Frozen food

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IMPORT FOOD INSPECTION
SYSTEM In Japan
Hajime Toyofuku, D.V.M. Ph.D
National Institute of Public Health, Japan
1
Table of Contents
Overview of the imported food, inspection
system for imported food
 Overview of the food exported from
Thailand and food safety issues
 Overview of current food safety criteria
 New system: Positive List System for
Agricultural Chemical Residues, Cadmium
and Aflatoxin

2
Self-supply rate for Food
<60%(calorie base >
year
Item
Rice
Wheat
Bean
Vegetable
Fruits
Meat
Egg
Milk product
Fish
Sugar
self-sufficiency rates
’65
’75
’85
’90
’95
’00
’05
’07
’08
95
110
107
100
104
95
95
94
95
28
4
14
15
7
11
14
14
14
25
9
8
8
5
7
7
7
9
100
99
95
91
85
82
79
81
82
90
84
77
63
49
44
41
40
41
90
77
81
70
57
52
54
56
56
100
97
98
98
96
95
94
96
96
86
81
85
78
72
68
68
66
70
100
99
93
79
57
53
51
53
53
31
15
33
32
31
29
34
33
38
73
54
53
48
43
40
40
40
41
3
Cases & Weights of Imported Foods
(Nationwide)
x10000 Cases
Million Tones
1.86 milli
34 milli tones
4
Inspection of imported food the
quarantine station
Arrival of the
cargo
Submission of import
notifications
Meat Inspect.
Certificate
Document inspection
examination
NO
Onsite inspection
Examination
order
ship back
Monitoring
No-compliance compliance
Acceptance of the
notification
discard
Custom
5
Overview of the System of Inspections Conducted at the
Time of Importation
Comprehensive
import ban
Number of total(gross)
of monitoring inspections
is 83,951 cases
※
Probability of violation
High
Inspection rate
Inspection order
95,490
193,917
Enhanced monitoring
1,759,123
49,133
Monitoring inspection
Administrative Inspection
etc.
Low
70,143
=11.0%
FY2008
Total number of
inspections/Num
ber of import
notifications
Annual Monitoring Plan (2010 Fiscal Year)
Foods, etc.
Analyses
Samples
Animal food
(Meat, Milk, Egg)
Animal drugs, Pesticides, Food
standards, etc.
4,880
Animal processed food
Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food
standards, etc.
7,510
Sea food (Fish and Shellfish)
Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food
standards, etc
6,570
Processed sea food
Animal drugs, Food Additives, Food
standards, etc
Agricultural products
(Grain, Vegetable, Fruit)
Pesticides, Aflatoxin, GMO
Processed agricultural
products
Pesticides, Food Additives, Food
standards, Aflatoxin, GMO, etc
Miscellaneous
Food Additives, Food standards, etc.
4,800
Drinks
Food Additives, Food standards, etc.
2,200
12,360
22,280
17,150
Food Additives, utensils, etc. Food standards, etc.
2,250
50% monitoring foods
5,000
7
Total
85,000
Number of notifications, analyses and rejections
Analysis sites
Notifications
Year
ratio
Weight
件
%
1000 tones
1965
94,986
-
1975
246,507
1985
No. of total
analyses
*1
Gov. lab
Private lab
件
件
12,765
-
-
20,775
384,728
105.6
1995
1,052,030
2000
*2
No.
rejected
cases
Official
Foreign
lab
件
件
件
5,574
-
-
679
-
21,461
-
-
1,634
22,665
39,817
14,892
26,054
1,904
308
109.2
28,268
141,128
60,787
74,634
19,760
948
1,550925
110.5
30,034
112,281
52,244
63,789
(37,484)
3,796
1,037
2005
1,864,412
104.1
33,782
189,362
66,147
125,083
(73,589)
7,919
935
2007
1,797,086
96.7
32,261
198,542
58,299
144,846
(94,598)
5,818
1,150
2008
1,759,123
97.9
31,551
193,917
58,706
140,878
(95,490)
6,208
1,150
*1 行政検査、指定検査機関検査、外国公的検査機関検査の合計から重複を除いた数値
*2 ( )内の数値は、指定検査機関検査のうちの命令検査の件数
8
Inspection System for
Imported Foods, etc.
Food Inspectors
・・・・・・・・383 persons
 Notification Sites for Imported Foods
・・・・・・31 sites
 Laboratory facilities


Two Major Laboratories:
• Yokohama (Eastern Lab. for Imported Foods & Infectious
Diseases)
• Kobe (Western Lab. for Imported Foods & Infectious Diseases)

