Unit 4 Power Point Notes

advertisement
Complete the Guided Reading as you view the Power
Point.





Objective 4.01: Compare and contrast the
different groups of people who migrated to
the West and describe the problems they
experienced.
Essential Questions:
• Who migrated West and what problems did
they experience?
• How did the experiences of the settlers
impact their successes or failures?
• Why did different groups of people have such
varied experiences as they migrated?
Western
Migration



As the nation expanded West settlers moved
west to start a new life
Settlers had many different reasons for
moving West
Many people moved West to spread the
Christian message to Native Americans




Mormons moved West from Illinois to escape
religious persecution
Mormons: religious group founded by Joseph
Smith
1830- Joseph Smith wrote a book called The
Book of Mormon- he claimed it was a
translation of writings given to him by an angel
It became the foundation of the Mormon faith

The group was made fun of because of the
beliefs in The Book of Mormon
◦ Polygamy- having many wives
◦ Gave Joseph Smith too much power over the people of
the religion
◦ Smith was believed to be a prophet


1844 a mob of people killed Joseph Smith and
forced the group to move out West for safety
A man named Brigham Young led them out of
Illinois to Utah where they settled







Many people moved West to get rich
The California Gold Rush of 1849 brought thousands of
people to the territory in search of riches
So many people moved to California that it needed an
organized government and it was added as a state to
the Union
Comstock Load: A man named Comstock found the
richest load of minerals ever discovered
1859 the Comstock Lode was discovered in western
Nevada
People rushed to Nevada to find gold
Why is it important?
◦ Gold eventually became one of the major reasons for conflict


New territory meant that more people had the
opportunity to own land
1862 Congress passed two laws that encouraged
people to settle out West
◦ Homestead Act
◦ Morrill Land-Grant Act


Homestead Act: Anyone who agreed to farm 160
acres of land for five years would receive the title
to that land from the federal government
People on the prairies lived in sod houses made out
of thick prairie grass and mud
Sod House

Morrill Land-Grant Act: distributed millions
of acres of western territory to state
governments
◦ States then sold the land to pay for agriculture “land
grant” colleges
 Taught farmers how to use new technology and deal with
the unfamiliar terrain of the Midwest

Why is it important?
◦ Homestead Act and Morrill Land-Grant Acts greatly
increased the number of western settlers in the
years following the Civil war






As more people moves out West they began to ask
the government to open Indian Lands for white
settlement
1889 central Oklahoma was declared open
50,000 people gathered at the Oklahoma border
waiting for a gun to sound the start of the race for
land
In the Oklahoma Land Rush people raced on foot,
horses, wagons, bicycles, etc. to stake a claim to a
piece of land
Sooners: people who cheated and got a head start
to get their land “sooner”
Oklahoma is known as the Sooner State
Oklahoma Land Rush
1889
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxaJY
8UZxn4





Women had more freedom out West than they
had in the East
Life was so rough in the West that everyone
had to do what they could to survive
The frontier required a more flexible society
Women often had the opportunity to take on
roles traditionally only open to men
Chinese and Irish immigrants moved West and
played major roles in the development of the
railroads





African Americans served as cowhands on
western ranches
A large number of cowboys in the 1800’s were
African Americans who moved out West after
the Civil War and the abolition of slavery
Many African Americans served as soldiers in
the United States Army
One group of distinguished African American
soldiers were the Buffalo Soldiers
They were members of four all black regiments
that were known for their bravery in battle
Buffalo Soldiers







Objective 4.02: Evaluate the impact that
settlement in the West had upon different
groups of people and upon the environment.
Essential Questions:
• How did the environment of the West impact the
success of the settlers?
• How did the migration of people bring about
change in the West?
• What cause individuals or groups to migrate?
• Was the impact of settlement in the West
positive or negative?
• How do individuals adapt to their surroundings?




Conflicts with Native Americans increased when
more and more white people moved out West
Native Americans (the Plains Indians) depended on
buffalo for food, clothing and shelter to survive
Settlers and trappers moved West and killed the
buffalo for their fur and to make room for
ranchers to bring cattle out West
Why is it important?
◦ By 1889 only 1,000 buffalo were left in America and the
Plains Indians could no longer continue their way of life


Buffalo Hunt
Buffalo Kill



The cattle industry affected the Plains Indians
Mexican culture and language had a great
impact on how white settlers lived in the
southwest
Mexican ranchers influenced white settlers in
Texas- they taught them how to ranch
◦ How to herd, raise and drive cattle to market

Why is it important?
◦ White settlers began to imitate Mexican dress and
culture
 Cowboys hats and chaps


