An Overview of the Livestock and Poultry Industries

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An Overview of the
Livestock and Poultry
Industries
Chapter 2
Livestock Industry


Livestock commodities comprise 50% of the
total agricultural cash receipts (ERS/USDA, 2005)
The five leading states in total cash receipts for
agriculture are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
California
Texas
Iowa
Nebraska
Illinois
Beef Industry
Cattle, including domestic water buffalo,
contribute food, fiber, fuel to the 5.8 billion
people of the world
 In developed countries, cattle normally
supply food
 In developing countries beef is a
secondary product as draft animal power
and milk are the primary products

Top 5 Countries in Beef Production

Cattle Numbers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
India
China
US
Brazil
Argentina

Beef Production
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
US
Brazil
EU-25
China
Argentina
Beef Industry

Exports
 Brazil
27.8%
 Australia
20.3%
 India
11.4%
 New Zealand
7.7%
 Argentina
7.1%

Imports
 US
 Russian
 Japan
 EU-25
 Mexico
Federation
Beef and Veal Consumption
Country
Argentina
Per capita
consumption
65.2
United States
42.9
Uruguay
39.3
Brazil
36.9
Australia
36.3
Sources: USDA -FAS attache reports, official statistics, and results of office
research. Population statistics from U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division,
International Programs Center.
Beef Industry

Production of beef has
increased recently with a
reduction in cattle
numbers




Average carcass wt
increased
Increased number of cattle
per feedlot
Reduction in market age
More cross-breeding

Cattle Production is made
up of several segments







Seedstock producers
Cow-Calf
Stocker-Yearling
Feedlots
Packers
Retailers
Consumers
Beef Inventory

Cattle Inventory
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Texas
Kansas
Nebraska
California
Oklahoma

Cattle on Feed
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Texas
Nebraska
Kansas
Colorado
Iowa
Which country has had
the biggest increase in
exports of beef in the last
5 years?
Brazil
Why are imports to Japan
from the US lower than
previous years?
BSE, traceability to verify BSE
controls, age verification, bone
chips and political wrangling.
Which country has the
most cattle numbers?
Which country produces
the most beef?
India
United States
Pounds of beef produced has
increased whereas number of
cattle has reduced. How has
this happened?




Average carcass weight has increased
Increased number of animals through
feedlot
Reduction in market age
More cross-breeding
What states have the
most cattle on feed?
Texas, Nebraska, Kansas,
Colorado, Iowa
Dairy Industry
Milk products are produced and consumed
in most countries of the world
 Cows milk is the most common product
but other species are used for milk
production

 Buffalo,
goat, sheep, camel
World Dairy Cow Numbers and Milk
Production

Cattle Numbers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
India
EU-25
Brazil
Russian Federation
United States

Production per cow
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
United States
Japan
Canada
EU-25
Australia
World Milk Production
EU-25
 United States
 India
 China
 Russia

1,000 Metric tons
132,300
82,582
39,450
33,800
32,200
Dairy Industry

Other products produced such as butter,
cheese and dried milk products are more
likely to be exported than fluid milk.
Dairy Exports by Country
Milk Products

Butter

Cheese
 India
 EU-25
 EU-25
 United
 United
 Brazil
States
 New Zealand
 Russia
States
 Egypt
 Argentina
Milk Products

Whole Milk Powder

Non-fat Dry Milk
 China
 United
 New
 India
Zealand
 Brazil
 Argentina
 Australia
 New
States
Zealand
 Australia
 Japan
US Dairy Industry




The average US dairy has approximately 100
milking cows, 30 dry cows, 30 heifers and 25
calves
Dairy producers market the milk through
cooperatives
Nearly 60% of the US dairy herd is concentrated
in large dairy farms
These large dairies represent 9% of the farms
with milk cows, but are responsible for more
than half of the milk production
US Dairy Production
State
Production
1 California
37,564 mill lbs
2 Wisconsin
22,866 mill lbs
3 New York
12,078 mill lbs
4 Pennsylvania
10,503 mill lbs
5 Idaho
10,161 mill lbs
Which single country
leads the world in fluid
milk production per
cow?
United States
Which three countries
export the most dairy
products?
Germany, New Zealand,
France
Which three countries
produce the most nonfat dry milk?
United States, India, New
Zealand
True or False: Large dairies
represent 9% of cattle but
produce greater than half of
the milk produced.
True
Horse Industry
Horses were domesticated about 5,000
years ago
 Horses were the last animals to be
domesticated.
 Horses were first used as food, then for
war, sports and draft purposes.
 There were no horses in North America
when Columbus arrived

Countries with the Largest Horse,
Donkey and Mule Numbers
Horses
Donkeys
Mules
1 China
1 China
1 China
2 Brazil
2 Ethiopia
2 Mexico
3 Mexico
3 Pakistan
3 Brazil
4 United States 4 Mexico
4 Columbia
5 Argentina
5 Ethiopia
5 Egypt
US Horse Industry
Number of horses in the US reduced
drastically after World War I.
 Increased use of motor-powered
equipment took the place of horse power.
 The US horse industry generates $25
billion in goods and services annually

