What is a breed? - Dr. Brahmbhatt`s Class Handouts

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Hope is like the sun, which, as we
journey toward it, casts the shadow
of our burden behind us.
Samuel Smiles
Cattle Review Husbandry
• Genetic advancement
• Aka: Purebred breeders
It is believed that all
modern domestic cattle
evolved from a single
ancestor, the Aurochs,
which is now extinct.
Photo courtesy of Wikipedia.
What is a breed?

The classic definition of a "breed" is
usually stated as a variation of this
statement.
Animals that, through selection and
breeding, have come to resemble one
another and pass those traits uniformly to
their offspring.
What is a breed?


Unfortunately this definition leaves some
unanswered questions. For example, when is a
crossbred animal considered a composite breed
and when do we stop thinking about them as
composites?
Composite crossbreeding is accomplished by
developing a new breed composed of other
existing breeds. Once constructed, the
composite breed can be mated like a
conventional (straight) breed.

The development of the breeds takes different
routes also. In some breeds you can see the
amount of change that can occur as the result of
selection for a small number of traits.
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E.g., Holstein cattle have been selected primarily for
milk production and are the highest milk producing
cattle in the world.
Other breeds have traits that result from natural
selection* pressure based upon the environment in
which they were developed.

E.g. N’dama cattle from west Africa. These animals have, through
the centuries, developed a resistance to trypanosomiasis or
sleeping sickness spread by the tse-tse fly, which is fatal to most
other breeds of cattle.
Classification and Identification
of Beef Cattle Breeds
Black Angus
Charolais
Brahman
Hereford
OBJECTIVES
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To be able to Classify Beef Cattle Breeds into Bos
taurus or Bos indicus .
To be able to Classify Beef Cattle Breeds into British,
European.
To be able to Determine or Give the Make up of
Certain Composite Breeds.
To Give the Attributes of Specific Breeds.
Classification Why do we Need It
We classify everything. Example
Automobiles
 We Break them down into Cars and
Trucks, How can we break them down
even further.

Classification Of Automobiles
Automobiles
Cars
American Made
Suv's
Imorts
Trucks
CLASSIFICATION OF BEEF
CATTLE
Beef Cattle
BOS TAURUS
British
EUROPEAN
BOS TAURUS / INDICUS
BOS INDICUS
F1 Cross
ZEBU
BRITISH BREEDS OF CATTLE
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Hereford
Polled Herefords
Black Angus
Red Angus
Devon
Shorthorn
Shorthorn
Red Poll
Galloway
British Whites
Scotch Highland
Welsh Black
Wagyu
Dairy Cattle
Jersey
Guernsey
Ayrshire
Milking
EUROPEAN BREEDS OF
CATTLE
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Simmental
Limousin
Maine-Anjou
Dutch Belted
Salers
Charolais
Piedmontese
Blonde d’Aquitaine
Belgian Blue
Chianina
Gelbvieh
MRI
Normande
Pinzqauer
Devon
South Devon
Tarentaise
Dairy
Brown Swiss
Holstein
ZEBU BREEDS OF BEEF
CATTLE
Grey Brahman
 Nellore
 Indo Brazilian
 Red Brahman
 Africander

COMPOSITE BREEDS OF
CATTLE
Brangus
(RED & BLACK)
 Beefmasters
Beefmaker
 Simbrah
Braford
 Bramousin
Santa Gertrudis
 American
7 Way Composite
 Salorn

HYBRID-VIGOR
BENEFITS
More Climate variable
 Increased Growth Rate
 Increased Vigor and Fertility

Bos taurus
BEEF BREEDS
BRITISH /
EUROPEAN
Hereford
• Originated in England
• Red with white points:
dewlap, underline, flank,
switch (Cross breeds:
white color dominates)
• Horned usually
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
•White face and red bodies
(yellow to dark red)
• Known for pink eye
•Docile
• Good forages, vigor and hardiness
• Best at producing more calves in adverse conditions
Black Angus
• Native to Angus (East Scotland:
Aberdeen)
•Came to U.S. in 1873
• Most popular beef breed in the US
• Always black in color and polled
(crossbred: calves mostly polled:
dominant gene)
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
• Can produce Red Angus
• Known for Marbling Ability
•Do well in feedlot
•No.1 in numbers of registered animals
“Black Brockle - faced”

