Ch 17 Notes

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Ch 17 – The West Transformed
I can understand how
the growth of big
business affected the
development of the
West
read pgs. 574-581
bullet points p.601
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Ch 17 Sec 1
Mining and Railroads
•I can understand how
mining and railroads
drew people to the
West
All the Gold in California
• Gold
discovered
in CA. 1849
• People
came
Comstock Lode
• 1859 – Gold found –
Nevada- Comstock
property
• Gold was hard to get
• Miners found silver
• Easy to get
Virginia City
• 20 year mine
• $300 million in silver
• 4.8 billion today
Black Hills mines
• Hard to get at gold
Alaska Gold Rush – 1890’s
Boom Town Life
• Tent cities
• Bad facilities
Women’s work
• Women did
well
• Opened
- Restaurants
- Laundries
- Bakeries
Who else made money?
•Large companies
•Equipment suppliers
Immigrants
• Over ½ foreign
1. Spanish
2. Italian
3. German
4. Chinese
• Chinese discriminated against
Frontier Justice - Vigilantes
GIVE HIM A FAIR TRIAL THEN HANG HIM
Bridging the Mississippi
• 1856 – First Mississippi railroad bridge
• Rock Island Illinois
Incentives
• RR’s got 10 square miles of free land
for every 1 mile of track laid
• 1 sq mile = 640 acres
IMAGINE
An acre is approx. the size of a football
field
• RR’s got 6,400 football fields either
side of their track per mile
Problems - Distance
Dangerous Work
COLD
Avalanche
Mountains
BIG Bridges
Tunnels
May 10, 1869
Transcontinental Railroad
completed
Look at Map pg 580
•Where do major
western towns
develop?
Effects
• Population increase
• New States
- Nevada
- Colorado
- North and South Dakota
- Montana
- Wyoming
- Washington
- Idaho
read pgs. 584-589
bullet points p.601
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Ch 17 Sec 2
Native Americans Struggle to
Survive
• I can understand the
consequences of the
conflict between the Native
Americans and the settlers.
•People are moving west
through Indian land
•Are there problems?
•What is the solution?
1851
Ft. Laramie Treaty
Ft. Laramie Treaty 1851
• Guaranteed tribal lands
• Guaranteed safe passage
on Oregon Trail
• Tribes paid $50,000 per
year for 10 years
Are There any Problems?
• Money or products are not
paid
• People stop and build on
Indian land
• Then, 1859 - GOLD!!!
• Who will the Government
protect, the Indians or the
settlers and miners?
• What will the Government do
now?
• New treaties
• Cheyenne and Arapaho give up
much of their land
• Some warriors object, attack
settlers
• Nov. 29, 1864 – Peaceful group
attacked by 700 cavalry
• 133 men, women, children dead
A Beginning
• Sand Creek Massacre starts an
era of war
• One of the most feared soldiers
were the, “Buffalo Soldiers”
• Who were the Buffalo soldiers?
Buffalo
• By 1870, herds
start to shrink
• Buffalo
important to
Native
Americans
Why do herds shrink?
Reservations
• Areas reserved for Native
Americans
• Many problems
Corrupt Indian Agents
Poor land
Continued invasion
1874 – GOLD!!
• Black Hills in Dakotas
• Invasion of Sioux and
Cheyenne land
• Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
lead fight to keep settlers out.
IN THIS CORNER
IN THE OTHER CORNER
DETAILS
• Custer sent to force Sitting Bull
and Crazy horse onto reservation
• Custer learns they are in the
Little Big Horn River area of
Montana
• Custer attacks
DETAILS
• Custer is excited
• Rides hard to area
• Help only 30 miles away
(2,000 men)
• Custer disregards threat and
attacks
•1,800 Native
Americans versus 210
American Cavalry
JUNE 26, 1876
•2 YEARS LATER,
TOO MANY
SOLDIERS FOR THE
NATIVE AMERICANS
TO FIGHT
Other Tribes
• Nez Perce – Idaho, Oregon, Washington
• Horse and cattle breeders
Nez Perce
• Chief Joseph
objected to
reservation
• Tried to flee
• Captured and
returned 1877
The Ghost Dance
• Some N.A’s (Native Americans)
dreamed of returning to old ways
• Late 1880’s Ghost Dance appeared
• Dancers in trance – swaying
movement
• Dreamed talking to ghosts
Ghost Dance
• Believed
1. Ancestors would return
2. Buffalo would return
3. White men would leave
• Soldiers afraid of uprising
Ghost Dance
• Dec. 1890 –
Tribal police go
to stop
dancing and
arrest Sitting
Bull
• Sitting Bull
killed
Wounded Knee
• Sioux flee
• Caught at
Wounded Knee
S.D.