States with the Largest Horse
Numbers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Texas
California
Florida
Oklahoma
Illinois
US Horse Industry



The horse industry directly produces goods and
services of $25.3 billion and has a total impact of
$112.1 billion on U.S. gross domestic product.
Racing, showing and recreation each contribute
more than 25% to the total value of goods and
services produced by the industry.
The horse industry has a direct economic effect
in the urban areas of $2.8 billion and employs
45,800 FTE employees. In rural areas, the direct
economic effect is $22.5 billion and employs
292,700 FTE employees.
US Horse Industry

How Many People are Involved in the
Industry?
 7.1
million Americans are involved in the
industry as horse owners, service providers,
employees and volunteers.
 The horse industry is a diverse, broad-based
activity with stakeholders including large
numbers of recreational and show horse
riders, and moderate-income track, show and
stable employees and volunteers.
Number of Horses & Participants by Activity
Activity
Racing
No. of Horses No. of Participants
725,000
941,400
Showing
1,974,000
3,607,900
Recreation
2,970,000
4,346,100
Other*
1,262,000
1,607,900
Total
6,931,000
7,062,500**
*Includes farm and ranch work, police work, rodeo and polo
**The sum of participants by activity does not equal the total number of participants because
individuals could be counted in more than one activity.
Which country has the
largest number of horses,
donkeys and mules?
China
What happened to the
horse numbers in the US
after World War I? Why?
Reduced
Increased
use of motorpowered equipment
Poultry Industry
Poultry applies to chickens, turkeys,
geese, ducks, pigeons, peafowl, and
guineas
 Chickens, ducks and turkeys dominate the
world poultry industry
 Chickens originated in Southeast Asia
 Darwin concluded that domestic chickens
originated from Red Jungle Fowl

World Poultry Production

Chicken Production
 United
States
Turkey Production
 United
 China
 EU-25
 EU
 Brazil
-25
 Mexico
 India


 Canada
Egg Production
 China
 United
 Japan
States
States
Broiler Consumption
United Arab Emirates
 United States
 Kuwait
 Hong Kong
 Malaysia

60.3
46.3
43.0
38.8
38.3
US Poultry Industry
Income from the US Poultry industry
exceeds $21 billion
 The US industry is primarily in the
southeastern US
 The US industry produces 6.9 billion total
broilers
 The modern mechanized poultry industry
of the US emerged during the late 1950’s

US Poultry Industry

Egg Production
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ohio
California
Pennsylvania
Iowa
Indiana
US Poultry Industry
Poultry industry highly integrated
 Many broiler and turkey producers are
contracted by large companies to raise
birds
 85% of the eggs marketed are from large
commercial producers
 Efficiency of production of chicken, turkey
and eggs has increased in the last few
years

Which country leads the
world in chicken and
turkey production?
Consumption?
United States
United Arab Emirates
Which area of the United
States has the largest
concentration of broiler
production?
Southeast – Georgia,
Arkansas, Alabama,
Mississippi, North Carolina
True or False: The
poultry industry is
highly integrated.
True
Sheep and Goat Industry
Sheep and goats both originated in
Europe and the cooler portions of Asia.
 Sheep are distinguished from goats by the
absence of a beard, less odor and glands
on all four feet.
 Sheep and goats are important ruminants
in temperate and tropical regions

Sheep and Goat Industry



Sheep and goats are better adapted than cattle
to arid tropics
Goats graze browse (shrubs) and some forbs
while cattle graze tall grasses and some forbs
and sheep graze short grasses and some forbs.
More than 60% of the world sheep numbers are
in temperate regions while 80% of the goats are
in tropical or subtropical
Top 5 Countries in Sheep
Production

Sheep Numbers
China
2. Australia
3. India
4. Iran
5. New Zealand
1.

Sheep meat Production
1.
China
EU- 25
Australia
New Zealand
Iran
2.
3.
4.
5.
Top 5 Countries for Goat
Production

Goat Numbers
China
2. India
3. Pakistan
4. Bangladesh
5. Nigeria
1.

