Breeds of Beef Cattle

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Beef Cattle Introduction and
Breeds
Mr. Lemmons
Characteristics of the Beef
Industry
– Grain-fed Beef – most widely produced and tends
to be less expensive. The cattle spend most of their
lives eating grass in a pasture before moving to a
feedlot where they are fed a high-energy, grain diet.
– Grass-finished Beef – The cattle are raised on
grass pastures.
Characteristics of the Beef
Industry
– Certified Organic Beef –must be fed 100%
organic feed and these cattle can not be given
hormones to promote growth or antibiotics.
*If antibiotics are needed they are not withheld but
the animal must be permanently removed from the
program.
– Natural/Branded Beef – By definition, most beef
is natural. According to the USDA “natural” may be
used on a beef label if the beef does not contain
artificial flavoring, coloring, chemical preservatives
or any other artificial or synthetic ingredient.
Producers raising cattle for beef marketed with a
“natural” label may follow different production
practices in order to brand their beef.
Characteristics of the Beef
Industry
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Segmented Industry
1. Cow/ Calf- commercial and purebred. They are the dictators
of what's to come.
2. Stocker- Ranchers graze weaned calves until they weigh as
much as 900 pounds, and then market them to the feedlots
3. Feedlot - Raises calves until they weigh 900 to 1,400 pounds
and market them to packer operations
4. Packer - “enemy,” Take feedlot cattle, grade them, sent out
as boxed beef.
5. Purveyor- distributor
6. Retailer - HEB, Kroger, Randalls
7. Consumer- $5-6+/ lb
Characteristics of the Beef
Industry
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Cow/ Calf – Ranchers produce the cattle for the stocker
market or feedlot (commercial operation) or other
breeding herds (purebred operation)
– Texas = 13.6 million (ranks #1, makes up 14% of the total US
beef)
– Kansas = 6.57 million
– Nebraska = 6.35 million
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Feedlot1.
2.
3.
4.
Texas 2.6 million
Kansas 2.2 million
Nebraska 2.2 million
Missouri 2.1 million
Characteristics of the Beef
Industry
Breed Selection
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2 Main Factors
– 1. Genetics
– 2. Environment
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Genetics
– Determine advantages, disadvantages, then market
ability.
– Certified Angus Beef (50% Black, typical beef type, no floppy
ear or hump larger than 4”, carcass avg choice or better, yield of 3 or
better)
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Environmental
– Geographical environment, management env. And
personal preference
Breed Selection
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Production Criteria
1. Mature Size - will it fit the environment? Do not
outgrow your environment.
2. Milk production - as milking ability increases, the
nutritional requirements increase. (Ex. Simmental)
3. Muscle Amount - as we increase muscling, fertility
rate decreases. (higher muscle results in distocia in
males and females)
4. Sexual Maturity - age at puberty, when is the 1st
ovulation
5. Management efficiency - easy keeper, foraging
ability
6. Biological Specie- Bos Indicus vs. Bos Taurus
Bos Indicus vs. Bos Taurus
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Bos Indicus
– Humped Breeds
Advantages
– Heat resistant
– resistant to parasites
Disadvantages
– less adaptable to cold
– lower reproductive
efficiency
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Bos Taurus
– Non Humped Breeds
Advantages
– Cold resistant
– higher repro efficiency
Disadvantages
– heat tolerance low
– susceptible to disease
Breed Selection
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British/ English
– Angus, Shorthorn, Red Angus, Hereford, Polled
Hereford
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European/ Continental
– Simmental, Gelbvieh, Salers, Maine Anjou, Chianina,
Pinzgauer
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American
– Brangus, Simbrah, Santa Gertrudis, Brahmousin,
Beefmaster, Braford
Hybrid Vigor
– The crossing of 2 totally different breeds.
– We calculate HV to give us an idea of heritability of
traits (such as markings, muscle, milk, reproduction)
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F1 have the most expression HV
Calculating HV
(ww of offspring - Average ww of parents)/
average ww of parents *100 = %HV WW
ww= weaning weight (the weight at which an
animal is taken off of the milk from mother)
Hybrid Vigor
Example:
Brahman Bull = 480 ww
Hereford Cow = 500 ww
F1 Calf = 525
480+500= 980/2 =490
(525- 490)/490 * 100 = 7.14%
7%HV
*If the ww of offspring is less than the wt. of the
best parent- crossbreeding is pointless.
