(PowerPoint) "The Circulatory System"

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Today’s Agenda
Journal Questions:
a. What is the function of the heart?
b. How many chambers are there in
the human heart?
*1. Lecture on the “Circulatory System”
-Slide 42
2. Homework: Complete Study Guide
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1
Circulatory Systems
By: Dr. Rick Woodward
Transport Systems in Animals
“Circulation”
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2
Heart Disease
A. The Silent Killer
B. Atherosclerosis: Building
up of cholesterol/plaque
within the artery walls.
C. Symptoms:
(1) High Blood Pressure
-Increased blood
pressure due to the
narrow diameter of the
artery.
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3
Heart Disease:
Atherosclerosis
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4
What is cholesterol?
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A. Cholesterol is a fatty, waxy nonpolar substance manufactured by
the liver.
B. The liver produces about 1,000 mg
daily, which is sufficient for cell
membrane and hormone
development.
C. Because cholesterol is waxy, it
doesn't readily dissolve in blood.
D. Cholesterol combines with certain
proteins to form lipoproteins, which
are more soluble and able to enter the
5
bloodstream
Cholesterol Levels
A. Levels less than 200 mg/dl =
Low Risk of heart disease
B. 240 mg/dl and above = High
blood cholesterol.
(1) A person with this level has
more than twice the risk of
coronary heart disease as
someone whose cholesterol is
below 200 mg/dL.
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6
Per 100,000 Population
Causes of Death in the United States
200
150
130.0
101.5
100
57.0
41.1
50
41.1 39.0
22.9
31.6
0
Coronary Heart
Disease
Stroke
White Females
Lung Cancer
Breast Cancer
Black Females
Age-adjusted death rates for CHD, stroke, lung and breast
for white and black females (United States: 2006).
Source: NCHS.
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7
Death from Diseases of the Heart 2010
Coronary Heart
Disease
Stroke
4
7
14
HF*
51
17
High Blood Pressure
7
Diseases of the
Arteries
Other
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8
Causes of Death in the U.S. 2010
500,000
398,563
432,709
Deaths
400,000
290,069
300,000
269,819
200,000
78,941 59,260
100,000
65,323
36,006
42,658
51,281
0
A
B
C
D
E
Males
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A
B
D
F
C
Females
A CVD (I00-I99; Q20-Q28) D Chronic Lower Respiratory
Diseases
B Cancer
E Diabetes Mellitus
C Accidents
9
F Alzheimer’s Disease
Symptoms of Coronary Artery
(Heart) Disease:
1. Angina (Chest Pain)
– Most Common Sign.
(Can be mistaken for heart burn)
2. Palpitations (Irregular heart
beats)
3. Faster Heart Beat.
4. Weakness & Dizziness
5. Nausea
6. Sweating
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10
Cell Requirements:
1. Each cell requires a supply of
oxygen and food molecules.
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11
Cell Requirements:
2. The cells must get rid of
waste products.
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12
Cell Requirements:
3. In all animals that
have a transport
system, two
parts are
essential:
(1) Circulating
Fluid
(2) One or more
hearts to pump
the blood.
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13
The Circulatory System
A. The transport system of
animals is called the
circulatory system.
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14
Open Circulatory
System
A. Blood sloshes around freely in
a body cavity.
B. Example: Grasshopper’s Open
Circulatory System
(1)The blood is pumped toward
the head by a dorsal, segmented
heart, into the aorta, the only
blood vessel in its body.
(2) From the aorta, blood
empties into the insect’s body
cavity.
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15
Closed Circulatory System
A. Blood is enclosed at all
times within vessels.
B. Example: Humans
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16
Closed Circulatory System
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C. Circulation in vertebrates is
made up of:
1. Heart
a. Atrium: Thin-walled
chamber receiving and
collecting blood.
b. Ventricle: Larger, more
muscular, thicker walled
chamber, it pumps blood to
the body.
17
Closed Circulatory System
2. Arteries: Transport oxygenated
blood away from the heart.
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18
Closed Circulatory System
3. Veins transport deoxygenated
blood back to the heart.
a. One-way valves keep the blood
from flowing backwards.
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19
Closed Circulatory System
4. Capillaries: Consist of a
single cell layer.
a. Function: Exchange of
materials
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20
Types of Hearts
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21
Different Types of Hearts:
1. Hearts with 2 chambers: Fish
(only have one atrium and one
ventricle)
a. Low pressure, low energy
demands.
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22
Different Types of Hearts:
2. Hearts with 3 chambers:
Amphibians
(Two atria and one ventricle)
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23
Different Types of Hearts:
3. Heart with 4
chambers: Mammals
a. High Pressure,
Double Circulation:
(1) Once through
the lungs and once
through the body
tissues.
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24
Circulation
A. Animals in which body
temperature is determined
by the environment are
called “ectotherms,” or coldblooded.
(1) Reptiles, Amphibians
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25
Circulation in Mammals
A. Mammals are endotherms
(warm-blooded)
(1) Maintain a constant body
temperature and have high
energy demands.
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26
Circulation in Mammals
B. In humans, blood goes to
and from the lungs.
-Called “Pulmonary
Circulation”
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27
Circulation in Mammals
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C. There is
circulation of
blood to and
from all the
organs, tissues,
and cells of the
body.
Called
“Systemic
Circulation”
28
Circulation in Mammals
D. Thousands of arteries and
veins are linked by capillaries
within the tissues to form a
closed circulatory system.
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29
Lymphatic System
A. Excess fluid in the tissues
moves into tiny vessels of the
lymphatic system. -This fluid is
called lymph.
B. Lymph is moved by the
squeezing of skeletal muscles.
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30
High Blood Pressure is
Called “Hypertension”
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1. Hypertension is the biggest
risk factor in heart disease.
2. Normal (average) blood
pressure is around 120/80.
a. The top number “120” refers
to the systolic pressure.
(Ventricles Contract)
b. The bottom number “80”
refers to the diastolic
pressure.
31
(Atria fill up with blood)
The Human Circulatory System
Coloring Activity:
Accurately color the heart
diagram: (1) Use the color
“blue” for deoxygenated
blood.
(2) Use the color “red” for
oxygenated blood.
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32
The Human Circulatory System
A. The heart is the muscular pump
of the blood vascular system.
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33
The Human Circulatory System
B. It has four chambers:
(1) Two on the right relate to the lungs
(Pulmonary Circulation)
(2) Two on the left relate to the rest of
the body (Systemic Circulation)
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34
The Human Circulatory System
C. Deoxygenated blood from the body
enters the right atrium and is pumped to
the lungs by the right ventricle under
relatively low pressure.
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35
The Human Circulatory System
D. Oxygenated blood returns to the left
atrium and is pumped to the body
tissues by the left ventricle under
rather high pressure, a fact reflected in
the thicker left ventricular walls.
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36
The Human Circulatory System
E. The bicuspid and tricuspid
valves prevent regurgitation
of blood back into the atria.
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37
The Human Circulatory System
F. The semi-lunar valves prevent
reflux of blood back into the
ventricles.
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38
Electrical Impulses in the Heart
A. An action potential is initiated
by the S-A Node, the impulse
spreads out over both atria
causing them to contract.
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Electrical Impulses in the Heart
B. The S-A Node is located in the right
atrial wall and it initiates each cardiac
cycle; consequently, it is also known as
the pacemaker of the heart.
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40
Electrical Impulses in the Heart
C. The A-V Node sends an
electrical impulse down the
septum and up the ventricle walls.
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41
Film: Body Story
A. Signs and
symptoms of heart
disease.
B. List ten facts from
today’s film about
heart disease:
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42
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