State Diagrams & OCL - ECE

advertisement
LECTURE 11: Specifying Systems – State Diag’s & OCL
Ivan Marsic
Rutgers University
Topics
 UML State Machine Diagrams
– State Activities: Entry, Do, and Exit Activities
– Composite States and Nested States
– Concurrency
 UML Object Constraint Language (OCL)
– OCL Syntax
– OCL Constraints and Contracts
2
State Machine Diagram:
Basic Notation
States of Stock_i
event
Listing
planned
initial state
trade
initial-listing
Traded
transition
indicated by
bankruptcy,
merger,
acquisition, …
Delisted
terminal state
indicated by
These are not states:
They are only labels that indicate the actual initial/terminal states
3
UML Diagrams Differ from FSMs
 Modularization of states
 Concurrent behaviors
 State activities
4
States of Stock_i
trade
Listing
planned
bankruptcy,
merger,
acquisition, …
initial-listing
Traded
Delisted
composite state
Traded
Listing
planned
Buy
Hold
Delisted
Sell
sub-states:
(based on analyst recommendations)
trade
trade
trade
trade
Buy
trade
Hold
trade
Sell
trade
5
trade
States of Stock_i
trade
IPO
planned
initial-listing
bankruptcy,
acquisition,
merger, …
Traded
Delisted
IPO = initial public offering
Traded
trade
IPO
planned
initiallisting
trade
trade
trade
Buy
trade
Hold
trade
composite state
nested
state
Sell
bankruptcy,
acquisition,
merger, …
Delisted
trade
trade
6
State Activities:
Entry, Do, and Exit Activities
States of a Trading Order
completion transition
view
Pending
submit
InPreparation
do: check_price & supply [buy]
check_price & demand [sell]
matched
Executed
Archived
cancel,
reject
data
entry
trade
“do”
state
activity
Cancelled
(order placed and waiting for
the specified market conditions)
7
State Diagram for Controller
[ Recall Section 2.7.4: Test Coverage and Code Coverage ]
How state diagram motivates you to consider alternative usage scenarios and provides “crutches”:
User leaves without succeeding or blocking
invalid-key [numOfAttemps  maxNumOfAttempts] /
signal-failure
invalid-key /
signal-failure
Accepting
Locked
invalid-key
[numOfAttemps  maxNumOfAttempts] /
sound-alarm
timer-expired /
signal-reset,
set numOfAttemps := 0
autoLockInterval
-expired /
valid-key /
signal-success
valid-key /
signal-success,
set numOfAttemps := 0
Blocked
Unlocked
Auto-locking feature not shown!
Note how the object responds differently to
the same event (invalid-key in Accepting state),
depending on which events preceded it
8
State Diagram for Controller
invalid-key [numOfAttemps  maxNumOfAttempts] /
signal-failure
invalid-key /
signal-failure
Accepting
Locked
timer-expired /
signal-reset,
set numOfAttemps := 0
invalid-key
[numOfAttemps  maxNumOfAttempts] /
sound-alarm
entry: start timer
do: countdown
autoLockInterval
-expired /
valid-key /
signal-success
valid-key /
signal-success
Blocked
Unlocked
entry: start timer
do: countdown
Need “entry” and “do” state activities
for countdown timers
9
State “Accepting” Refined
Accepting
timer-expired /
signal-reset,
set numOfAttemps := 0
invalid-key /
signal-failure
invalid-key /
signal-failure
One
valid-key /
signal-success
invalid-key /
signal-failure
Two
valid-key /
signal-success
invalid-key /
sound-alarm
MaxNumOfAttempts
valid-key /
signal-success
Or, get rid of state “Accepting” and introduce state “Zero” …
10
Problem: States of a Hotel Room
Problem:
make-reservation /
Reserved
Vacant
- but a guest may be occupying the room
while it is reserved by a future guest!?
- or the room may be vacant
while reserved by a future guest!?
arrive /
depart /
Occupied
 need a notion of time (“timing diagram”)
11
C make-reservation
B make-reservation
Problem: States of a Hotel Room
Reserved
by guest B
Reserved
by guest C
Occupied
C depart
B depart
C arrive
B arrive
A depart
Vacant
A arrive
States
Reserved
Time [days]
12
C make-reservation
B make-reservation
Problem: States of a Hotel Room
 What if the guest is late? – “Holding” state?
 What if the room is overbooked?
 What when it is being cleaned?
Reserved
Reserved
by guest B
by guest C
Reserved
Issue: state transitions
are weird—”Reserved” is a
future state but
transitioned to by a
current event!
What state?
Occupied
C depart
B depart
C arrive
B arrive
A depart
A arrive
Vacant
Time [days]
13
C make-reservation
B make-reservation
Problem: States of a Hotel Room
SOLUTION:
Introduce a new object!
Reserved
by guest B
Reserved
Object:
Reservation table
free
reserve
Available
Reserved
by guest C
Occupied
Object:
Room occupancy
A depart
current time
A arrive
Vacant
Time [days]
Objects send messages that change states
14
Problem: States of a Hotel Room
We need two objects:
One tracks room’s current state (occupancy)
and the other its future state (reservation)
Reserved
Object 2:
Reservation table
Available
Occupied
Object 1:
Room occupancy
C depart
current time
B depart
C arrive
B arrive
A depart
A arrive
Vacant
Time [days]
15
OCL: Object Constraint Language
 OCL is used in UML diagrams to
– write constraints in class diagrams
– guard conditions in state and activity diagrams
