# 效用可能疆界

```Chapter 15
Income Distribution
and Poverty
(所得分配和貧窮)
(一)The Utility Possibilities Frontier
(效用可能疆界)
 效用可能疆界是以一個圖形，表

A的效用要增加，必須B的效用

(一)The Utility Possibilities Frontier
(效用可能疆界)
•任何在效用可能疆界以下的

•B點是優於A點的選擇。
•B點和C點皆表示效率，但是

(二)The Sources of Household Income
(家計單位所得的來源)

Households derive their incomes from three
basic sources:
(家計單位的所得主要來自於以下三種)
–
–
–
from wages or salaries received in exchange for
labor(薪資)
from property—that is, capital, land, and so
forth(財產); and
from government.(政府的補助)
Wages and Salaries



10.739475人
1.受僱人的報酬
(本業薪資,兼業薪資和其他收入)

1.454.268人 782.108人

8.503.099人
N.T\$374.277
(76%)
N.T\$543.442
(78%)
N.T\$410.611
(75%)
N.T\$342.004
(75%)
2.產業主所得
N.T\$107.635
(含農業淨收入,營業淨收入和執行業務淨收入)
N.T\$102.136
N.T\$118.110
N.T\$107.612
3.財產所得收入
N.T\$37.569
(含利息收入,投資收入,和其他如租金等)
N.T\$74.197
N.T\$51.773
N.T\$29.998
4.利息支出
(含房屋貸款利息和其他等)
N.T\$26.994
N.T\$27.040
N.T\$35.457
N.T\$23.882

N.T\$492.487
N.T\$692.735
N.T\$545.036
N.T\$453.406

Wages and Salaries







competition market)，則在長期的均衡狀況時，所有的生

profit = 0時:
TR-TC=0
=> pQ-mK-wL=0
=> pQ=mK+wL

Taking partial derivatives, we get
Q m Q w
 ;

K p L p



Human capital(人力資本)

top NBA players make millions of dollars per year,而Women’s
professional basketball is less popular,thus,these women’s skill go
comparatively unrewarded,但是在tennis上，則Men’s and women’s


Rare skills can make enormous salaries




minimum wage。但是就如前章節中對勞動市場的分析，

People earn wages only when they have jobs.
unemployment in U.S.A
Rate
Rate
unemployment in R.O.C
5.3%
11%
2.7%
2.6%
9%
1.8%
1.5%
1.5%
3.9%
1975
1982
2000
year
1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2001
year

Income from Property
(由財產來的所得)


Property income is income derived from ownership
of real property and financial holdings. It takes the
form of profits, interest, dividends, and rents.
(財產包含實質的資產和有價證券等，當人們擁有實質

The amount of property income that a household
earns depends on:
– how much property it owns, and
– what kinds of assets it owns.
Income from Government
(由政府轉移來的所得)


Transfer payments are payments by the
government to people who do not supply goods
or services in exchange. (移轉性支付：指政府

Transfer programs are part of the
government’s attempts to offset some of the
problems of inequality and poverty.(政府藉由移

Income from the government





Not all transfer income goes to the poor

Security方案 (社會保障方案)。在R.O.C，政府最大的移轉性

The Distribution of Income
(所得的分配)


Economic income is the amount of money a
household can spend during a given period without
increasing or decreasing its net assets. (經濟所

Wages, salaries, dividends, interest income,
transfer payments, rents, and so forth are sources
of economic income.(例如﹔工資、薪資、股利、利

Economic Income Inequality in the United
States (美國經濟所得分配不平等的狀況)
Distribution of Total Income and Components in the United States, 1997
(Percentages)(經濟所得的分配及其組成要素的分配)
HOUSEHOLDS
TOTAL
INCOME
WAGES AND
SALARIES
PROPERTY
INCOME
TRANSFER
INCOME
Bottom fifth
6.0
5.7
1.0
27.6
Second fifth
9.1
11.9
4.0
26.1
Third fifth
14.7
19.9
8.4
18.7
Fourth fifth
23.6
27.3
16.4
13.9
Top fifth
46.6
35.2
70.2
13.7
Top 1 percent
10.0
3.2
29.7
1.5
Source: Brookings Merge File and authors’ estimates.

