Classification and Identification of Cattle Breeds Mt MorrisBeef Cattle Seminar June 17, 2009 CLASSIFICATION OF BEEF CATTLE Beef Cattle BOS TAURUS British EUROPEAN BOS TAURUS / INDICUS BOS INDICUS F1 Cross ZEBU BRITISH BREEDS OF CATTLE Hereford Polled Herefords Black Angus Red Angus Devon Shorthorn Red Poll Galloway British Whites Scotch Highland Welsh Black Wagyu Dairy Cattle Jersey Guernsey Ayrshire Milking Shorthorn EUROPEAN BREEDS OF CATTLE Simmental Limousin Maine-Anjou Dutch Belted Salers Charolais Piedmontese Blonde d’Aquitaine Belgian Blue Chianina Gelbvieh MRI Normande Pinzqauer Devon South Devon Tarentaise Dairy Brown Swiss Holstein COMPOSITE BREEDS OF CATTLE Brangus (RED & BLACK) Beefmasters Beefmaker Simbrah Braford Bramousin Santa Gertrudis American 7 Way Composite Salorn HYBRID-VIGOR BENEFITS More Climate variable Increased Growth Rate Increased Vigor and Fertility BOS TAURUS BEEF BREEDS BRITISH / EUROPEAN Hereford • Originated in England • Red with white points • Horned usually • Known for pink eye Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification Red Angus • Originated in the British Isles • Same as Black Angus • Barred from Angus herdbook • Recognized as separate breed Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification Black Angus • Native to Angus (near Scotland) • Most popular beef breed in the US • Always black in color • Can produce Red Angus • Known for Marbling Ability Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification Texas Longhorn • Originated in the United States • Various colors • Almost went extinct • Known for Low Birth Weights and Calving ease for Heifers Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification Red Poll • Developed in England • Primarily used for meat in US • Milk production in other countries • Dark red and polled Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification Shorthorn • Originated in England • White to red in color • Roane Color, very popular for show heifers. Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification Murray Grey Developed in New South Wales-Australia Became a recognized Australian breed in 1962 Cross of Roan Shorthorn and Angus Known for small birth weights Good Carcass traits Docile Disposition Dark pigment on head and udders Belted Galloway Developed in the 16th century in Scotland Know for shaggy coat-ideal for wet, cold conditions Developed from a cross of Galloway and Dutch Belted Have good marbling ability Polled and refered to as “Belties” Devon • Originated in England • Also called North Devon • One of the oldest beef breeds • At one time used for milk • Mature cows weigh 950-1300 lbs. Bos Taurus / British Breed Classification South Devon High Maternal Breed Not Related to Devon High butterfat-4.2% Refered to as “Gentle Giants Bos taurus/British Breed Classification Ayrshire Origin Scotland High butterfat and Protein Do Well in Harse Conditions Bos taurus/British Breed Classification Guernsey Origin Jersey Isle in English Channel High butterfat and Protein Used in Grazing Operations Larger than Jersey cattle Bos taurus/British Breed Classification Jersey Origin Jersey Isle in English Channel High butterfat and Protein Popular due to high components in Milk Small Mature Size Used in Crossbreeding #2 Dairy Breed Bos taurus/British Breed Classification Bos Taurus Breeds of European Origin Dutch Belted Dual Purpose Developed in Holland from cattle originating in Austria Moderate Frame Size Bos Taurus/Dutch Breed Classification Holstein #1 Dairy Breed Developed in North Holland and Freisland High Milk Production Large Mature Size Bos Taurus/Dutch Breed Classification Brown Swiss Switzerland Origin Large Cattle Dual Purpose-Braunvieh High Milk Components Large Mature Size Developed at High Altitude Bos Taurus/Swiss Breed Classification Limousin • Native to South-Central France • Golden-red to red-brown in color Bos Taurus European Breed Classification Simmental • First recorded in Switzerland • Large body mass • Light red to dark red with white points • Known for Maternal Characteristics Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification Wagyu • All Japanese cattle • Various colors • Consists of many Japanese breeds • Known for Marbling in the Meat Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification Piedmontese • Originated in Italy • Double muscled breed • Light to dark gray in color Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification Blonde d’Aquitaine • Originated in France • Blonde color • Known for Heavy Muscle Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification Salers • Native to France • Milk production important in Europe • Rod to brown in color •Known for some Carcass Merit Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification Tarentaise • Originated in France • Used for milk in Europe • Red color Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification Maine-Anjou • Originated in France • Mature bulls weigh 2100-3000 lbs. • Mature cows weigh 1500-1900 lbs. • Dark red with white markings Bos Taurus / European Breed Classification BOS INDICUS BEEF BREEDS ZEBU Red Brahman • Heat and Insect Resistant • Mothering Ability Bos Indicus Classification Brahman • Developed in the United States •Light gray or red to black • Known for Mothering Ability •Named after Brahman Shines in Indi •A mix of Nelore, Indu-Brazil, Gyr breeds •Tropically adapted-have sweat gland Bos Indicus Classification Nelore •Known form having smaller ears and cleaner lines than other zebu breeds. •Biggest populations in South America. •Heat and Insect tolerant Bos Indicus Classification Indo Brazilian • Known for Large Ears • Heaviest Populations in South America • High in Maternal Attributes Bos Indicus Classification Africander • Native to South Africa • Usually red with long horns • Used for meat and as a draft animal • Mature cows weigh 1150-1350 lbs. • Mature bulls weigh 1650-2200 lbs. Bos Indicus Classification Composite Beef Cattle Breeds Hays Converters • Developed in Canada • Senator Harry Hays-Calgary, Alberta •1/3 Hereford •1/3 Holstein •1/3 Brown Swiss •Known for growth rate, high fertility, sound udders, and high milk production •First Recognized Composite in Canada in 1975 •Composite Breed Classification Brangus • Originated in the United States • 3/8 Brahman, 5/8 Angus •Solid black • Polled Composite Breed Classification Bramousin • Originated in the United States • Golden to red in color • 5/8 Limousin, 3/8 Brahman Composite Breed Classification Braford • Developed in Florida • 3/8 Brahman, 5/8Hereford •Red with white points Composite Breed Classification Simbrah • Originated in the United States • Brahman and Simmental breeds used • Light to dark red with some white marks Composite Breed Classification Beefmaker • Originated in the United States • 3/4 Hereford, 1/4 Simmental • Red with white points Composite Breed Classification Beefmaster • Originated in the United States • Brahman, Hereford, and Shorthorn • Composite Breed Classification Salorn • Developed in the United States • 5/8 Salers. 3/8 Texas Longhorn • Lean meat • Environmentally adaptable Composite Breed Classification Texon • Originated in the United States • Texas Longhorn and Devon breeds used Composite Breed Classification Santa Gertrudis *Originated at the King Ranch in Texas *Made up of Brahman, Hereford, and Shorthorn Breeds *Known for Heat tolerance Composite Breed Classification Review Of Beef Cattle Classification Cattle are Classified into Two Groups The Bos Taurus Classification includes what two Groups. What are some Composite Breeds and what are their makeup. What are some Breeds Attributes.