 based on Boolean logic
 Boolean expressions (“OCL constraints”) used
to state facts about elements of UML
diagrams
 The implementation must ensure that the
constraints always hold true
16
Basic OCL Types and Operations
Type
Values
Operations
Boolean
true, false
and, or, xor, not, implies, if-then-else
Integer
1, 48, 3, 84967, …
*, , , /, abs()
Real
0.5, 3.14159265, 1.e+5
*, , , /, floor()
String
'With more exploration comes more text.'
concat(), size(), substring()
17
OCL: Types of Navigation
(a) Local attribute
Class_A
– attribute1
– attribute2
– …
(b) Directly related class
Class_A
(c) Indirectly related class
Class_A
*
assocBA
*
assocBA
*
assocAB
*
assocAB
Class_B
Class_B
*
assocCB
*
assocBC
Class_C
Within Class_A:
self.attribute2
Within Class_A:
self.assocAB
Within Class_A:
self.assocAB.assocBC
18
Accessing Collections in OCL
OCL Notation
Meaning
EXAMPLE OPERATIONS ON ALL OCL COLLECTIONS
c->size()
Returns the number of elements in the collection c.
c->isEmpty()
Returns true if c has no elements, false otherwise.
c1->includesAll(c2)
Returns true if every element of c2 is found in c1.
c1->excludesAll(c2)
Returns true if no element of c2 is found in c1.
c->forAll(var | expr)
Returns true if the Boolean expression expr true for all elements in c. As an element is being
evaluated, it is bound to the variable var, which can be used in expr. This implements universal
quantification .
c->forAll(var1, var2 | expr)
Same as above, except that expr is evaluated for every possible pair of elements from c, including the
cases where the pair consists of the same element.
c->exists(var | expr)
Returns true if there exists at least one element in c for which expr is true. This implements existential
quantification .
c->isUnique(var | expr)
Returns true if expr evaluates to a different value when applied to every element of c.
c->select(expr)
Returns a collection that contains only the elements of c for which expr is true.
EXAMPLE OPERATIONS SPECIFIC TO OCL SETS
s1->intersection(s2)
Returns the set of the elements found in s1 and also in s2.
s1->union(s2)
Returns the set of the elements found either s1 or s2.
s->excluding(x)
Returns the set s without object x.
EXAMPLE OPERATION SPECIFIC TO OCL SEQUENCES
seq->first()
Returns the object that is the first element in the sequence seq.
19
OCL Constraints and Contracts
 A contract specifies constraints on the class state that
must be valid always or at certain times, such as before or after
an operation is invoked
 Three types of constraints in OCL: invariants,
preconditions, and postconditions
 An invariant must always evaluate to true for all instance objects
of a class, regardless of what operation is invoked and in what
order
• applies to a class attribute
 A precondition is a predicate that is checked before an operation
is executed
• applies to a specific operation; used to validate input parameters
 A postcondition is a predicate that must be true after an
operation is executed
• also applies to a specific operation; describes how the object’s state was
changed by an operation
20
Example Constraints (1)
 Invariant: the maximum allowed number of
failed attempts at disarming the lock must be
a positive integer
– context Controller inv:
self.getMaxNumOfAttempts() > 0
 Precondition: to execute enterKey() the
number of failed attempts must be less than
the maximum allowed number
– context Controller::enterKey(k : Key) :
boolean pre: self.getNumOfAttempts() 
self.getMaxNumOfAttempts()
21
Example Constraints (2)
 The postconditions for enterKey() are
– (Poc1) a failed attempt is recorded
– (Poc2) if the number of failed attempts reached the maximum allowed, the system
blocks and the alarm bell blurts
– Reformulate (Poc1) to:
(Poc1) if the key is not element of the set of valid keys, then the counter of failed
attempts after exiting from enterKey() must be by one greater than before
entering enterKey()
 context Controller::enterKey(k : Key) : Boolean

-- postcondition (Poc1):
post: let allValidKeys : Set = self.checker.validKeys()
if allValidKeys.exists(vk | k = vk) then
getNumOfAttempts() = getNumOfAttempts()@pre
else
getNumOfAttempts() = getNumOfAttempts()@pre + 1
-- postcondition (Poc2):
post: getNumOfAttempts() >= getMaxNumOfAttempts() implies
self.isBlocked() and self.alarmCtrl.isOn()
22
xUnit / JUnit assert_*_()
 Verification is usually done using the


assert_*_() methods that define the
expected state and raise errors if the actual
state differs
http://www.junit.org/
Examples:
– assertTrue(4 == (2 * 2));
– assertEquals(expected, actual);
– assertNull(Object object);
– etc.
23
TLA+ Specification
lock,
unlock(invalid key)
unlock(valid key)
[closed, unlit]
[open, lit]
lock
turnLightOff
(?)
unlock(valid key)
[closed, lit]
lock,
unlock(invalid key)
MAIN CONFUSION:
What is this state diagram representing?
The state of _what_ object?
24
Download
Related flashcards

Set theory

16 cards

Metrology

19 cards

Mathematical logic

36 cards

Strength athletics

14 cards

Create Flashcards