The Cattle Industry and Mining Industry
Transformed the West:
The growth of the cattle industry contributed to
the slaughter of buffalo
◦ Buffalo would have been in competition as a food source
against cattle



The cattle industry also took land from the Native
Americans
Cowtowns: Towns to which ranchers would drive
their cattle so that they could be herded onto
trains and shipped East to market
Cowboys: People who moved cattle on long drives to
cowtowns





The Mining Industry transformed the West as
people relocated to find their fortune
Mining camps and mining towns developed as people
moved West
Eventually, huge companies moved West with
advanced equipment to dig for metals
The Mining Industry hurt the Native Americans as
they were forced to move off of their land and
relocate to reservations
Reservations: Sections of land where the federal
government forced Native Americans to relocate

Cowboy Life




Native Americans were forced to move to a new
location each time gold was discovered
Why is it important?
Over time many native Americans became angry
and many wars broke out
Large numbers of Native Americans eventually
died as a result of being forced to travel long
distances and settle on reservations in lands
where they were not accustomed to living
Important Battles
Between
U.S. Troops and
Native Americans





Many times Native Americans chose to resist moving
off their land and being relocated to reservations
1861 the U.S. government forced the Cheyenne Native
Americans to give up land that had been promised to
them
As payback Chief Black Kettle led Cheyenne warriors in
several raids on mining camps and local settlements
The U.S. responded by surprising 500 Cheyenne at Sand
Creek- killed 270 Native Americans- most were women
and children
Why is it important?
◦ It led to Little Bighorn





When news of Sand Creek spread other Native
American tribes became very angry
Chief Red Cloud and Chief Crazy Horse led the
Sioux Indians in an up-rising
1876 U.S. commander George Custer tried to
defeat the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn
Custer underestimated the size of the native
American forces and rushed into battle
Why is it Important?
◦ Custer and 200 men died
◦ Was the last great victory of the Native Americans
◦ By 1877 the Sioux and the Cheyenne had surrendered to
the U.S. and were moved to reservations in the Dakotas
and Oklahoma
Crazy Horse Monument,
South Dakota






Chief Joseph led the Native American tribe called the Nez
Perce
Violence broke out when the U.S. government tried to remove
the Nez Perce from the Oregon Territory
Nez Perce warriors attacked white settlers without Chief
Joseph’s approval
Chief Joseph told his people to follow U.S. orders to move to
a northern reservation to avoid more bloodshed
As they moved to the new reservation federal troops
attacked the Nez Perce in retaliation for their attack on
settlers
Why is it important?
◦
◦
◦
◦
Chief Joseph told his people to retreat and try to escape to Canada
They were stopped 30 miles from the Canadian border
They were forced to move to reservations in Oklahoma
The Nez Perce almost died out due to sickness and malnutrition





A Sioux holy man developed a religious ritual
called the Ghost Dance
The Sioux believed this would bring back the
buffalo and return Native American tribes to
their land
The Ghost Dance scared white settlers
The U.S. government sent in the Army to
control the situation
The government believed the Sioux leader
Sitting Bull was using the Ghost Dance to start
a Native American uprising

Why is it important?
◦ When soldiers tried to arrest Sitting Bull a gunfight
broke out and 14 people died including Sitting Bull
◦ The soldiers then followed the Sioux to Wounded
Knee Creek
◦ When the battle was over more than 150 Native
Americans were dead
 Many were unarmed women and children
Sioux Leader
Sitting Bull







Sioux Warrior Sitting Bull
Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse at the Battle of
Little Bighorn
The Aftermath of Little Bighorn
Battle of Little Bighorn
Battle at Wounded Knee
The Gold Rush and Native Americans
Settlers and Native Americans




1881 Helen Hunt Jackson wrote a book called
A Century of Dishonor
The book described the shameful way the
Native American people had been treated
Why is it important?
The book helped create concern for native
American rights and laws to protect them

Dawes Act 1887 law that was meant to help Native
Americans blend into American culture
◦ Abolished tribal organizations and divided up reservations to
give land to individual Native American families
◦ After 25 years Native Americans would be able to own the
land and become U.S. citizens

Why is it important?
◦ Law was a failure
◦ Native Americans didn’t want to lose their tribal identity or
blend into white culture
◦ The land they were promised was sometimes not good for
farming
◦ Many Native Americans were cheated by government officials
◦ The Native American population continued to die from poverty
and disease






Objective 4.03: Describe the causes and effects
of the financial difficulties that plagued the
American farmer and trace the rise and decline
of
Populism.
Essential Questions:
• How and why was the plight of the American
farmer so different from that of other
Americans?
• Why did so many farmers support Populism?
• How can economically oppressed groups make
their voices heard politically?





