Snort(Writing Rules)

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Writing Snort Rules
A quick guide
Brian Caswell
2
The life of a packet through Snort’s
detection engine
3
Writing Snort Rules
• Figure out what is "bad"
• Capture traffic that includes the "bad
stuff"
• Learn the protocol
• Figure out why the "bad stuff" is bad
• Write a rule
• Test the rule
4
More process
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
5
Even more process
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
Rewrite the rule
Test the rule
6
Rule Format - basic rule
alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80
(msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
7
Rule Format – Action
alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80
(msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
• Tells snort what the rule does
– In our product
• alert pass
– In snort
• alert log pass activate dynamic
– In snort-inline
• alert log pass activate dynamic drop sdrop
8
Rule Format – Custom Actions
• not supported in product
ruletype suspicious
{
type log output
log_tcpdump: suspicious.log
}
suspicious tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80
(msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
9
Rule Format – Protocol
• alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80
(msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
• Tells snort to look for a specific protocol
• Acceptable protocols:
– TCP
– UDP
– ICMP
– IP
10
Rule Format - IP Address
• alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80 (msg:"foo";
content:"bar";)
• Examples
10.1.1.1
• duh
10.1.1.0/24
• 10.1.1.0 through 10.1.1.255
!10.1.1.0/24
• anything but 10.1.1.0 through 10.1.1.255
[10.1.0.0/24,10.2.0.0./24]
• 10.1.0.0 through 10.1.0.255 or 10.2.0.0 through 10.2.0.255
![10.1.0.0/24,10.2.0.0./24]
• anything but 10.1.0.0 through 10.1.0.255 or 10.2.0.0 through
10.2.0.255
11
Rule Format - Port
• alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80 (msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
• Examples:
any
80
1:1023
• 1 through 1023 (inclusive)
:1023
• less than or equal to 1023
10:
• greater than or equal to 10
!53
• not 53
!53:100
• not 53 through 100 (inclusive)
NOTE: NO PORT LISTS. 80,8080 IS NOT VALID!!!!
12
Rule Format - Direction
• alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80
(msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
->
– From the first IP/Port to the second IP/Port
<>
• From either the first IP/Port to the second IP/Port
OR
• From either the first IP/Port to the second IP/Port
13
Rule Format - ... Oh yeah, variables
var EXTERNAL_NET any
var HTTP_PORTS 80
var SMTP_SERVERS 10.1.1.1
alert tcp $EXTERNAL_NET any ->
$SMTP_SERVERS $HTTP_PORTS
14
Rule Format – Body
• alert tcp 10.1.1.1 any -> 10.1.1.2 80
(msg:"foo"; content:"bar";)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
meat of the detection capabilities
key value pairs (key:value;)
types of keywords
meta-data
Payload
non-payload
post-detection
15
Meta-Data keywords
• Msg
– msg:"my evil attack";
• Reference
– reference:url,www.snort.org;
• sid
– sid:100000;
• Rev
– rev:100000;
• Classtype (see classification.config)
– classtype:attempted-recon;
• Priority
– priority:3;
16
Payload
• Content
– content:"foo";
• Nocase
– content:"foo"; nocase;
• Rawbytes
– content:"foo"; rawbytes;
• Depth
– content:"foo"; depth:10;
• Offset
– content:"foo"; offset:10;
• Uricontent
– uricontent:"foo";
17
Complicated Payload Options
•
•
•
•
•
•
distance
Within
Isdataat
byte_test
byte_jump
pcre
18
Broken Payload Keywords
• Regex
• content-list
• rpc
19
Non-Payload options:
• ack (TCP Acknowledge Number)
– ack:0;
• dsize (Packet Size)
– dsize:>10;
• id (IP ID)
– id:10;
• fragoffset (fragment offset)
– fragoffset:0;
• fragbits (IP fragment bits)
– fragbits:MD;
20
More non-payload options
• ttl (IP Time To Live)
– ttl:1;
• tos (IP TOS)
– tos:30;
• ipopts (IP option)
– ipopts:lsrr;
• flags (TCP flags)
– flags:SF;
• flow (TCP State)
– flow:to_server,established;
21
Even more non-payload options:
• seq (TCP Sequence Number)
– seq:0;
• ttl (IP Time To Live)
– ttl:10;
• window (TCP Window Size)
– window:55808;
• itype (ICMP Type)
– itype:8;
• icode (ICMP Code)
– icode:0;
22
Even more non-payload options (again)
• icmp_id (ICMP ID)
– icmp_id:0;
• icmp_seq (ICMP Sequence Number)
– icmp_seq:0;
• ip_proto (IP Protocol)
– ip_proto:6;
• sameip (Are the IPs the same)
– sameip;
• stateless (Not part of a flow)
– stateless;
23
The complicated options
•
•
•
•
•
•
distance
Within
isdataat
byte_test
byte_jump
pcre
24
Distance
content:”SITE”;
content:”EXEC”;
distance:0;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
25
Distance
content:”SITE”;
content:”EXEC”;
distance:0;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
26
Distance
content:”SITE”;
content:”EXEC”;
distance:0;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
27
Distance
content:”SITE”;
content:”EXEC”;
distance:0;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
28
Within
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
29
Within
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
30
Within
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
31
Within
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20 20 20 20 20 45 58 45 43 20 65 76
69 6C 66 6F 6F 0A
SITE
ilfoo.