Six Minor Laboratories:
• Tokyo, Narita A.P., Nagoya, Osaka, Kansai A.P., Fukuoka
9
Notification Site Map
for Imported Foods, etc.
Otaru QS
Nagoya QS
Nagoya AP
Yokkaiti
Simizu
Kobe QS
Western Lab.
Fukuoka QS
Moji
Simonoseki
Fukuoka AP
Nagasaki
Kagosima
Niigata QS
Titose AP
Sendai QS
Sendai AP
Tokyo QS
Hunabasi(Baraki)
Tiba
Haneda AP
Kawasaki
Narita AP QS
Yokohama QS
Osaka QS Eastern Lab.
Kansai AP QS
Hirosima QS
Naha QS
Hirosima AP
Naha AP
Sakai
10
Table of Contents
Overview of the imported food, inspection
system for imported food
 Overview of the food exported from
Thailand and food safety issues
 Overview of current food safety criteria
 New system: Positive List System for
Agricultural Chemical Residues

11
Statistics on Food Import in Japan from Thailand
Notification
1600000
140000
Weight(ton)
1400000
Notification
120000
1200000
100000
1000000
80000
800000
60000
600000
40000
400000
20000
200000
0
0
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
12
Top 5 items from Thailand 2008
Notification
Number
Non-glutinous rice
Analysis
Weight(t) Number
Violation
Weight(t) Number
Weight(t)
261
203592
121
106335
14
3293
15580
184043
1046
9099
1
2
289
108003
54
26337
0
0
Chemically
modified starch
1510
89106
243
11740
0
0
Saccharides
1239
72978
20
500
0
0
Cooked meat
product(packed
after cooking)
Tapioca flour
13
Abstract: Subject Foods by Country, for which Inspection Orders
were Issued
Target
countrie
s/area
All
exporting
countries
(16 items)
Subject foods
Inspection items
Pufferfish
Identification of
fish species
Salted salmon roe
Nitrite
Conditions
Limited to lots from which
different species of
pufferfish have been found
in on-site inspections
Manioc and its processed Cyanide
products (other than
starch)
Thailand Cultured shrimp and its
(26
processed products
items) (simple processing only)
Oxolinic acid
Okra and its processed
products
(simple processing only)
EPN
Basil seeds
Aflatoxin
Excluding products with
attached certificates issued
by the Thailand government
concerning oxolinic acid, as
separately indicated
Excluding products
exported by the exporters
separately indicated
Inspection orders were issued to all exporting countries for 16 items and to 36 countries for 190 items. (As of April 1, 2009)
Inspection Order at Thailand 2010
products
Subject
Shrimp and Processed product
Oxolinic acid
Neptunia oleracea and Processed
product
Triazophos
Feverweed and Processed product
Chlorpyrifos, Cypermethrin, buprofezin
Okra and Processed product
EPN
Mango and Processed product
Chlorpyrifos
Mango and Processed product
Propiconazole
Pandanus Odorus and Processed
product
Chlorpyrifos
Green Asparagus
EPN
Banana
Cypermethrin
Mangosuteen
Imazalil
Lemon grass
EPN
Citrus hystrix
Profenofos
Pandanus Odorus
15
No of notifications and violations(2008)
No of Notifications
Violations agaisnt the Food
Sanitation Law
China
473,343
26.9% China
259
22.5%
US
209,145
11.9% US
140
12.2%
France
179,868
10.2% Thailand
110
9.6%
Thailand
128,792
7.3% Vietnam
72
6.3%
Korea
110,098
6.3% Taiwan
57
5.0%
16
Violation in 2009(Thailand)
Violations categories
no of Violations
Aflatoxin
Undesignated use of Food Additives
Undesignated Food additives
Rottenness, spoilage and molded
Exceeding level of Pesticide residue
E.coli positive ( Frozen food consumed after
cooking)
Exceeding levels of bacterial count (Frozen
food)
Coliform positive (frozen food, Surimi etc)
others
5
4
4
19
18
7
31
29
5
total
122
17
Violations by products 2009(Thailand)
Products
Events
Frozen
food(Squid)
Frozen food
(Shrimp)
Frozen fish
Viable count (5), coliform (1)
Fish meat
kneated
products
Frozen food
(Meat)
Others
No of
cases
6
Viable count (16), E.coli (1),
coliform(3)
Coliform(14), E.coli (2), viable
count (2)
Coliform (2) , E.coli (4),
20
E.Coli (4), coliform (2)
6
17
6
16
18
Table of Contents
Overview of the imported food, inspection
system for imported food
 Overview of the food exported from
Thailand and food safety issues
 Overview of current food safety criteria
 New system: Positive List System for
Agricultural Chemical Residues

19
Microbiological criteria (1)

Frozen fish or shellfish intended to be
consumed raw
microbial count: <100 000 /g product
 Coliform: negative
 Vibrio parahaemolyticus: < 100 MPN count /g

