Handout Here

advertisement
Formulating with Whole
Grains and Seeds in
Gluten Free Foods
Vanessa Klimczak
Product Applications Technologist
Bay State Milling Company
Designed for IBIE 2013 Gluten Free Panel
October 6, 2013
Goal
•To address various challenges in gluten free
baked goods and discuss ways to utilize whole
grains and seeds to enhance nutrition, flavor,
and texture.
Topics
I.
Gluten Free Grains and Seeds
a. Nutrition
b. Forms used in formulation
c. Stand-out characteristics
II. Formulations
Gluten Free Grains
and Seeds
Quinoa
Amaranth
Buckwheat
Millet
Rice
Sorghum
Teff
Corn
Oat*
Flax
Chia
Poppy
Sesame
Pumpkin seed
*Contamination with
wheat prevents use in
GF products unless
certified
Whole
kernel
Gluten Free Grains and Seeds
Quinoa
Amaranth
Buckwheat
Millet
Rice
Sorghum
Teff
Corn
Oat*
Flax
Chia
Poppy
Sesame
Pumpkin seed
*Contamination with
wheat prevents use in
GF products unless
certified
Flours
Nutrition
Common Nutrients lacking in those with Celiac
Disease:
- Fiber
- B Vitamins
- Iron
- Calcium
- Vitamin D
- Zinc
- Copper
(Source: www.celiacnow.org)
Nutrition of GF Grains and Seeds
(Source: USDA Nutrient Database)
Nutrition vs. Wheat Flour
Sorghum
Garbanzo
Buckwheat
Quinoa
Millet
Amaranth
Tapioca
Starch
Brown Rice
Flour
White Rice
Flour
Whole Wheat
White Flour
*
Potassium
128
363
76
337
0
508 195 563
577
875
311
Fiber
2
12
2
5
0
7
9
7
10
17
7
Protein
13
13
6
7
0
14
11
14
13
19
8
Vit A
0
9
0
0
0
2
0
14
0
67
14
Vit C
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
4
0
Iron
1
3.6
0
2
0
8
3
5
4
6
3
Magnesium
35
137
35
112
0
240 114 197
251
115
120
Nutrition Highlights
• Quinoa is one of the only complete protein grain sources.
• Amaranth, quinoa, buckwheat, millet, chia, flax, and teff are
good sources of protein and significantly higher than white
and brown rice.
• Buckwheat, chia, and flax are more than double the amount
of fiber in brown rice and more than 4x the amount of fiber
in white rice.
• Flax and chia are well known sources of omega-3 fatty
acids.
• Pulses such as pea, lentil, and bean flours are very high in
protein and when blended with grains, can form complete
protein.
Health Claims
NLEA Health Claims Approved by FDA:
Fiber-Containing Grain Products, Fruits, and Vegetables and
Cancer (21 CFR 101.76)
Fruits, Vegetables and Grain Products that contain Fiber,
particularly Soluble Fiber, and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease (21
CFR 101.77)
Soluble Fiber from Certain Foods and Risk of Coronary Heart
Disease (21 CFR 101.81)
FDAMA (FDA Modernization Act) Health Claims (Health Claims
Authorized Based on an Authoritative Statement by Federal
Scientific Bodies)
Whole Grain Foods and Risk of Heart Disease and Certain
Cancers (Docket No. 1999P-2209)
FDA just ruled the limit on gluten is 20ppm (August 2013)
Note-worthy Characteristics
•
•
•
•
•
Amaranth, Quinoa, Millet, Teff, Sorghum, and
Buckwheat are commonly known as ancient grains
Whole Millet is often used to add texture and crunch
since it remains intact throughout processing
Brown rice offers the neutral flavor of white rice, but
with the added benefit of added fiber and nutrients
Teff and natural or toasted sesame can add
nuttiness
Blending of grains as opposed to using only one can
create complex flavor profiles which can resemble
that of wheat
Functional Properties
Flax and Chia!
• Both Flax and Chia both exhibit hydrocolloid properties
• Both contain mucilage which becomes gummy and
viscous as it absorbs water
• Flax meal must be used for functionality
Dough or batter viscosity
Gas Retention
Extensibility
Similar to xanthan (Replacement??)
Example Formulas
GF Multigrain Sandwich Bread
Total %
Weight
(g)
40.42%
363.78
Sugar
4.20%
37.80
Salt
0.50%
4.50
Instant Active Yeast
0.60%
5.40
Sweet Whey Powder
7.00%
63.00
Xanthan Gum
0.44%
3.96
33.00%
297.00
Liquid Egg
5.82%
52.38
Soybean Oil
8.02%
72.18
100.00%
900.00
Ingredients
Step 1
GrainEssentials®
Whole Grain Gluten
Free Flour1
Step 2
Water (80ºF)
Total
1Bay State Milling Company, Quincy, MA.
Formula Highlights:
• GF flour made with various whole
grains
• Added protein (whey + egg) for
structure / strength
• Gum system in the flour creates
synergistic gel to help with initial
batter viscosity and set in the oven
Other Highlights:
• Stiff batter
• Bread pans generally smaller for
sidewall support
• Weight generally heavier
GF Hamburger Bun
Ingredients
Total %
Step 1
BakingEssentials® Gluten
Free AP Flour1
35.02%
Sugar
4.20%
Instant Active Yeast
0.30%
Monocalcium phosphate
0.35%
Sodium acid pyrophosphate
2.75%
Sodium bicarbonate
1.20%
Whey powder
6.40%
Xanthan gum
0.44%
DATEM
0.25%
Step 2
Soybean Oil
8.02%
Emulsifier2
0.25%
Liquid egg
5.82%
Water (80F)
35.00%
Total
1Bay State Milling Company, Quincy, MA.
2Dimodan U/D K-A, Danisco
100.00%
Highlights:
• Double acting chemical leavening for initial
batter aeration and oven spring
• Air is also incorporated through high
speed mixing with paddle or whip
• Chemical leavening, yeast, and “whipping”
to incorporate air during mix all contribute
to very soft, fluffy texture
• Batter; Deposited
• Hamburger pan with sidewalls
Gluten Free Grain and Seed Bagel
Ingredients
Total %
Step 1
BakingEssentials® Gluten Free AP
Flour1 or GrainEssentials® Gluten
Free Whole Grain AP Flour1
44.27%
Sugar
4.40%
Salt
0.90%
Instant Active Yeast
0.90%
Sweet Whey Powder
2.00%
Psyllium fiber
1.80%
Encapsulated sorbic acid
0.10%
Encapsulated fumaric acid
0.10%
Highlights:
• Stiff, pliable dough
• Whole grain flours
and fiber help bind
water
• Grain and seed
topping blends
present variety,
visual appeal and
texture
Step 2
Shortening
3.45%
Soybean oil
2.00%
Emulsifier2
0.30%
Step 3
Water (75ºF)
38.43%
Raisin juice concentrate
0.90%
Vanilla
0.45%
Total
100.00%
1Bay
State Milling Company,
Quincy, MA.
2Dimodan U/D K-A, Danisco
THANK YOU
Download
Related flashcards

Blood proteins

22 cards

Blood proteins

21 cards

Protein structure

20 cards

Protein structure

38 cards

Structural proteins

13 cards

Create Flashcards