EXEC ev
32
Isdataat
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20
SITE
33
Isdataat
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20
SITE
34
Isdataat
content:”SITE”;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20
SITE
35
Isdataat
content:”SITE”;
isdataat:50,relative;
content:!”|0a|”;
within:50;
53 49 54 45 20
SITE
36
Byte Test
content:" LSUB |22|"; content:"|22| {";
distance:0;
byte_test:5,>,256,0,string,dec,relative;
31 20 4C 53 55 42 20 22 22 20 7B 31 30 36 34 7D
1 LSUB "" {1064}
37
Byte Test
content:" LSUB |22|"; content:"|22| {";
distance:0;
byte_test:5,>,256,0,string,dec,relative;
31 20 4C 53 55 42 20 22 22 20 7B 31 30 36 34 7D
1 LSUB "" {1064}
38
Byte Test
content:" LSUB |22|"; content:"|22| {";
distance:0;
byte_test:5,>,256,0,string,dec,relative;
31 20 4C 53 55 42 20 22 22 20 7B 31 30 36 34 7D
1 LSUB "" {1064}
39
Byte Test
content:" LSUB |22|"; content:"|22| {";
distance:0;
byte_test:5,>,256,0,string,dec,relative;
31 20 4C 53 55 42 20 22 22 20 7B 31 30 36 34 7D
1 LSUB "" {1064}
40
Byte Test
content:" LSUB |22|"; content:"|22| {";
distance:0;
byte_test:5,>,256,0,string,dec,relative;
31 20 4C 53 55 42 20 22 22 20 7B 31 30 36 34 7D
1 LSUB "" {1064}
41
Byte Test
content:" LSUB |22|"; content:"|22| {";
distance:0;
byte_test:5,>,256,0,string,dec,relative;
31 20 4C 53 55 42 20 22 22 20 7B 31 30 36 34 7D
1 LSUB "" {1064}
42
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
00
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01
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00
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00
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D1
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01
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02
01
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FF
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
43
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
00
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01
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68
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D1
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02
01
61
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FF
41
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
44
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
00
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01
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68
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6F
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9C
F3
20
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51
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D5
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D1
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01
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FF
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
45
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
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41
41
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01
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68
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86
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6F
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9C
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73
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D1
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02
01
61
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FF
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
46
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
00
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01
00
68
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0F
86
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6F
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9C
F3
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73
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D5
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D1
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0F
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02
01
61
00
FF
41
41
41
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
47
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
00
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01
00
68
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0F
86
00
6F
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9C
F3
20
73
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41
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36
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37
74
00
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51
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5E
00
00
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D5
00
D1
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00
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6A
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0F
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02
01
61
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FF
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
48
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
00
41
41
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41
41
00
01
00
68
00
41
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0F
86
00
6F
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9C
F3
20
73
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37
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D5
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D1
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6A
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6C
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63
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0F
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02
01
61
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FF
41
41
41
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
49
Byte Jump
content:"|00 00 00 00|"; offset:8; depth:4; content:"|00 01 86 F3|";
offset:16; depth:4; content:"|00 00 00 07|"; distance:4; within:4;
byte_jump:4,4,relative,align; byte_jump:4,4,relative,align;
byte_test:4,>,128,0,relative;
00
00
00
6C
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41
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00
01
00
68
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41
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0F
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6F
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9C
F3
20
73
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41
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36
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D1
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41
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41
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00
63
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0F
41
41
41
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61
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FF
41
41
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....6Q.+........
................
... 7^.j....loca
lhost...........
................
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
50
PCRE
• Perl Compatable Regular Expressions
• a few snort specific options
• when using, ALWAYS include a regular
content
• NOT PART OF FAST PATTERN
MATCHER!