*High weaning weight is a plus- for any specie!
Hybrid Vigor
Example:
<<<TRY THIS ONE ON YOUR OWN>>>
Brahman Bull = 380 ww
Angus Cow = 400 ww
F1 Calf = 325
What is the % of HV?
English/ British Breeds
Angus
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Originated in
Scotland
Taurus
solid Black or red
Polled
Came to America in
1873
resistant to harsh
weather
Early maturing
Hereford
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Originated in
Hereford, England
Red with white
head, legs, and
underline
Purebred
Early maturing
Good tempered
1817 Henry Clay
Shorthorn
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Originated in
England
Red; red & white or
roan in color
Originally used as a
dual purpose breed
for meat and milk
Sometimes called
the Durham breed
Simmental
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Originated in
Switzerland
Oldest breed of
cattle in the world
Large, powerful
breed
Brought to the
United States in
1971
AKA: Fleck
European Breeds
Gelbvieh
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Originated in Germany
Red in color, gold to
rust
Dual Purpose breed,
milk and meat
adaptable to broad
range in climate
4 most numerous breed
Noted for superior
fertility and mothering
ability
Charolais
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Originated in France
Traditionally white in
color
Long bodied, large
cattle
Heavily muscled
Coarse looking
Maine Anjou
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Originated in
Northwest France
Dark red with white
markings or black
Developed by
crossing the Durham
and Mancelle breed
Bulls 2200- 3100#
Name came from
river valleys
Chianina
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Originated in West
Central Italy
One of the oldest
breeds of cattle
Draft animals
Tallest and largest
breed of beef cattle
Short hair that is
white to steel gray,
black
Terminal breed
high heat tolerance
Brahman
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Originated in India
Able to survive on
very little, poor feed
Insect & heat
resistant
Excess skin and
large hump on back
White to gray, red
to black
Sweat glands
Pinzgauer
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Originated in Europe
Red and white
Austrian name
good meat
production
Certified Pinzgauers
have a white top
line and white
bottom line
Salers
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Originated in South Central
France
Purebred
milk and meat
Typically Horned, polled red
or black available.
Depicted in cave dwellings
7k yrs ago.
Survive in rough rocky
terrain and harsh damp
climates
major contributor to
American meat market
Belgian Blue
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Originated in Europe
Red and Black Pide with
Shorthorn
Taurus
White, blue roan, some
black,
Double muscled
Beef and milk
late maturing, mild
temper
Limousin
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Originated in South
Central France
Indicus
Golden red
Sturdy and adaptable
Dual purpose meat and
work
Butchers animal
Isolated breed, genetic
interference is not a
problem
American Breeds
Polled Hereford
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Registered American
Breed, Iowa 1901
Red and White
body, brisket and
underside
Naturally horn-less
developed as an
idea
Braford
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Originated in Florida
3/8 Brahman, 5/8
Hereford
White face with red
body and red eye
patches
Texas Longhorn
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Developed entirely
by nature in North
America
Known for its long
horns
High fertility
Were near extinction
in 1927
Santa Gertrudis
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Developed on the King
Ranch in Texas
All Santa Gertrudis are
descendants of the bull,
“Monkey”
3/8 Brahman bulls, 5/8
Shorthorn cows
hair is long in cold
climates and short in hot
climates
Feedlot efficient
Brahmousin
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American
3/8 Brahman, 5/8
Limousin
Purebred
Dark mahogany to light
tan color
at least 1/4 Limousin
And 1/4 Brahman to be
recorded
Red Brangus
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Originated in So.
Texas
3/8 Brahman, 5/8
Angus
developed in 30’s
Bulls breed till 10
yrs
Cows till 14 yrs
Simbrah
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Developed in humid
areas along the Gulf
Coast
3/8 Simmental, 5/8
Brahman
Known as “The All
Purpose American
Breed”
High fertility and
Early maturing
Beefmaster
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Originated Lasater
Ranch, American
1/4 Hereford, 1/4
Shorthorn, 1/2 Brahman
Brownish Red most
common
6 essentials
– Weight
– Conformation
– Milking ability
– Fertility
– Hardiness
– Disposition
Brangus
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Originated in US 1932,
USDA experiment
station in LA.
3/8 Brahman, 5/8
Angus
solid black, can be red
calves are large
adaptable to all climates
good mothering ability
good feedlot efficiency
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