02-Persia

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Persian Kings
550 – 530: Cyrus the Great
530 – 522: Cambyses
Son of Cyrus –
but nothing of
his caliber
Mentioned in
Ezra 4:6 by
throne name
Xerxes
Temple construction
remained stalled
during his reign
Cambyses of Persia capturing Pharaoh Psammetichus III (from
Persian seal, 6th Century b.c.
530 – 522:
Cambyses
530:
Assassinated his
brother Smerdis
525: Attacked
Egypt – took
Memphis
(Egypt remained
under Persian control
until Alexander)
530 – 522:
Cambyses
530:
Assassinated his
brother Smerdis
525: Attacked
Egypt – took
Memphis
524-522: Three
disastrous
campaigns
530 – 522:
Cambyses
530:
Assassinated his
brother Smerdis
525: Attacked
Egypt – took
Memphis
524-522: Three
disastrous
campaigns
522: Cambyses outraged the Egyptians killing the Apis Bull
The Apis Bull of the
Egyptians, one of their
most sacred objects of
worship
530 – 522:
Cambyses
530:
Assassinated his
brother Smerdis
525: Attacked
Egypt – took
Memphis
524-522: Three
disastrous
campaigns
522: Cambyses outraged the Egyptians killing the Apis Bull
Commited suicide returning home – following coup in Ecbatana
Persian Kings
550 – 530: Cyrus the Great
530 – 522: Cambyses
522: Pseudo-Smerdis
Gaumata was a Mede, a Magi, and pretended to be Smerdis
Hoped to reinstate Median religion and dominance
Killed in conspiracy led by Darius, a military commander
Gaumata (throne name: Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:724)), keeps temple construction at standstill
Persian Kings
550 – 530: Cyrus the Great
530 – 522: Cambyses
522: Pseudo-Smerdis
522 – 486: Darius the Great
Darius the Great (521 – 486)
Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire
Darius the Great (521 – 486)
Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire
Reinstated Persian monotheistic religion
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism,
believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
Darius the Great (521 – 486)
Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire
Reinstated Persian monotheistic religion
Established universal
currency – the Daric
Gold darics such as this one (with a purity of
95.83%) were only issued by the king himself.
Darius the Great (521 – 486)
Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire
Reinstated Persian monotheistic religion
Established universal
currency – the Daric
Undertook expansive
building projects in
Persepolis and
elsewhere
The ruins of Persepolis. In the foreground is the treasure house, right behind the
Palace of Darius.
Persepolis ruins
Darius the Great (521 – 486)
521 – 515: Put down minor revolts after Cambyses
520: Reauthorizes the temple project (Ezr. 5:3 – 6:12)
Haggai encouraged the people to work (520)
Zechariah preached his “night visions” (519)
Zechariah’s Night
Visions
1) Four Horses (1:7-17): The world was at peace under Darius
2) Four Horns (1:18-21): Disruptive powers now under control
3) Measuring Line (2:1-13): Jerusalem protected though unwalled
4) Priest Joshua (3): High Priest purified for his duties
5) Zerubbabel (4): Zerubbabel told “not by might…but by my spirit”
6) Flying Scroll (5:1-4): A judgment intended to purge the land
7) Wicked Woman (5:5-11): Symbolized by wickedness banished
8) Four Chariots (6:1-8): Call God’s people from all places to return
Darius the Great (521 – 486)
521 – 515: Putting down minor revolts after Cambyses
520: Darius reauthorizes the temple project (Ezr. 5:3 – 6:12)
Haggai encouraged the people to work (520)
Zechariah preached his “night visions” (519)
516: Second Temple is completed (Ezra 6:13 – 22)
514: Darius Launched his western campaign
514-512: Darius
consolidates
control of Asia
Minor
510-500: Darius
largely taken with
building projects in
his major cities
514-512: Darius
consolidates
control of Asia
Minor
510-500: Darius
largely taken with
building projects in
his major cities
498: Athenians sack
Sardis – and
provoke Ionian
rebellion
514-512: Darius
consolidates
control of Asia
Minor
510-500: Darius
largely taken with
building projects in
his major cities
498: Athenians sack
Sardis – and
provoke Ionian
rebellion
494: Darius puts down the Ionian rebellion
514-512: Darius
consolidates
control of Asia
Minor
510-500: Darius
largely taken with
building projects in
his major cities
498: Athenians sack
Sardis – and
provoke Ionian
rebellion
494: Darius puts down the Ionian rebellion
490: Darius defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon
Tomb of Darius the Great (d. 486 b.c); located next to other
Achaemenian kings at Naqsh-e Rustam
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