Presentation - Online Veterinary Anatomy Museum

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Cow
The cow is the most common type of large domesticated
ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the
subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the
genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as
Bos primigenius.
Cattle are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy
animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals
(oxen / bullocks) (pulling carts, plows etc). Other products
include leather and dung for manure or fuel. It is estimated that
there are 1.3 billion cattle in the world today.
The gestation period for a cow is nine months. Breeding stock
usually live to about 15 years (occasionally as much as 25 years).
Cattle are ruminants which means that they have a digestive
system that allows use of otherwise indigestible foods by
regurgitating and rechewing them as "cud". The cud is then reswallowed and further digested by specialized microorganisms
in the rumen.
Classification
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Class:
Mammalia
Subclass:
Theria
Infraclass:
Eutheria
Order:
Artiodactyla
Family:
Bovidae
Subfamily:
Bovinae
Genus:
Bos
Species:
B.
primigenius
Subspecies:
B. p. taurus,
B. p. indicus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cow
Skeleton of a Cow
3
2
1
4
5
6
9
11
12
13
8
10
7
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
Thoracic vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae
Cornual Process
Frontal
Zygomatic
Lacrimal
Nasal
Incisive
Maxilla
Mandible
Scapula
Shoulder
Humerus
Elbow
Radius
Carpus
Metacarpus
Phalanges
14
19
15
16
17
18
Frandson, R.D; Wilke, W.E. And Fails, A.D. (2009) Anatomy and
Physiology of Farm Animals, 7th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
Cow Skeleton
1
2
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
3
4
Lumber vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
Scapula
Shoulder
Humerus
Elbow
Ulna
Costal cartilages
Radius
Carpus
Metacarpus
Phalanges
13th Rib
Stifle joint
5
6
7
9
8
14
13
10
11
12
Frandson, R.D; Wilke, W.E. And Fails, A.D. (2009) Anatomy
and Physiology of Farm Animals, 7th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell,
USA.
Skeleton of a Cow
4
3
2
1
15
5
6
7
9
14
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
Caudal vertebrae
Sacral vertebrae
Lumber vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
Ilium
Pubis
Femur
Patella
Fibula
Tibia
Metacarpal bones
Metacarpus
Phalanges
Tarsus (hock)
Ischium
8
10
11
12
13
Frandson, R.D; Wilke, W.E. And Fails, A.D. (2009) Anatomy
and Physiology of Farm Animals, 7th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell,
USA.
Skull of a cow
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
1
17
2
16
4
3
5
6
7
8
9
Cornual Process
Frontal bone
Zygomatic arch
Orbit
Lacrimal bone
Zygomatic bone
Nasal bone
Maxilla
Incisive
Incisors
Mental foramen
Infraorbital foramen
Mandible
External acoustic meatus
Paracondylar process
Atlas
Temporal bone
14
15
13
11
12
10
Frandson, R.D; Wilke, W.E. And Fails, A.D. (2009) Anatomy and
Physiology of Farm Animals, 7th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
Skeleton of a cow
9
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
1
2
3
Ilium
Ischium
Tuber Ischi
Femur
Tibia
Tuber Calcaneus
Metatarsus
Phalanges
Caudal (18-20)
4
5
6
7
8
http://www.osovo.com/diagram/cowsanatomydiagram.htm
Skeleton of a cow
2
3
1
4
5
17
6
1
7
16
8
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
Cornual Process
Frontal
Supraorbital Foramen
Zygomatic
Lacrimal
Nasal
Maxilla
Scapula
Shoulder
Humerus
Elbow
Radius
Carpus
Metacarpus
Phalanges
Incisive
Facial Tuber
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Frandson, R.D; Wilke, W.E. And Fails, A.D. (2009) Anatomy and
Physiology of Farm Animals, 7th Edition, Wiley-Blackwell, USA.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
1.
17.
8.
16.
9.
10.
15.
14.
13.
1. Bony orbit
2. Orbit
3. Frontal bone
4. Lacrimal bone
5. Zygomatic bone
6. Nasal bone
7. Maxilla
8. Infraorbital foramen
9. Mental foramen
12.
11.
10. Body of mandible
11. Facial tuberosity
12. Fossa for lacrimal sac
13. Ramus of mandible
14. Articular process of mandible
15. Temporal meatus
16.Paracondylar process of occipital bone
17. Coronoid process of mandible
1.
1. Nuchal crest
2. External auditory
meatus
2.
3. Jugular process
4. Foramen magnum
3.
5.
4.
5. Occipital condyle
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
8.
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Supraorbital groove
Orbit
Frontal bone
Nasal bone
Incisive bone
Maxilla
Lacrimal
Intercornual protuberance
6.
10.
11.
1.
2.
9.
8.
7.
6.
5.
4.
1. Perpendicular plate of the palatine bone
2. Horizontal plate of the palatine bone
3. Palatine process
4. Presphenoid bone
5. Zygomatic bone
6. External auditory meatus
7. Basilar occipital bone
8. Occipital condyle
9. Jugular and paracondylar process
10. Tympanic bulla
11. Muscular process
3.
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