20
Microbiological criteria (2)

Oyster intended to be consumed raw
- Vibrio parahaemolyticus: < 100 MPN/g
- E. coli: <230/100 g product
- microbial count: < 50 000/g product
21
Microbiological criteria for Frozen food
served after cooking
and cooked
immediately
before freezing
served without
cooking
served after cooking
(other than those
cooked
immediately
before freezing)
Aerobic
microorganisms
@ 30°C
Coliforms
Aerobic
microorganisms
@ 30°C
<100,000
Not
detectable
<100,000
Coliforms
Not
detectable
Aerobic
microorganisms
@ 30°C
<3,000,000
Escherichia coli
Not
22
detectable
Microbiological criteria for boiled
crab

Not frozen
Vibrio parahaemolyticus: negative

Frozen boiled crab
microbial count: <100 000 /g product
 Coliform: negative
 Vibrio parahaemolyticus: negative

23
Food Additives

Usage


Sulfur dioxide, Benzoic acid, Sorbic acid
Undesignated food additives

TBHQ, Azorubine, Polysorbate
24
Table of Contents
Overview of the imported food, inspection
system for imported food
 Overview of the food exported from
Thailand and food safety issues
 Overview of current food safety criteria
 New system: Positive List System for
Agricultural Chemical Residues

25
Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues
【 Previous Regulation 】
Pesticides, Feed Additives,
and Veterinary Drugs
【 Enforcement of Positive List System】 May 29 2006~
Pesticides, Feed Additives and Veterinary Drugs
Chemicals for which
MRLs are established
Chemicals for which
MRLs are established
283 substances
799 substances
MRLs for 250 Pesticides and
33 Veterinary Drugs
Foods containing chemicals
above the MRLs are enjoined
from domestic distribution
Chemicals for which MRLs
are not established
Basically, even foods found
to contain chemicals are
not enjoined from
distribution.
Establishment of
provisional MRLs for
agricultural chemicals,
considering Codex
standards, Japanese
registration withholding
limits, and other standards
established based upon
scientific evaluation
758 substances
Acceleration of the
establishment of MRLs
Foods containing chemicals
above the MRLs are
enjoined from domestic
distribution.
Chemicals for
which MRLs are
not established
Chemicals
designated by
MHLW
Establishment of a
certain level that is
determined to pose
no adverse health
effects
Chemicals that
do not pose
adverse health
effects
0.01 ppm
Foods found to
contain chemicals
above the level are
enjoined from
domestic distribution.
65 substances
Not subject to the
positive list
system
26
Status of Violations under the Positive List System
(FY 2008)
Categories
Residual agricultural
chemicals
Criteria
Number of violations
New criteria
104
Uniform limits
202
Non-detection criteria
1
Conventional criteria
52
359
Total
Residual veterinary drugs
New criteria
1
Uniform limits
0
111
Non-detection criteria
3
Conventional criteria
115
Total
(For reference)
Average number of
violations per month before
and after the Positive List
System became effective
Categories
FY2005
FY2006
FY2007
FY2007
(April 2005March 2006)
(June 2006March 2007)
(April 2007-March
2008)
(April 2007March 2008)
Residual agricultural
chemicals
4.8(-)
44.7(9.4 times)
23.2(0.52 times)
29.8(1.3 times)
Residual veterinary
drugs
4.5(-)
23.2(5.2 times)
15.4(0.66 times)
9.6(0.6 times)
67.9(7.3 times)
38.6(0.56 times)
39.4(1.1 times)
Total
9.3(-)
( ):the ratio compared to the previous fiscal year
Guidelines on Hygiene Control of Import Processed
Foods