Objective 4.04: Describe innovations in
agricultural technology and business practices
and assess their impact on the West.
Essential Questions:
• How can technological innovations change
society?
• Why did the agricultural innovations and
technological developments impact groups of
people in different ways?
• How did the existence of the frontier impact
the technological development of the U.S.?
Railroads, Farming
and the
Rise of Populism





In the late 1800’s railroads became an important
means of transportation in the United States
Congress coordinated with the railroad companies
to build a transcontinental railroad across the
United States
From the East the Union Pacific Railroad would
join with the Central Pacific Railroad from the
West
1869: The two railroads joined in Utah
Many Irish and Chinese immigrants worked on the
railroad
Union and Pacific Railroad Routes
Joining of Union Pacific and
Central Pacific Railroads in
Utah- (gold spike)
Farming
Out West


For settlers to move West and survive they needed
suitable land for farming
Many technological advances made it possible for
settlers to survive in the West
◦ John Deere’s Steel Plow: allowed farmers to plow hard
ground
◦ Windmills: allowed farmers to capture wind power and
pump water to the surface of the ground
◦ Barbed Wire: allowed farmers to fence their land and
livestock
◦ Railroads: allowed farmers to get equipment they needed
from the East and ship their products around the country
◦ Why is it important?
 People could farm out West without being isolated from the
rest of the nation






Farmers had many problems in the late 1800’s
Overproduction of farm products made prices drop
and led to less profits
At the same time cost of farm equipment and
railroad rates rose
Farmers lost money and fell into debt
Many people joined together to stand up to the
railroads for overcharging
Local farmers formed groups called granges to pool
their resources and buy new machinery, supplies
sell their products without paying other
distributors





Concerns of the farmers led to a rise in the
Populist Movement in the late 1800’s
Farmers wanted the government to use greenbacks
(paper money) to increase the nation’s money supply
Farmers wanted a “free silver” policy
They wanted to base the U.S. dollar value on silver
as well as gold
Why is it important?
◦ Farmers thought greenbacks and free silver would put
more money into the nation’s economy and help farmers in
debt

Farmers who supported populism wanted more
government regulation of business
◦ Especially railroads and warehouses



This put populists against big business who favored
laissez-faire economics (the belief in no
government interference in business)
Populists wanted government to regulate the
prices that railroads could charge farmers to haul
their products and machinery
Populists wanted the government to pay rebates
(subsidies) to farmers whose goods did not sell due
to over production


Many state legislatures passed laws limiting how
much railroads and storage houses could charge
Why is it important?
◦ The Supreme Court ruled in Munn v. Illinois that states
had the right to regulate certain businesses within its
borders
◦ The Supreme Court ruled in Wabash v. Illinois that
railroad traffic that crossed state lines was to be
regulated by the federal government, not states
◦ 1887 President Cleveland signed the Interstate Commerce
Act: created an Interstate Commerce Commission and
regulated railroad rates in the best interest of the public





Populism appealed to the “common man”
Populism saw agriculture as the backbone of
America
Populism favored the working class (working
people) of the Northeast and the farmers of the
South and West
1892 Populists met in Nebraska and wrote the
Omaha Platform
Omaha Platform: called for the use of silver,
government regulation of railroads, and industry, a
graduated income tax, and election reform





1896 the U.S. was in an economic depression
People blamed President Cleveland and his decision
to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase
1893 Sherman Silver Purchase allowed for the use
of the silver standard (a position supported by the
Populists where paper money value is based on
silver as well as gold)
President believed the silver standard was the
cause of the nation’s economic depression, so he
returned the nation to the gold standard
Why is it important?
◦ The silver question became the major issue of the 1896
campaign





The Democratic Party of 1896 was divided at the
convention
The Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan
to run for president
The Populists supported Bryan because he
supported bimetallism (a silver and gold standard)
At the Democratic Convention Bryan made a famous
speech called “Cross of Gold”
“You shall not press down upon the brow of labor
this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify
mankind upon a cross of gold!”





Why is it important?
The split in the Democratic party hurt Bryan and
he lost the election of 1896 to Republican William
McKinley
McKinley was supported by the big business of the
Northeast and states with large electoral votes
McKinley’s win marked the end of the Populist
Party’s influence in politics
Many Populist ideas were adopted by the
Progressive Party in the 1900’s and led to many
reforms in the U.S. government
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards