplies the diet with essential vitamins, minerals, fat, proteins, and sugars). It is important to economic and social development. It also generates beef from culled animals and veal from young animals not used as replacement stock. It also provides manure, used as a fertilizer for crop and pasture development. The industry also provides employment and a source of cash for many rural farm families. Foreign Exchange and by reducing our import bill, we will have a more favourable balance of trade. Define the following terms • Animal Husbandry- a term which is applied to a whole range of activities encompassing the rearing of livestock (eg. milk production, feeding, production of meat etc). - It also involves rearing cattle, goats, poultry and sheep. Characteristics of the Dairy Farming • Size – -avg. approximately 2ha. (small farm)- operated by Peasant farmers; - 20-40ha (medium sized farm) - -large farms 100ha or more. - Eg. Belize’s large area is an asset for livestock rearing, despite the forest vegetation which covers 80% of its territory. - Belize has over 800,000ha of potential agricultural land for cattle farming. • Trinidad and Tobago- cultivated pasture lands 7000 ha. And uncultivated pasture land is 40,000ha. • In Jamaica- the difference is that it is not limited to cultivated or uncultivated, farming is spread throughout the island. Intensive – small area of land, where the cattle is allowed to graze for a limited time. This is called rotational grazing- as the pasture land is divided into sections and the cattle moved from one quadrant to another. In addition to rotational grazing they are given feed and salt blocks. The animals are usually pen-fed. vs Extensive- large area of land with a lot of pasture where the animals are allowed to graze on the land eg. Guyana. Purpose-Dairy products (eg. milk, cheese, chocolate milk and chocolate products, powdered milk, ice cream) -Produce meat products-including beef*, goat, lamb, buffalypso * main producers Guyana, Jamaica, Belize Peasant farmers sell their produce to the local markets. -To milk processing factories eg. nestle. -Larger farms incorporate research and development as part of their activities. -The largest farms are usually export based, eg. farms in Jamaica, Belize and Guyana. Labour Feeding Methods Small farms use mainly family labour Medium sized farms (approximately 20-30 heads of cattle) use both family labour and hired hands Large farms mainly use hired hands as well as extensive mechanization- i.e. the milking machines, tractors and trucks. They may also have their own slaughter houses (abattoir) as well. Farmers are encouraged to practice ZERO GRAZING i.e. pen fed. Advantages: -Small amount of land space required -Better management of herd Animals feed mainly on pangola grass mainly used for its resistance to drought. Rotational Grazing Reared in open fields (OPEN GRAZING), particularly beef cattle eg. in Guyana Milking cows are milked twice a day, in between milking they may let out to graze. NB: Diet for milking cows and beef cattle is different. In pastures there should be ample shade to help counter HEAT STRESS. Holstein Jamaican Red Jamaican Hope Buffalypso Black Belly Sheep Fresian Cow Home-Work: What are the limitations and problems associated with pastoral farming across the Caribbean? Compare the differences between larger farms and small farms.