• Giving up guns a
shot heard
• Soldiers open
fire killing 200
Navaho
Navaho home - temporary
Navaho home
Navaho
• Raised sheep, horses,
cattle
• Raided white settlements
• Finally defeated 1864
• The Long Walk
Apache
• Arizona –
New Mexico
area
• Led by
Geronimo
• 1876-1886
Reform
1881 – Helen
Hunt Jackson
records
treaties
broken by U.S.
in her book
INDIAN TERRITORY
Dawes Act - 1887
• Buy em out!!
• Each Native American got
160 acres of farm land
• Set up schools
Failed Experiment
• Few Native Americans took
to farming
WHY?
• Many sold their land cheap
Consequences
• Indian agents took power
• Replaced native leaders
• Native Americans gave up
traditional ways
• Remained poor and
dependant
bullet points p. 601
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read pgs. 590-594
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Ch 17 Sec 3
•I can identify what
factors led to boom or
bust in the cattle
industry
Development of Longhorns
How did longhorns develop?
• Cross between Spanish and
British cattle
• Cattle roamed free
• When RR developed, made
cattle ranching profitable
Long drives
•Sometimes as much
as 1000 miles
•Different trails
Cattle Trails
The Long Ride
•Time – 2 to 3 months
•Path – Followed
established trails
•Trails led to Railroads
and breeding centers
RISKS
• Lack of water
• Lightning
• Swift rivers
• Grass fires
• Swamp
• Thieves
Spanish Roots - Vaqueros
Vaqueros
• Spanish for cowboy
• Ride
• Rope
• Brand
• Chaps
• Hat
Ethnicity
• Hispanic – 15%
• African Americans -25%
• White Civil War Veterans –
60%
• Average age - Young
Cattle Shipping Towns
• Abilene
• Dodge
• Kansas City
• Wichita
• Denver
• Cheyenne
Cattle Breeding Towns
Cowboy Myth
•Gunfights
•Good guy - Bad guy
•Buffalo Bill’s Wild
west Show
Sitting Bull – Before He Died
•1885
•50.00 per
week
•4 months
Boom or Bust
• Cattle drives lasted until 1880’s
• Railroads to most locations
halted drives
• Original price $5.00
• Sold for $60.00
• With new railroads, no longer
cost effective
Other Problems
• Free pastures fenced in
• Sheep grazing
• Drought 1886-87
• Depression
read pgs. 595-599
bullet points p.601
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Ch 17 Sec 4
Farming in the West
•I can understand how
farmers on the Plains
struggled to make a
living
Homesteading
• Homestead Act of 1862
1. Free 160 acres
2. Live there for 5 years
3. It’s yours
Problems
• Little money to move
• Too dry
• Too little land to make profit
• Land companies illegally
bought land
Railroads
• Gave away land
• Recruited people to farm
WHY ?
• More farms = More
shipping = More $$$
A Hard Life
•Scarce water
•Hard to grow crops
•Plains covered in sod
SOD
• Dirt with deep tangled roots
• Baked hard
• Cool in summer – Warm in winter
• http://americanhistory.si.edu/ourstory/f/sodh
ouse.html
Sod Busters
•Fertile soil
but hard
to plow
Hard to plow
• Iron and
Wooden
plows broke
• Solution ?
John Deere Plow
The Sod Buster - 1877
Seed Drill
McCormick Reaper
Water
Windmills
Ogallala Aquifer
Ogallala Aquifer
• Ancient rock filled valleys
• Streams allowed water in
• Rock covered over by dirt
• Depth of water 3’ to 1000’
• Wells, 100’ – 400’
1/5 of wheat, corn,
cotton, cattle
Barbed Wire - 1874
Farm Families
• Everyone
worked
• Little school
education
Exoduster
By early
1880’s,
70,000 blacks
had settled in
Kansas
Mexican Americans
• New white settlers arrived in SW
• Found farmers and sheepherders
• Many lived there before 1848
• Spanish speaking residents fought
to keep land
Last Land Rush
• Former Indian Territory now open
• April 1889, 100,000 people lined up
at Oklahoma City, OK
• On signal rushed onto land
• Some had snuck out early and
grabbed land
SOONERS
CONSEQUENCE
•By 1890, NO more
land for
homesteading
FARM CRISIS
•Big farmers made
money
•Little farmers did not
•Surplus led to low prices
How did it happen?
• Farmers borrow money for land and
machinery
• Low prices, can’t pay loans
WHAT HAPPENS?
•Banks foreclose – take
land and machines
The Grange
• Social and
educational program
for farmers
• Developed into
economic protest
Farmers Alliance
• Organized group
• Formed cooperatives
WHAT IS A COOPERATIVE?
• Farmers pool their money
• Make large purchases of tools,
seed and supplies
Populist Party
• Unhappy farmers and unions
• Joined together
• Demanded reforms
1. Gov’t owned railroads
2. Gov’t owned warehouses to control
grain distribution
3. Income tax replace property tax
4. 8 hour workday
Populist Party
• Silver and gold for
money
• More money = rising
prices
• Rising prices, farmers
can pay debts
Election 1896
POPULISTS
• William Jennings
Bryan
REPUBLICANS
• William McKinley
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