1. The purpose : not only to prevent contamination by poisonous or harmful
substances, etc., but also to emphasize basic matters for guidance on processed
foods required of importers under the Imported Foods Monitoring and Guidance
Plan, to promote hygiene control of import processed foods, and to take steps to
improve safety
2 Scope: for importers who manufacture and import products to be exported to
Japan under direct contract with overseas manufacturers, as well as importers of
processed food in general. Moreover, even importers who are not in a direct
contractual relationship with an overseas manufacturer should also, through the
agency of an exporter or other such concern in the exporting country, strive to
confirm the matters stated in these Guidelines with said manufacturer
Sec 2 Raw Material Acceptance Stages
Sec 3 Product Manufacturing and Processing Stages
Sec 4 Product Storage, Transportation and Distribution Stages
Sect 5 Recall and Disposal, Sec 6 Education and training , record keeping
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/topics/importedfoods/guideline/01.html
Cadmium
29
Epi study of adverse health effects and an
indicator
Cadmium
Long term exposure
absorption・ metabolize
a low molecular weight
protein as an indicator
β2-microglobulin (β2-MG)
Adverse effects on
Kidney proximal
tubular
30
Conclusion of the risk assessment by Food Safety
Commission in Japan
Tolerable weekly intake
Cd 14.4 ⇒7 µg/kg b.w/week
31
Current control measures for CADMIUM in food
in Japan
 CADMIUM Limits in Rice ( brown rice ) ,Soft drinks and
powdered soft drinks are established in Japan , based on
Food Sanitation Law,
 For rice, the limit is less than 1.0mg/kg in rice, however, rice
containing more than 0.4mg/kg and less than 1.0mg/kg is
bought by MAFF in order to prevent distribution in the food
chain
Food
Limits
Less than 1.0 mg/kg
Rice(brown rice)
Soft drink
(including mineral water
Powdered soft drink mix
Source water
Less than 0.01 mg/L 以下
Finish product
Not detected
Not detected
32
Codex CADMIUM standards
<Standard for contaminants in food> Codex STAN 193-1995, Rev.3-2007)
Food categories
Cereal
grains
buckwheat )
Wheat
(
excluding
Potato
Pulses
Root and tuber, stalk and stern
vegetable
Leafy vegetables
。
other vegetables(Brassica veg, Bulb
veg, fruiting vege, cucurbits,
Rice polished
Marine bivalve molluscs
Cephalopods(squids and octopus)
Limits
(mg/kg)
Note/remarks
0.1
Excluding what and rice and bran and
germ
0.2
0.1
0.1
Peeled
Excluding soya bean (dry)
0.1
Excluding potato and celeriac
0.2
0.05
Excluding tomatoes and edible
fungi
0.4
2
2
Excluding oyster and scallop
33
Without viscera
Conclusions at food standard committee in
MHLW
 Revised Cadmium standard in Rice
( 1.0ppm → 0.4ppm : from the end of
February, 2011)
 Cadmium Standards for other food
categories will not established.
 Request stakeholders to make efforts to
reduce the levels of cadmium in foods
34
Aflatoxins
35
Risk management of Aflatoxin in food ①
 Current control in Japan
In 1971, Food contained aflatoxin was regarded as adulterated food, and sales,
use and distribution of such food is prohibited as a violation of the Food
Sanitation Law, Article 6. In the official test methods, Aflatoxin B1 is designated
as the target, and the detection limit was established at 10ppb. This value is
considered as “standard”.
 Codex
Total aflatoxin (sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2)
・ peanuts for further processing ( almond, hazelnuts, pistachios for
further processing):15ppb
・ almond, hazelnuts, pistachios for ready to eat:10ppb
 Contamination statues
・Some foods were contaminated with both B &G group Aflatoxins.
・In some peanut samples, levels of Aflatoxin G is higher than those
of
36
Aflatoinx B group
Risk management of Aflatoxin in food 2
 Risk assessment

based on epidemiological investigations, liver cancer risk of life time oral exposure of Aflatoxin B1 at 1ng/kg b.w./day
•
•

Results of exposure assessment, differences of risks of liver
cancer under deferent scenarios are negligible:
•
•

HBsAg positive; 0.3 cases /100,000 population /year
HBsAg negative: 0.01 cases /100,000 population /year
current control at Aflatoxin B1 at 10ppb
total afratoxin at 8, 15, 20ppb
Afratoxin intake from food should be reduced as low as
reasonablely achievable
 The Conclusion of the MHLW Food Stanadrd Committee
The regulatory target Aflatoxin should be amended as the total aflatoxin with
37
the detection limit at 10ppb.
Diagram 2
RISK ASSESSMENT
Food
Safety
Commission
・ To conduct
a risk
assessment.
・ To recommend that agencies in charge of risk
management implement necessary measures for
food
safety, based on the risk assessment results.
・ To monitor the risk management by related
agencies.
・ To collect and analyze domestic and international
information on food safety hazards.
・ To comprehensively manage total risk
communication
including activities of the risk management
agencies. Food Safety Basic Law
RISK MANAGEMENT
MHLW
MAFF
・ Regional Agricultural
・Quarantine Stations
・Regional Bureaus of
Health and Welfare
・Health Centers, etc.
Risk management
for food safety
Administration
Offices
・ Centers for Food
Quality, Labeling and
Consumer Services,
etc.
Risk management
for agricultural,
livestock, and
fishery production.
Food Sanitation Law, etc. Agricultural Chemicals
Regulation Law, etc.
RISK COMMUNICATION
・Disclosure of information on food safety
・Securing consumers’ opportunities to express their opinions
38
Conclusions
 Application of Risk Analysis framework
 Risk assessment conducted by Food Safety Commission
 Risk communication
 Taking Codex standards into account
 Contribution to the Codex standard setting activities
 Toward harmonization with ISO microbiological test
methods
 Farm to table approach
 Identify and implement appropriate control measures
39
along entire food chain
MHLW Import food website at
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/topics/importedfoods/index.html
Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues in Foods
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/english/topics/foodsafety/positivelist0602
28/index.html
40
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