The Swine Industry - Uintah High School FFA

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The Swine Industry
Swine (Pig) Production
Swine (Pig) Production
Main
Purpose – to produce pork
for Human consumption
Swine Terms
What

Boar
What

do you call the act of giving birth?
Farrowing
What

do you call a mature female hog?
Sow
What

do you call a mature male hog?
do you call a castrated male hog?
Barrow
Swine (Pig) Production
Terms for Understanding
Castration – the removal of
testicals from the male swine for the purpose
of improving feed conversion, disposition and
meat quality
Swine (Pig) Production
Terms for Understanding
 Boar– A male pig not castrated
that is used for breeding purposes
 Barrow- A male pig that IS
castrated that is entirely meant for
pork production
Livestock Terms
What

Piglet
What

do you call a young female hog?
Gilt
What

is a new born hog called?
is the gestation for hogs?
114 days or 3 months, 3 weeks, & 3 days
The Swine Industry




Number of operations has decreased in the past
30 years
 1950, over three million producers
 Today, over 100,000 producer
Number of hogs slaughtered has increased
Farms have grown in size; 53 percent of them
now produce 5,000 or more pigs per year.
Nearly 21 billion pounds of pork were processed
from about 110 million hogs in 2011. A total of
2.3 million metric tons of pork valued at more
than $6.3 billion was exported in 2012.

Labor requirements
per pound of pork
produced are
relatively low


The need for manual
labor is reduced with
the use of automated
confinement facilities
The investment in
confinement facilities
is higher than it is for
simpler systems such
as raising hogs on
pasture

However, few farmers
today use pasture
raising systems for
swine production
The Swine Industry

Per capita consumption



United States ranks second to China in production
United States ranks l3th in consumption
Pork in the American diet


Concern over fat
Education by the National Pork Producers Council
History of the swine industry




Columbus brought swine on his journey to
the United States
Hernando de Soto first introduced swine to
the United States
Today’s wild hogs are ancestors of pigs that
escaped captivity
As settlers moved west, they took pigs with
them
Swine products


Food
Lard


Cooking
Soap
Location of the swine industry



Midwest
South
Iowa and North Carolina rank #1 and #2
respectively in pig numbers
Overview of the Swine Enterprise

Corn belt states remain the major swine
producing region of the U.S.


About 60% of all swine
Availability of grain

Mainly corn
Breeds of swine

Mother (large litter, high milk production)



Yorkshire
Landrace
Sire (grow rapidly; well-muscled, meaty
carcass)



Duroc
Hampshire
Crossbreeds
Swine Breeds











American Landrace
Berkshire
Chester White
Duroc
Hampshire
Hereford
Pietrain
Poland China
Spotted
Tamworth
Yorkshire
Duroc



Originated from red hogs raised in the
Eastern U.S.
Red
Ears that droop forward

Misc.-Large Frame, Fast gainers,
good mothers, Popular breed

Very popular breed in the U.S.
Hampshire

Originated in England
Black with a white belt that encircles the
forepart of the body
Erect ears
Good rustling ability, muscle, and carcass
leanness
Popular breed
Used in many crossbreeding programs

Misc.-The “Meat Breed” Excellent Carcass





Berkshire

Originated in England
Medium-sized hog that produces an
acceptable carcass
Black with six white points
Head is slightly dished
Erect ears

Misc.-Short Snout, Meat type hog

Emphasis on fast and efficient growth,
meatiness, good reproduction




Poland China


Originated in Ohio
Black with six white points





Feet, face, tip of the tail
Forward-drooping ears
One of the larger breeds of hogs
Carcasses have low backfat and large loin
eyes, Long body thick hams
Used in many crossbreeding programs
Spotted







Developed in Indiana
Black and white
Forward-drooping ears
Similar body type to Poland China
Breeders strive to produce a large-framed
hog with efficient gains and good muscling
Color-no less than 20% or more than 80%
White
Misc.-Good mothers, fast gainers
Chester White






Originated in Chester County, Pennsylvania
White
Ears droop forward
Mothering ability
Color-White with blue freckles
Misc.-good mothers, large frame
Yorkshire





Originated in England in the
county of Yorkshire
White
Erect ears
Slightly dished face
The mother breed. Large
litter, high feed efficiency,
rapid growth, good mothering
ability, long carcasses
American Landrace







Originated in Denmark
White
Long bodied
Ears lop forward and down
Mothering ability
Large litters
Extremely Long Bodies
Tamworth







Originated in Ireland
Considered to be the oldest of the purebred
breeds
Red, with shades varying from light to dark
Ears are erect
Has a long head and snout
Good mothers and large litters
Good foragers
Hereford




Developed in Missouri, Iowa, and Nebraska
Red with a white face
Ears are forward drooping
Prolific, good mothers, and have good
rustling ability
Pietrain




Originated near the
village of Pietrain,
Belgium
White with black
spots
Medium sized with
erect ears, short legs,
and muscular hams
Exceptionally high
lean to fat ratio

Makes it desirable in
genetic improvement
programs
Production

Swine habits



Wallow in mud to keep cool and fight off parasites
Only use one area of their pen to drop waste
Will not overeat
Production, Cont.

Swine and humans



Similar digestive, circulatory, and other systems
Swine tissues used to replace human heart skin
Swine heart valves used to replace human heart
valves
Phases of industry






Farrowing
Growing
Finishing
Confinement operations
Feed conversion ratio
Diet



High-protein diet to promote growth and muscle
development
High-carbohydrate diet later to develop fat
Need ten types of amino acids
Environmental concerns


Odor and manure disposal
Lagoons



Regulated to prevent pollution of water
Bacteria helps break down waste into slurry
Waste used as fertilizer
Swine Reproduction
Ear
Notching
Universal Swine
Identification
system
 Tags will come
off in the feed pen

Swine Reproduction
Ear
Notching
Swine Reproduction
Ear
Notching
Swine Reproduction
Ear
Notching
Quiz
Swine Reproduction
Ear
Notching



The right (litter) ear is
equal to 9+3+3+1=16
The left (pig) ear is
equal to 3
This is the 16-3 pig.
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