Angus and
Hereford composite
Red Angus
• Originated in the British Isles
•Same as Black Angus (red and red
cross from black angus)
• Barred from Angus herdbook
• Recognized as separate breed
•Were registered with Black Angus
herdbooks until 1917
•Red Angus Assoc. of America formed
in 1954
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
•Tolerate heat better than black Angus,
marbling and do well in feedlots
Texas Longhorn
“living symbol of the Old West”
•Developed from Spanish cattle,
brought to new world by Columbus
•Roamed free in the southwest
until after the Civil War
•Was replaced by new breeds in
1880s
•Various colors
•Horns curve upward ~ 4 feet
• Almost went extinct
• Known for Low Birth Weights and
Calving ease for Heifers
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
•Disease and insect resistant
•Adapt well to harsh climates
•Numbers are increasing
Red Poll
• Developed in England
• Primarily used for meat in US
• Milk production in other countries
• Dark red and polled
•Norfolk and Suffolk mix
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
Shorthorn
• Originated in England
• White to red in color (red are
predominant)
• Roane Color, very popular for
show heifers.
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
They are a medium size breed with a
truly rectangular shape with a short,
broad head and wide set eyes
• Small horns that curve inwards or are polled
• Docile, adaptable to variable climates, crossover, good mums with
milking abilities and good carcass
Devon
• Originated in England
• Also called North Devon
• One of the oldest beef breeds
• At one time used for milk
• Mature cows weigh 950-1300 lbs.
“Red Rubies”
Bos Taurus / British Breed
Classification
Limousin
• Native to South-Central France
• Golden-red to red-brown in color,
light tan: muzzle, underline and legs
•Horn: horizontal > forward >
upward. Head and neck is small and
short with broad forehead
•Low fat meats and large loin areas
Bos Taurus European
Breed Classification
Simmental
• First recorded in Switzerland
• Large body mass
• Light red to dark red with white points
(red/yellow/black/gray – white)
•Horned: medium size horns
• Known for Maternal Characteristics
Bos Taurus / European Breed
Classification
•Docile, grow fast, grow carcass without
excess fat, adaptable - climates
Charolais
•Originated
from France
•Color is white to cream
with a pink muzzle and
pale hooves
•Large and heavily
muscled. Mature bulls
weigh 2000-2500+lbs
•Mature Females weigh
1250-2000
•Known for Size and
Muscle
•Most naturally horned:
white, slender tapered
•Popular for crossbreeding
as well suited in many
areas
Bos taurus/European-Breed
Classification
Chianina
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Developed in Italy
Came to U.S. in 1971
Used in cross-breeding
programs
They have black skin and
white hair (white to steel
gray in color) and black
switch
Largest breed of cattle.
Cows up to 2400 lbs.
(Bulls ~ 4,000 lbs and 6
feet)
Heat tolerant and gentle,
good foragers, good mums
and tolerant to insect and
diseases
Bos Taurus / European Breed
Classification
Wagyu
• Asian/British-European breeds
•All Japanese cattle: Kobe beef
• Colors: horned breed and can
be either black or red
• Consists of many Japanese breeds
• Known for Marbling in the Meat
Bos Taurus / European
Breed Classification
Piedmontese
• Originated in Italy
• Double muscled breed (mutation
myostatin gene)
•white or gray with black
hoofs, switch, ears and
nose
Bos Taurus / European
Breed Classification
Blonde d’Aquitaine
• Originated in France
• Blonde color
• Known for Heavy Muscle
•They are the third largest
breed in France after the
Limousin and Charolais
Bos Taurus / European
Breed Classification
Salers
• Native to France
•Most horned 1 strain is polled
• Milk production important in Europe
• Red to brown in color, some black
•one of the oldest and most
genetically pure of all European
breeds
Bos Taurus / European
Breed Classification
•Known for some Carcass Merit,
good mothers, forage well on poor
range and high weaning weights
Tarentaise
• Originated in France
• Used for milk in Europe
• Red color
•Salers are native to a
mountainous region
(rugges)
Bos Taurus / European Breed
Classification
Maine-Anjou
• Originated in France
• Large: Mature bulls weigh 2100-3000
lbs.
• Mature cows weigh 1500-1900 lbs.
• Dark red with white under markings
and patches of white on body. Some
roan. Light pigmented skin
Bos Taurus / European