Meat Production
China
2. Pakistan
3. India
4. Nigeria
5. Bangladesh
1.
US Sheep Industry


Sheep numbers
reached a high in
1942 of 56 million
declining to
approximately 7
million in 1999
Cost of production
offset increase in
price per pound

Difference in raising
techniques
 Midwest
and West
Coast farm-flocks
 Western States
primarily range-flocks
Major Sheep Producing States
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Texas
California
Wyoming
Colorado
South Dakota
What is the difference
between sheep and
goats?
Sheep don’t have beards, less
odor and glands on all four
feet.
What is the difference
in grazing patterns for
cows and goats?
Goats graze browse and
some forbs whereas cattle
graze grasses and some forbs
Which three countries
have the highest
sheepmeat production?
China, EU-25, Australia
Swine Industry
Swine are widely distributed throughout
the world.
 50% of the world swine production occurs
in China
 Swine production in US is more productive
on a per head basis

Top 5 Countries in Pork Production

Swine Numbers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
China
US
Brazil
Germany
Poland

Pork Production
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
China
EU – 25
US
Brazil
Russian Federation
World Pork Consumption
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Hong Kong
EU-25
China
Taiwan
Romania
65.3
43.9
41.9
41.3
34.6
US Swine Industry
Swine production in the US is
concentrated heavily in the corn Belt
 This area produces most of the nation’s
corn and soybeans
 During the past 20 years the number of
hog farms has significantly decreased.
 The number of hogs raised per farm has
increased.

US Swine Industry

Four primary types of swine operations
 Feeder
pig operations
 Feeder pig to finishing operations
 Farrow to Finish operations
 Seedstock operations (including multiplier
herds for breeding companies)
In what area of the US
is pork production
concentrated?
Corn Belt
What are the four
primary types of swine
operations
1.
2.
3.
4.
Feeder pig
Feeder to finish
Farrow to finish
Seedstock production
True or False? The US
produces more than 50%
of the pork in the world.
False
China produces 50% of the
world pork.
Which country has the
largest pork
consumption?
Hong Kong
Other Animal Industries

Aquaculture
 Finfish
 Crustaceans
 Mollusks
Global fish production has expanded at
such a large rate that the per-capita supply
has nearly doubled
 Aquaculture produces 26% of the world’s
supply of food fish

Aquaculture Production as a Share of Total Marine
and Freshwater Fish Harvest, 1984-95
Share of Global Aquaculture Production
Country
% Share of Global Production
China
57
India
9
Japan
4
Indonesia
4
Thailand
3
United States
2
Philippines
2
Korea, Republic of
2
Other Countries
17
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), The
State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 1996 (FAO, Rome, 1997), p. 12.
Table 1.4.4. Production (mt) by commodity group and APRs (%).
Groups
1984
1989
1995
APR
84/89
APR
90/95
APR
84/95
Freshwater
Fishes
3,557,718
6,855,331
12,727,038
14.0
12.0
12.3
Aquatic
Plants
3,446,524
3,415,895
6,812,879
-0.2
15.8
6.4
Molluscs
1,997,002
2,943,729
5,087,068
8.1
11.4
8.9
Diadromous
Fishes
680,903
932,071
1,388,539
6.5
4.0
6.7
Crustaceans
231,798
702,292
1,126,632
24.8
8.1
15.5
Marine
Fishes
209,684
282,692
573,332
6.2
13.2
9.6
10,123,629
15,132,010
27,715,488
8.4
12.1
9.6
TOTAL
US Aquaculture





Aquaculture in the United States exceeds $1.09
billion
Catfish farming is the largest aquaculture activity
in the US.
Mississippi produces about 70% of the US total.
Trout production is the second largest sector
with Idaho accounting for 75% of the production
Third largest aquaculture sector in the U.S. is
the crawfish industry
 Louisiana
produces 25-50 million pounds per year
US Aquaculture


One of the most attractive aspects of fish
farming is the feed conversion rate 1.3 lb of feed
per lb of gain
Advantages
 Major
market
 US major grain producer

Disadvantages
 Most
farm raised fish are tropical
 Labor costs higher
 Regulations
Types of Aquaculture Production Systems





Pond culture: extensive farming in small shallow ponds
Raceway culture: Traditional farming of salmonids which readily
acclimated to the cool waters of the temperate zones and high
mountains.
Cage culture: The salmonids have readily adapted to other intensive
systems, particularly farming in floating cages. Rainbow trout
adapted to saltwater are now cultured by such practices, and two
species of Pacific salmon, the silver or coho and king or spring
Ocean ranching: The oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean are rich
in natural resources of planktonic organisms ideal for migratory
salmonids.
Off-bottom and on-bottom culture of molluscs: The majority of
molluscs are produced off-bottom, suspended from floating rafts or
longlines. Others are managed on tidal beds.
US Aquaculture
Alternative Species

Ostrich and Emu
 Both

relatively new to the U.S.
Deer Farming
 many




red deer
wapiti (elk)
white tail
red fallow deer
 Major

different species
Bison
market in by-products
What are the largest
aquaculture activities
in the United States
Catfish
Trout
Crawfish
Which country has the
largest production of
aquaculture?
China
What are the three
types of aquaculture?
Finfish
Crustaceans
Mollusks
What is the largest
production of aquaculture
species in the world?
Finfish
Which US states
produce the most
aquaculture?
Arkansas, Louisiana,
Mississippi and Alabama
What are some
alternative livestock
species?
Ostrich and Emu
Deer – red deer, wapiti, white tail,
red fallow deer
Bison
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