swine - Dr. Brahmbhatt`s Class Handouts

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Swine diseases
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Mange: Sarcoptes scabei var suis
Greasy pig disease: Staphylococcus hyicus:
Gram-positive coccus
Swine pox: Swine pox virus
Erysipelas: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae:
Gram-positive, aerobic, slightly bent, thin
bacillus
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Sarcoptes scabei var suis (not zoonotic)
represents the most important
ectoparasitic disease of swine
nursery or grower pigs
Clinical signs
intense
pruritus,
lichenification,
papules, crusts
poor
production
susceptible to
other diseases
Diagnosis - clinical
signs, skin scrape
Treatment and
control, acaricide
(amitraz) topically,
ivermectin injection
ova, larvae, nymphs,
adults develop in
the epidermis
0.5 mm in length, gray to white, and just
visible to the naked eye when on a black
background
Place the scraping on a piece
of black paper for a few
minutes.
Then carefully blow off the
superficial debris and
examine the site on the paper
for the small, light colored
mites.
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Exudative dermatitis
Staphylococcus hyicus: Gram-positive coccus
Affects late preweaning pigs: few days to about
eight weeks of age
Clinical signs
exfoliation of skin, excess
sebaceous secretion
pruritis not a feature
unless complicated my
mange
Diagnosis - clinical signs and
culture or histopathology
Sebaceous glands secrete
excessively and there is
accumulation of greasy
exudate over lesions
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Treatment: frustrating
 Injectible penicllin, oxytetracyline
 Tetracyclines in feed
 Topicals: 10% bleach, chlorhexidine, Virkon® (Durvet)
or dilute tamed iodine
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Control
 Sanitation: sanitation for pregnant sows, especially in
housing, and washing of sows may be of value
 Control external parasites
 Good nutrition
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Swine pox virus
◦ Poxviridae family
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Only pigs less than 4months old
“round to oval cutaneous lesions that
heal in three to four weeks”
Clinical signs
papules 1-6
mm in
diameter
pustules,
crusts
clear
spontaenously
Diagnosis - clinical signs, biopsy
intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies
Treatment - not necessary: herd immunity
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Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
◦ Gram-positive, aerobic, slightly bent, thin
bacillus
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Diamond skin disease: zoonotic
pigs 3months - 3years old
Clinical signs
widespread
ecchymotic
hemorrhages
due to
microthrombi
arthritis,
endocarditis
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Diagnosis
 Diamond skin lesions pathognomonic
 Culture of blood, joints, lung, liver
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Treatment
 Penicillin is the drug of choice
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Control
 General sanitation
 Bacterins or attenuated live vaccines
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Swine lice: louse, Pediculosis
Baby piglet anemia
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Haematopinus suis: zoonotic, 6 mm long
(largest louse)
Lifecycle
◦ sucking louse (anemia)
◦ entire LC on host
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Indicator of poor management
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Clinical signs
 pruritis (mild), anemia, poor growing
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Diagnosis
 visible to naked eye
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Treatment - same as for mange
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Iron deficiency
Piglets iron demand is greater than the
sows milk (15-50%)
Pigs raised in the outdoors may not need
iron
Vit E/ selenium deficiency : Fe toxicity !!
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Clinical signs
 anemia within 2-3 days of birth
 dyspnea, edema, pale skin, lethargy
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Diagnosis - clinical signs, CBC
Treatment - 200mg iron dextran at 1-3 days
of age
Africa Swine Fever
Foot and mouth disease
Hog cholera / classical
swine fever
Swine vesicular disease
Malignant catarrhal
fever
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Virus family Flaviviridae, genus Pestivirus
Highly contagious viral dz
1978: ‘hog free’
Swine and boars
Direct/ uncooked meat
CS: High Fever: 106-108oF
(>41oC)
Depression
Conjunctivitis
Constipation, then Diarrhea
Skin hemorrhages/Cyanosis
Stillbirths, deformities, mummies
neurologic
Renal petechiation
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African swine fever
 genus asfivirus in the family Asfarviridae
 Only DNA virus ~ arbovirus
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hemorrhage in multiple areas: hot sick red
pigs
is a tick-borne (ornithodorus), contagious,
febrile, systemic viral disease of swine
100% mortality
No vaccine
1. Greatly enlarged dark red to black friable spleen
2. Enlarged hemorrhagic gastrohepatic lymph nodes
3. Enlarged hemorrhagic renal lymph nodes
◦ African Swine Fever pigs do not develop
conjunctivitis or encephalitis
◦ Despite high fever, ASF infected pigs stay in good
condition, whereas hog cholera infected pigs
drastically lose weight
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Foot and mouth disease - apthavirus*
Swine vesicular disease - enterovirus
Vesicular exanthema - calicivirus
Vesicular stomatitis - rhabdovirus
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http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/an
imal_dis_spec/swine/
http://www.ncsu.edu/project/swine_extensio
n/ncporkconf/2002/roberts.htm
http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/pbs/zoonoses/
Erysipelas/erysipelasindex.html
http://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/newvdpam-employees/food-supply-veterinarymedicine/swine/swinediseases/haemophilus-parasuishttp://vetpath.wordpress.com/category/necr
opsy-cases/
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http://www.fmv.utl.pt/atlas/figado/pages_us
/figad015_ing.htm
http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/DiseaseInfo/dis
ease.php?name=influenza&lang=en
http://microgen.ouhsc.edu/a_pleuro/a_pleur
o_home.htm
http://www.cvm.tamu.edu/fadr/disease.aspx
?did=2500
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