MAF - University of Agriculture Faisalabad

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1
INDUS RIVER SYSTEM AUTHORITY
(IRSA)
“Water Apportionment Accord 1991,
Indus River System Authority”
January 10, 2011
University of Agriculture
Faisalabad
2
The Water Agreements
Indus Waters Treaty 1960
Water Apportionment Accord 1991
Inter-provincial Water Dispute
The Inter-provincial dispute on Water
Distribution was initiated during the
construction of two mega Irrigation
Projects i.e.
Sutlej Valley Canal Project
Sukkur Barrage
1932
1935
Committees / commissions
1937
Anderson Committee
1945
Rau Commission
1968
Akhtar Hussain Committee
1970
Fazal-e-Akbar Committee
1976
Indus Waters Commission (Anwar-ul-Haq
Commission)
1983
Haleem Commission
1991
Water Accord
Indus
Tarbela
Jhelum
Mangla
Kabul
Chenab
Ravi
NWFP CRBC
Sutlej
C-J
Chashma
T-P
Balochistan Canals
Legend
Sindh Barrages
Punjab Barrages
Reservoirs
Major Rivers
Rim Stations:
Indus @ Tarbela
Kabul @ Nowshera
Jhelum @ Mangla
Chenab @ Marala
6
6
● Water Apportionment Accord (WAA) was
signed amongst the Provinces on 16.03.1991
and approved by the Council of Common
Interests (CCI) on 21.03.1991
●Total Paras
●Paras on distribution
●Development Paras
●Escapages d/s Kotri
●Others
14
03
06
01
04
● Under Clause 13 of the WAA ’91, the need to
establish an Indus River System Authority was
recognized
and
accepted
for
the
implementation of the Accord.
Contd.....
7
IRSA was established vide Act No. XXII of
1992 passed by the Parliament and approved by
the President of Pakistan on, the 6th December
1992;
One of the prime responsibilities of IRSA is
the regulation and distribution of surface waters
amongst the Provinces according to the allocation
and policies spelt out in the Water Accord 1991;
To Settle any question that may arise
between two or more Provinces in respect of
distribution of river and reservoir waters;
Contd…
8
Any question in respect of implementation of
Water Accord shall be settled by the Authority by
the votes of the majority of members and
in
case of an equality of votes the Chairman shall
have a casting vote
;
A Provincial Government or the Water and
Power Development Authority may, if aggrieved
by any decision of the Authority,
make
a
reference to the Council of Common Interests
(CCI).
9
PROVISIONS OF WATER ACCORD 1991
PERTAINING TO DISTRIBUTION OF WATER
10
Para 14 (b)
The record of actual average system uses
for the period 1977-82, would form the
guide line
for developing a future
regulation pattern. These ten daily uses
would be adjusted pro-rata to correspond
to the indicated seasonal allocations of
the different canal systems and would
form the basis for sharing shortages and
surpluses on all Pakistan basis.
11
Para 14 (b)
(MAF)
Province
MAF
%
Punjab
54.51
53.06
Sindh
43.53
42.37
Balochistan
1.63
1.59
KPK
3.06
2.98
Total
102.73
100.00
Para 2
In the light of the accepted water distributional principles, the following
apportionment was agreed to:
(MAF)
Province
Kharif
Rabi
Total
Punjab
37.07
18.87
55.94
Sindh *
33.94
14.82
48.76
NWFP (a)
3.48
2.30
5.78
(b) Civil Canals **
1.80
1.20
3.00
Balochistan
2.85
1.02
3.87
77.34
37.01
114.35
+
+
+
1.80
1.20
3.00
* Including already sanctioned Urban and Industrial uses for Metropolitan Karachi.
