Breeds of Dairy Cattle - Dr. Brahmbhatt`s Class Handouts

Breeds of Dairy Cattle
What details can you tell me
about a dairy cow?
How is milk produced?
Lifecycle of a Dairy Cow
A Calf Is Born
The calf weighs 90-100
lbs at birth.
The calf is immediately
fed colostrum, which is
the nutrient-rich first
milk produced by a cow.
At 3 days the calf is fed
milk replacer
At 4-8 weeks the calf is
weaned from milk
Jersey Calf
Calf Hutches
Six-Month-Old Heifer
The heifer is fed
silage, hay, and
The heifer weights
around 400 lbs.
The dairy farmer
wants the heifer to
gain 1.6 to 1.8
pounds per day.
Yearling Heifer
This heifer is called
a yearling because
she is over a year
She still has a lot of
growing to do
before she enters
the milking herd.
This is what dairy
farmers call a firstyear heifer.
This means that she has
just had her first calf.
She is producing milk.
She weights 1,200 lbs.
Mature Cow
The mature cow
weighs approximately
1,500 lbs.
She has just had her
4th calf.
She can eat over 100
lbs a day and
produces 12 gallons of
milk each milking in
early lactation
ADV: Cleaner, less bedding expenses, ease of parlor use,
few space requirement, fewer teat and udder injuries and ease of use
Cow Facilities
Tie stall
Free stall
Milking Parlors
Herringbone, Polygon, Side opening,
Rotary/ Carousel
Milking unit
Milking unit: teat
cup (steel shell)
assembly, the claw
or suspension cup,
connecting air and
milk tubes
Life of a Dairy Cow
100-200 Days
Gestation: 9 months
Lactation & Calving Cycle
Dairy Cattle Characteristics
Holstein - Friesian History
Originated in
Winthrop Chenery
brought the first
Holstein over so the
sailors could have milk
• He noticed her high
production and
started to bring over
Largest of all dairy
cattle - 1500 lb. cows
and bulls: 2200 lbs
Holstein Characteristics
Holsteins are large, stylish animals with color patterns of
black and white or red and white (recessive gene); switch:
Average milk production per cow: 14,500 lb, 3.5% milk fat
90% of all dairy cattle in the U.S. are Holstein
First in milk production
Ayrshire History
The Ayrshire breed
originated in the County of
Ayrshire in Scotland, prior
to 1800
Prior to 1800 many of the
cattle of Ayrshire were
black, although by 1775
browns and mottled colors
started to appear.
Early breeders carefully
crossed and selected the
various strains of cattle
Cows weigh 1200 lbs.
Ranks third in milk
production (4th in milk fat)
Vigorous, strong and
excellent grazing ability
Ayrshire Characteristics
Red and white: cherry red, mahogany, brown or white and
mixed with red, mahogany or brown, have horns
medium-sized cattle and should weigh over 1200 pounds at
strong, rugged cattle that adapt to all management
systems including group handling on dairy farms with free
stalls and milking parlors
15,000 pounds of milk with a 3.9% Butterfat
Calves are strong and easy to raise
Brown Swiss History
Brown Swiss breed
originated in the
mountain pastures
of the Swiss Alps
The Brown Swiss
breed in the United
States was declared a
dairy breed in 1906
Brown Swiss Characteristics
Light silver to dark brown with dark points. Nose and
tongue black.
15,883 lbs of milk per lactation; 3.97% fat (3 rd)
A mature female weighs 1400 lbs (heifer matures more
slowly than other breeds)
particularly strong feet and legs because of the mountains
Quiet, docile, people-friendly demeanor
One of the oldest dairy breeds
2nd milk production
Guernsey History
The Isle of Guernsey, a
tiny island in the English
Channel off the coast of
France, is the birthplace of
the Guernsey cow
The Monks from France
brought Frances best
bloodlines and came up
with the Guernsey
Introduction of the
Guernsey to America
occurred around
September 1840, when
Captain Belair of the
Schooner Pilot brought
three Alderney cows to the
port of New York
Guernsey’s Characteristics
The Guernsey cow is
known for producing highbutterfat and high-protein
Guernseys produce their
high quality milk while
consuming 20 to 30
percent less feed per
pound of milk
The Guernsey is also an
excellent grazer, great
Produces 14,667 pounds of
milk (4th), 659 pounds of
butterfat and 510 pounds
(2nd)of protein
Fawn with white markings,
skin is yellow
Milk is golden
Jersey History
The Jersey breed
originated on the Island of
Jersey, a small British
island in the English
The island of Jersey was
very protective of this
breed. Because of this the
breed stayed distinctive for
many years
Cream, light fawn or
almost black
Switch/ tongue; black or
Jersey Characteristics
Jerseys are adapted to a wide
range of climatic and
geographical conditions
Jerseys vary greatly in color,
but the characteristic color is
golden fawn, with or without
white markings
Smallest of the dairy breeds
Its nutritive content is
28.46% greater than ordinary
Came from island of Jersey
off cost of France
Smallest dairy breed
Cows weigh around1000 lbs
Great udders
5th in milk and 1st in in milk
Milking Shorthorn
One of the oldest
recognized breeds in the
world, a segment of the
Shorthorn breed
Provided milk, meat, and
transportation to pioneers
Red, red & white, white, or
roan in color
In the feedlot, these cattle
attain 1,000 to 1,200
pound weights at an early
ease of calving
healthy calves
Quiz Time!!!!!!!!!!
What is this breed?
What is this breed?
What is this breed?
What is this breed?
What is this breed?
What is this breed?
2.Brown Swiss
5. Ayrshire
6.Milking Shorthorn
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