personal income)的分配，１９９９

１
(最低所得組)

7.1
２
12.9
３
17.5
４
23.2
５
(最高所得組)
39.2

(Disposable personal
income)指個人所得減

(新聞稿)。
Money Income
(貨幣所得)

Money income is a measure of the income
used by the Census Bureau. Because it
excludes noncash transfer payments and
capital gains income, it is less inclusive than
“economic income.”(貨幣所得：是統計部門用以

Changes in the Distribution of Income
(美國貨幣所得分配的狀況)
Distribution of Money Income of U.S. Families by Quintiles, 1947 – 1997
(Percentages)
1947
1960
1972
1980
1984
1994
1997
Bottom fifth
5.0
4.8
5.4
5.2
4.7
4.2
4.2
Second fifth
11.8
12.2
11.9
11.5
11.0
10.0
9.9
Third fifth
17.0
17.8
17.5
17.5
17.0
15.7
15.7
Fourth fifth
23.1
24.0
23.9
24.3
24.4
23.3
23.0
Top fifth
43.0
41.3
41.4
41.5
42.9
46.9
47.2
Top 5 percent
17.2
15.9
15.9
15.3
16.0
20.1
20.7
Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, various editions; Department of Commerce, HHES Division.
The Lorenz Curve
(羅倫茲曲線)

The Lorenz curve is a widely
used graph of the distribution of
income, with cumulative
percentage of families plotted
along the horizontal axis and
cumulative percentage of income
plotted along the vertical axis.
The Lorenz Curve for U.S.A,1997
(羅倫茲曲線)
Figure 15.2

If income is equally
distributed, there is no
• More unequal
distributions of income
produce Lorenz Curves
that are farther from
the 45-degree line.

The Gini Coefficient
(吉尼係數)
B
由吉尼係數，我們可以觀

Distribution of Money Income of Households, 1997 (Percentages)
ALL
HOUSEHOLDS
AFRICANAMERICAN
HOUSEHOLDS
WHITE
HOUSEHOLDS
HISPANIC
HOUSEHOLDS
ONE-PERSON
HOUSEHOLDS
0-10,000
11.0
21.4
9.5
16.8
25.4
10-15,000
8.1
10.5
7.8
10.7
15.8
15-25,000
14.9
17.9
14.6
19.7
20.7
25-35,000
13.3
14.2
13.2
15.0
14.0
35-50,000
16.3
14.9
16.5
16.6
11.6
50-75,000
18.1
13.1
18.8
12.2
7.7
75,000 +
18.4
7.9
19.7
9.1
4.7
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Total
Note: Totals may not add to 100 due to rounding.
Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1999, Tables 742 and 744.
Poverty(貧窮)




In simplest terms,poverty is the condition of people who
have very low income.
The official poverty line(法定貧窮臨界線)指政府所定的貧

U.S 的official poverty line
= the cost of minimum food budget *3

families 約將其1/3的所得用來買食物。因此，當時設計
poverty line 的原則即以基本食物乘以3。
Poverty in the United States
Since 1960
Table 15.4
Percentage of Persons in Poverty by Demographic Group, 1964 - 1997
OFFICIAL
MEASURE
1964
OFFICIAL
MEASURE
1997
IN-KIND TRANSFERS
AT MARKET VALUE, 1997a
All
19.0
13.3
10.0
White
14.9
11.0
8.4
African-American
49.6
26.5
19.3
NA
27.1
19.6
Female householder –
no husband present
45.9
35.1
NA
Elderly (65+)
28.5
10.5
NA
Children under 18
20.7
19.9
NA
Hispanic
aIncludes
food, housing, and medical benefits.
Source: Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1999, Tables 760, 763, 766, and 770.

The Distribution of Wealth
(財富的分配)

The distribution of wealth is much more
unequal than the distribution of income.
Wealth is passed from generation to
generation and accumulates.

Some argue that unequal distribution of
wealth is a natural consequence of risk
taking (承擔風險) in a market economy.
The Distribution of Wealth
(財富的分配)
Percentage of Different Assets Owned by Households, 1998 Survey
of Consumer Finances(家計單位擁有各種資產的百分比)
PERCENTAGE
OF OWNERS
COMMON
STOCK
EXCLUDING
PENSIONS
ALL
COMMON
STOCK
NONEQUITY
FINANCIAL
ASSETS
HOUSIN
G
EQUITY
NET
WORT
H
Top .5 percent
41.4
37.0
24.2
10.2
25.6
Top 1 percent
53.2
47.7
32.0
14.8
34.0
Top 10 percent
91.2
86.2
72.2
50.7
68.9
1.7
4.1
14.0
29.3
18.5
Bottom 80
percent
Source: James Poterba, “Stock Market Wealth and Consumption,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(2), 99 – 118 , Spring 2000.