Breed Classification
• Horned breed: medium size horns that curve
• Docile, grow fast and good marbling
BOS INDICUS
BEEF BREEDS
ZEBU
Brahman
• "sacred cattle of India,"
• Hindu faith will not eat meat from
them, will not permit them to be
slaughtered, and will not sell them.
• India has more cows than any other
country.
• Most popular breed in the world
•Developed in U.S. between
1854-1926
•Brood stock came from India
•Used in cross-breeding
programs
•Large hump on back and loose
skin
•They have a high heat tolerance
• Light gray or red to black
•Known for Mothering Ability
Bos Indicus Classification
Red Brahman
• Heat and Insect
Resistant
• Mothering Ability
Bos Indicus Classification
Nelore
•Known form having smaller
ears and cleaner lines than
other zebu breeds.
•Biggest populations in
South America (esp. Brazil).
•Heat and Insect tolerant
Bos Indicus Classification
Indo Brazilian
• Known for Large Ears
• Heaviest Populations in
South America, originally from
Brazil
• High in Maternal Attributes
•white to dark gray to
redish tan in color
Bos Indicus Classification
Africander
• Native to South Africa
• Usually red with long horns
• Used for meat and as a draft animal
• Mature cows weigh 1150-1350 lbs.
• Mature bulls weigh 1650-2200 lbs.
Bos Indicus Classification
Composite Beef Cattle Breeds
American
• Developed in New Mexico
• Official breed conformation• 1/2 Brahman: hardy
• 1/8 Bison: hardy
• 1/4 Charolais: size and bone
structure
• 1/16 Hereford
• 1/16 Shorthorn: mothering and
milking ability
• Composite Breed Classification
Brangus
• LSU: increased their weights
during the summer months
more adapted to coastal
climates.
• Calves from Brangus were
heavier at birth and weaning
and for total pounds produced
per cow.
• The Angus had an advantage
in conception rate and calved
earlier, and the calves were
more vigorous at birth and
survived better to weaning
• Originated in the United States
Composite Breed Classification
• 3/8 Brahman, 5/8 Angus
•Solid black and Polled
•Drooping ears and loose hide
Bramousin
• Originated in the United States
• Golden to red in color
• 5/8 Limousin, 3/8 Brahman
•the animal must be sired
by a registered Limousin
bull, registered Brahman
bull or a registered
Brahmousin bull
Composite Breed
Classification
Braford
• Developed in Florida
• 3/8 Brahman, 5/8Hereford
•Red with white points
Composite Breed Classification
•. Early puberty, fertility,
calving ease, optimum
milk production,
maternal aptitude and
productive longevity
Simbrah
• Originated in the United States
• Brahman and Simmental breeds used
• Light to dark red with some white marks
•The All Purpose American Breed
Composite Breed
Classification
Beefmaker
• Originated in the United States
• 3/4 Hereford, 1/4 Simmental
• Red with white points
•high conversion efficiency
levels, high carcass yields
and low maintenance costs
Composite Breed Classification
Beefmaster
• Originated in the United States
(TX)
• Brahman, Hereford, and Shorthorn
• Composite Breed Classification:
three: Beefmaster Breeders
Universal, The foundation
Beefmaster Assoc., National
Beefmaster Assoc.
•Droopy ears and loose hide
• Color: red and duns (pale: brown to yellow) are most common
• Weight gain, Conformation, Milking Ability, Fertility, Hardiness
and Disposition
Salorn
• Developed in the United States
• 5/8 Salers. 3/8 Texas Longhorn
• Lean meat
• Environmentally adaptable
Composite Breed Classification
Salorn
Texon
• Originated in the United States
• Texas Longhorn and Devon breeds used
•Evolving
Composite Breed Classification
Santa Gertrudis
Composite Breed Classification
*Originated at the King
Ranch in Texas
*Made up of Brahman bulls
and Shorthorn cows
Breeds
*Cherry red color, drooping
ears and loose skin, most
horned
*Good carcass with little
waste fat
*Known for Heat tolerance
and resistant to disease and
insects
Review Of Beef Cattle Classification
Cattle are Classified into Two Groups
 The Bos Taurus Classification includes
what two Groups.
 What are some Composite Breeds and
what are their makeup.
 What are some Breeds Attributes.

Resources
www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/
 fyi.uwex.edu/cwas/files/2010/07/BeefCatt
leClassificationandID.ppt
 http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/extension/be
ef/beefu2.pdf
 K Holtgrew-Bohling , Large Animal
Clinical Procedures for Veterinary
Technicians, 2nd Edition, Mosby, 2012

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