** Un-gauged Civil Canals above the rim stations.
13
Comparison of Para 2 vs Para 14 (b)
(MAF)
Para 2
Para 14 (b)
Province
Difference
MAF
%
MAF
%
MAF
(2-4)
%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Punjab
55.94
48.92
54.51
53.06
1.43
12
Sindh
48.76
42.64
43.53
42.37
5.23
45
Baloch:
3.87
3.38
1.63
1.59
2.24
19
KPK
5.78
5.06
3.06
2.98
2.72
24
Total
114.35
100.00
102.73
100.00
11.62
100
Para 4
Balance river supplies (including flood
supplies and future storages) shall be
distributed
as
below:
Punjab
37
Sindh
37
KPK
14
Balochistan
Total
%
%
%
12
%
100 %
15
Present Distribution Mechanism of IRSA
(THREE TIER FORMULA SINCE 2003)
Scenario I
–Water Availability < Actual Average System Uses 77-82
–Distributed as per 14 (b) of the WAA 1991
Scenario II
–Water Availability > Actual Average System Uses 77-82 but
< Para 2 of WAA 1991
–Actual Average System Uses are protected
–Balance available as per Para 2 i.e. 10-daily approved by
CCI
Scenario III
–Water Availability > Para 2 of WAA 1991
–Para 2 i.e. 10-daily approved by CCI are protected
–Balance as per Para 4 of the WAA 1991
Note:
KPK & Balochistan are exempted from shortages
16
Para 6
The need for storages, wherever
feasible on the Indus and other
rivers
was
admitted
and
recognised by the participants for
planned
future
agricultural
development.
17
Western & Eastern Inflows & D/S Kotri
Post Tarbela Average (1976.77 to 2009.10)
(MAF)
Max
Min
Avg
Indus @ Kalabagh
112.18 66.81 89.71
Western
Jhelum + Chenab
64.69 29.70 48.68
River
Total
176.87 96.51 138.39
Ravi @ Balloki
10.95
0.29
4.23
Eastern
Sutlej @ Sulemanki
10.62
0.01
2.59
River
Total
21.57
0.30
6.82
Total Western & Eastern River 198.44 96.81 145.21
D/S Kotri
91.86
0.29 30.67
D/S Kotri (Apr 1, 2010 to Jan 6, 2011) 54.42
Provincial Canal Head Wdls
(Post Independence to to-date)
Year
Canal Withdrawals (MAF)
1947
69.1
1965
88.4
1967-76 (Post-Mangla)
96.0
1977-82 (Post-Tarbela)
105.0
1990-1999
107.0
2000-2009
93.5
19
Reservoir Sedimentation
(MAF)
Designed
Live
Storage
Present
Live
Storage
Sedimentation
%
Tarbela
9.68
6.77
2.91
30
Mangla
5.34
*4.54
0.80
15
Chashma
0.77
0.263
0.51
66
Total
15.79
11.573
4.22
27
* Excluding raising component. After raising additional 2.99 MAF would be available
20
Historical vis-à-vis Present Peaks at Different
Rivers/Barrages Since 1947 (Cs)
Reservoir/
Barrage
Designed
Capacity
Historical Peak
/Year
Present Peak
/Date
Remarks
Tarbela
15,00,000
510,000 (89)
607,000/(30/07)
Exceptional
Nowshera
138,000 (06)
400,000 (30/07)
Exceptional
Attock
6,70,000 (58)
11,94,600
(30/07)
Exceptional
Kalabagh
9,50,000
8,62,000 (76)
9,36,000 (30/07)
Exceptional
Chashma
9,50,000
7,86,600 (76)
10,38,874 (1/8)
Exceptional
Taunsa
11,00,000
7,89,000 (58)
9,60,000 (2/8)
Exceptional
Guddu
12,00,000
11,99,672 (76)
11,48,200 (8/8)
Exceptional
Sukkur
15,00,000
11,66,574 (86)
11,24,720 (9/8)
Exceptional
Kotri
8,75,000
9,80,329 (56)
9,39,442 (27/8)
Exceptional
21
Issues
22
 Presently, due to sedimentation heavy shortages are being
faced by the provinces during Late Rabi (March) as well as
Early
Kharif
(Apr
–
Jun)
periods
(Creating
provincial
disharmony);
 Reservoirs normally touch the dead level in Late February &
March (Critical period for Wheat maturity);
 Lean flows / erratic flows are being experienced in Early Kharif
(Disturbing the sowing of Cotton Crops);
 The present storage component does not cater for the
requirements of Existing Irrigation Infrastructure;
 Storage, as envisaged under Para 6 of the Accord, should be
constructed on war footing basis;
 No feasible site at Chenab; Mangla has already been raised;
Only Indus waters can be stored at different locations
Contd…
Period
Hydel
Thermal & Others
80’s
70 %
30 %
90’s to to-date
30 %
70 %
 Storages are required to reverse the 70 – 30 % ratio;
 Pakistan Hydel Generation Potential is 65,000 MW
 Storage for managing the floods;
 India total storage of 81 reservoirs is 151.77 BCM;
(123 MAF)
 Indian Hydel Generation 37,000 MW (Potential 84044
MW)
25
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