Bovine and Equine Umbilical Ultrasound

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Bovine and Equine
Umbilical Ultrasound
G. Dykstra
March 24, 2010
Bovine Umbilicus
2 umbilical arteries
 Allantoic stalk
(urachus)
 2 umbilical veins


anastomose
within the body
wall
Equine Umbilicus
2 umbilical
arteries
 Allantoic stalk
(urachus)
 1 umbilical vein

After Parturition
Fetal Structure
Destiny
vein → round ligament
of liver
 arteries → round
ligament of bladder
 urachus → atrophies

If things go wrong…






Omphalitis
Omphalophlebitis
Omphaloarteritis
Omphalourachitis
Umbilical hernia
Patent urachus
Remember, even if the external umbilicus
looks normal there is could still be an infection!
Preparation
Standing +/- sedation
 Hair clip

4 cm width
 Xiphoid to prepuce/udder
 Umbilicus to inguinal ring

7.5-MHz transducer
 Calves are clipped more on the
RIGHT side

Foal Anatomy
Umbilical Vein

Calves





Travels more to RIGHT side cranially
May need left lateral recumbency
Largest diameter near stalk intraabdominally
Atrophies over time in calves
Foals


Scan on ventral midline
Little change for first month
Calf External Umbilicus
VU = Umbilical Vein
US = Umbilical Stalk
Calf Umbilical Vein at Liver
VU = Umbilical Vein
LI = Liver
VP = Portal Vein
Foal Anatomy
Umbilical Arteries & Urachus

Calves




Scanned adjacent to the bladder
Arteries end abruptly near apex of bladder
Urachus not visualized
Foals



Scanned near bladder
Arteries outline the urachus at bladder apex
Urachus not really well defined
Foal Anatomy
Foal Umbilical Arteries & Urachus
But what does it all mean?

Calf abnormality




Vein > 1.5 – 2.5 cm diameter
Artery > 1 cm diameter
Visualizing the urachus
Foal abnormality
Vein > 1 cm diameter
 Artery > 1.3 cm diameter
 Combined urachus and arteries >
2.5 cm diameter

Mean diameter (mm) of umbilical
structures in clinically normal calves
over time from birth
Location
24 hours
1 wk
2 wk
3 wk
Umbilical stalk
24.67 ± 3.57
20.22 ± 3.99
16.78 ± 3.83
14.44 ± 3.78
Vein within stalk
9.61 ± 4.41
2.61 ± 1.78
1.0 ± 1.52
n/a
Vein near stalk
17.67 ± 6.04
10.33 ± 5.05
7.89 ± 4.70
5.33 ± 4.56
Vein at midpoint
11.22 ± 3.60
7.56 ± 2.24
4.44 ± 3.40
1.22 ± 2.44
Vein near liver
10.44 ± 4.50
6.11 ± 3.86
2.78 ± 4.24
1.33 ± 2.83
Arteries
10.33 ± 1.80
8.94 ± 2.11
8.39 ± 1.92
6.82 ± 1.03
Watson E, Mahaffey MB et.al. 1994 Am J Vet Res, 55(6); 773-782.
Calf Umbilical Stalk
Calf Infected Umbilical Vein
Immediately Cranial to Umbilicus
Calf Infected Umbilical Vein
10 cm Cranial and Right of Umbilicus
Calf Umbilical Vein - Saggital
Calf Urachal Abscess
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