The Redistribution Debate
(所得重新分配的爭議)

Philosophical arguments against redistribution(反對所得

– The market, when left to operate on its own, is fair. “One
is entitled to the fruits of one’s efforts.”(讓市場自由去運作，

– Taxation of income for redistribution purposes is against
“freedom of contract” and the protection of property
rights.(政府由個人的所得中課稅，再將所課的稅收分配給

The Redistribution Debate
(所得重新分配的爭議)

Practical arguments against redistribution
(反對所得重新分配的實務論點):
• Taxation and transfer programs interfere with
the incentives to work, save, and invest(干預).
• Bureaucratic waste and inefficiency is inevitable
in the administration of social programs(社會方

William R. John (1984) estimated the cost of redistribution. They concluded that
about 71% of income is lost in redistributing it.
The Redistribution Debate

Arguments in favor of redistribution (贊成政

1.A wealthy country has the moral obligation to
provide all its members with the necessities of
life. The Constitution does carry a guarantee of
the “right to life.”

Arguments in favor of redistribution:
–
–
2.Utilitarian justice is the idea that “a dollar in the
hand of a rich person is worth less than a dollar in
the hand of a poor person.” If the marginal utility of
income declines with income, transferring income
from the rich to the poor will increase total utility.
( 效用主義者的論點：效用學說認為，如果人們擁有

Income
Utility
U poor
U
U rich
0
1
2
Q poor
3
Income
Q rich
Arguments in favor of redistribution:
3. Rawlsian justice is a theory of distributional justice that concludes
that the social contract emerging from the “original position” would
call for an income distribution that would maximize the well-being of
the worst-off member of society.(Rawls的論點：John Rawls(1997)

The Works of Karl Marx
(卡爾馬克司的著作)



Marx did not write very much about socialism or
communism.
He wrote a critique of capitalism, but was not
very clear about what would replace it.(馬克司對

In one essay he wrote, “from each according to
his ability, to each according to his needs.”(不過

The Works of Karl Marx



The labor theory of value, stated most simply, is the theory that the
value of a commodity depends only on the amount of labor required
to produce it.(勞動價值論：英國經濟學家-亞當.斯密(1723-1970)和大

The owners of capital are able to extract “surplus value” out of
labor.(他認為資本的所有者支付給勞工的工資是低於勞工所創造出來的

“”surplus value”。)

Effective Rates of Federal, State, and Local Taxes, 2000
(Taxes as a Percentage of Total Income)
Bottom 20%
34.0 %
Second 20
31.2
Third 20
32.3
Fourth 20
32.6
Top 20
33.9
Top 10
34.5
Top 5
34.9
Top 1
37.0

Source: Authors’ estimate.
Expenditure Programs to eliminate poverty

(1) The Social Security system( 社會保障系統)
is a federal system of social insurance programs. It
includes three separate programs that are financed
through separate trust funds:
–
the Old Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) program (支付終身現金

–
–
the Disability Insurance (DI) program (支付終身現金利益給因殘障而無法工作者）
the Health Insurance (HI, or Medicare) program (為65歲以上的老人所做的

Expenditure Programs to eliminate
poverty
(2) Public assistance or welfare
consists of government transfer programs
that provide cash benefits to:
–
–
families with dependent children whose
incomes and assets fall below a very low level,
and
the very poor, regardless of whether or not
they have children.
Expenditure Programs to eliminate poverty

(3) The Supplemental Security Income
(SSI) program (追加的社會安全所得方案）
is designed to take care of the elderly
who end up very poor.
Expenditure Programs to eliminate po
(4) Unemployment compensation (失業救濟金）

1996年主要國家失業保險指標
Japan
USA
Germany
France
UK
ROC
Unemp.
Rate
3.4
5.4
11.5
12.3
7.6
2.9
Payment/P
revious
wage
60-80 %
37 %
60 %
57.4-75
%
80 %
60%
Period of
payment
90-300
days
15-52
weeks
---
---
6 months
Expenditure Programs to eliminate
poverty

(5) Medicaid and Medicare are in-kind
government transfer programs that provide
health and hospitalization benefits:
–
Medicare to the aged and their survivors and to
certain of the disabled, regardless of income, and
Medicaid to people with low incomes.
Expenditure Programs to eliminate poverty



(6) Food stamps are vouchers that have a face value
greater than their cost and that can be used to purchase
food at grocery stores.
(7) Housing programs are designed to improve the
quality of life for low-income people.
(8)The Earned Income Tax Credit is an important
program that allows lower income families with children a
credit equal to a percentage of all wage and salary
income against their income taxes.
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