• Read Mastering Regular Expressions
51
PCRE Format
pcre:[!]"(/<regex>/|m<delim><regex><delim>)[i
smxAEGRUB]";
• Examples
–
–
–
–
–
pcre:"/blah.*blah/";
pcre:"m?blah/.*blah?";
pcre:"/blah.*blah/i";
pcre:!"/blah/i";
content:"foo"; pcre:!"/blah/R";
52
PCRE basic options
pcre:"/blah.*blah/OPTIONS_GO_HERE";
• i
– case insensitive
• s
– include newlines in the dot metacharacter
• m
– match on all line breaks
• x
– ignore whitespace in rules
53
PCRE options PCRE specific
pcre:"/blah.*blah/OPTIONS_GO_HERE";
• A
– the pattern must match only at the start of
the buffer (same as ^)
• E
– $ only matches end of string
• G
– Invert greedyness (match as little as
possible)
54
PCRE options Snort specific
• pcre:"/blah.*blah/OPTIONS_GO_HERE";
• R
– Relative Match (same as distance:0;)
• U
– URI match (same as uricontent)
• B
– Do not use the decoded buffers (same as
rawbytes)
55
PCRE Regex metacharacters
•
\
– Quote the next metacharacter
•
^
–
•
Match the beginning of the line
.
– Match any character (except newline)
•
$
– Match the end of the line (or before newline at the end)
•
|
– Alternation
•
()
– Grouping
•
[]
– Character class
•
pcre:"/^(foo|bar)$/";
56
PCRE patterns
• \t
– tab
• \n
– newline (LN)
• \r
– return (CR)
• \033
– octal char (think of a PDP-11)
• \x0a
– hex char
57
more PCRE patterns
• \x{263a}
– wide hex char (Unicode SMILEY)
• \l
– lowercase next char (think vi)
• \u
– uppercase next char (think vi)
• \L
– lowercase till \E (think vi)
• \U
– uppercase till \E (think vi)
• \Q
– quote (disable) pattern metacharacters till \E
• \E
– end case modification (think vi)
58
Even more PCRE patterns
• \w
– Match a "word" character (alphanumeric plus "_")
• \W
– Match a non-"word" character
• \s
– Match a whitespace character
• \S
– Match a non-whitespace character
• \d
– Match a digit character
• \D
– Match a non-digit character
• Example
– "/\w\s\w/“
– Matches: "FOO BAR“
– Doesn't Match: "FOO ";
59
PCRE Quantifiers
• *
– Match 0 or more times
• +
– Match 1 or more times
• ?
– Match 1 or 0 times
• {n}
– Match exactly n times
• {n,}
– Match at least n times
• {n,m}
– Match at least n but not more than m times
• Example
pcre:"/\w{3,5}}/";
60
PCRE Example
•
•
CVE: CVE-1999-0095
Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
•
PCRE Example
/rcpt to: | /bin/id/
OR
/rcpt to: ; /bin/id/
/rcpt to: [;|] /bin/id/
•
/rcpt to:\s*[;|]/
/^rcpt to\x3b\s*[\x3b|]/
/^rcpt to\x3b\s*[\x3b|]/i
/^rcpt to\x3b\s*[\x3b|]/mi
61
PCRE Example (regex)
• Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
• PCRE
/rcpt to: | \/bin\/id/
OR
/rcpt to: ; \/bin\/id/
62
PCRE Example (character classes)
• Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
• PCRE
/rcpt to: [;|] \/bin\/id/
63
PCRE Example (remove command)
• Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
• PCRE
/rcpt to: [;|]/
64
PCRE Example (remove : and ;)
• Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
• PCRE
/rcpt to\x3a [\x3b|]/
65
PCRE Example (remove evasion)
• Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
• PCRE
/rcpt to\x3a\s*[\x3b|]/i
66
PCRE Example (remove false positives)
• Attack
rcpt to: | /bin/id
OR
rcpt to: ; /bin/id
• PCRE
/^rcpt to\x3a\s*[\x3b|]/mi
67
PCRE completed example
• alert tcp any any -> any 25
(flow:to_server,established;
content:"rcpt to\:"; nocase;
pcre:"/^rcpt\s+to\x3a\s*[|\x3b]/mi";)
68
The required bits
• rule header - action ip port direction ip
port
• Msg
• content (if you can)
• Classtype
• Sid
• Rev
• flow/stateless (for TCP rules)
69
A few notes
• when multiple rules match at a time, longest
content "wins“
• long contents are good
• multiple contents are ok, split up instead of
being evaded
• pcre without content is bad
• include many references
• test test test test test
• use variables, they are there for a reason
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