Lanceurs lourds

advertisement
Heavy Launchers
by Alain Souchier
president Association Planète Mars France
EMC11 Neuchâtel, 1 Octobre 2011
Content
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Heavy launchers of the past
World heavy and semi heavy launchers
NASA heavy launcher
Space X proposals
Russian heavy and semi heavy launchers
Chinese heavy and semi heavy launcher
European capabilities
Heavy launchers missions
Heavy launchers of the past
Saturn 5
1967 – 1973
13 flights
130+15 t
N1
1969 – 1972
4 flights
95 t
Shuttle
1981 – 2011
135 flights
35 +70+20 t
Energya
1987 – 1988
2 flights
88 t +
World heavy and semi heavy launchers
LEO payload comparisons
In green: projects or development
Chinese HLLV
SLS 100-150t
Liberty
21t
Delta
4H
100-150t
Angara
A5ECB
21-23t
24t
Falcon 9 Atlas 5
Heavy
18t
53t
Rus-M 4-35t
23-50t
Proton
HII B 20t
A6 16,5t
Long
March
3 5
12t 25-50t
GSLV
Mk2 Mk3
5t
10t
13t
USA
Europe Japan
Russia
China
India
US NASA heavy launcher
Configuration frozen summer 2011: 8.4 m diameter core
(identical to ET) with 3 SSME/RS25, 5 segments boosters
Payload with boosters and central core: 70t
Payload with second stage (J2X) and 5 SSMEs: 130t
Operations requested starting in 2017 (unmanned) and 2021
(manned)
Devt costs:
12 B$
Docs. NASA
US NASA heavy launcher
The selected configuration remains close to the old Ares 5
J2X engine 130 t thrust (later
versions)
130 t payload
version
Boosters with 5 segments
(4 for the shuttle)
RS25 = SSME shuttle engine
in an expandable version
Poussée 225 t vacuum thrust
Specific impulse 453 s
Docs. NASA
Space X
proposals
Space X proposals
Beginning of 2011, Space X has proposed to fly the Falcon 9
Heavy as soon as 2013.
Falcon 9 Heavy lower composite is an assembly of 3 Falcon 9
first stages (27 engines).
The central core engines as well as the boosters engines are
fed from the booster tanks at lift off and during the mission
first part. When the boosters tanks are empty the boosters are
shut off and jettisonned. The central core then operates on its
own tanks which are still full at separation. This operating
mode is called « cross feeding ». This concept has been known
for a long time but has never been applied.
It is probably the reason why the payload given by Space X
has grown from 32 t mid 2010 (preceding chart) to 54 t
beginning of 2011.
Space X proposals
Experience on large multiengines propulsion bays:
- Soyouz: 5 turbopumps and 20 chambers on the first stage; very good reliability
- N1 lunar launcher: 30 engine on the first stage; 4 failures on 4 launches
- Ariane 4: 8 Viking engines on the first stage; very good reliability
- Saturn 1 and 1 B: 8 H1 engines on the first stage; very good reliability but few flights
Space X proposals
• After Falcon 9 Heavy:
Space X foresees the development of 2 new engines: The 600 t Merlin 2 and the
70t LOX/LH2 Raptor. One Merlin 2 replaces the 9 Merlin 1 on the Falcon 9 and in
a cluster is the basis for a heavy launcher family Falcon X, Falcon X Heavy and
Falcon XX.
Space X future engines
Raptor
Merlin 2
LOX/RP
GG cycle
Merlin 2
Propellant
LOX/RP
Thrust (vac) [klbf] 1,700
Isp (vac) [sec]
322
T/W [lbf/lbm]
150
LOX/LH2
SC cycle
J-2X
LOX/LH2
292
448
55
Angara family
2014 ?
RD 190 LOX/kéro
staged combustion 196212 t thrust engine
Angara family
cryo upper stages
Isayev KVD1 RD56M
7.4 t thrust H2/O2
staged combustion
engine
Rus M family
From 6 to 50 t in LEO
Launch from Vostochny
2015 ?
Upper stage
powered by four
10 t thrust RD0146
LOX/LH2 engine
First stage and boosters powered by the 150/170 t thrust NK33
LOX/kero engine (N1 lunar rocket)
Chinese heavy and semi heavy launchers
Heavy launcher
Long March 5 family
Long March 5
10 to 25 t LEO - 6 to 14t GTO
2015 ?
Diametrer 5 m
2 YF 75D LOX/LH2
Diameter 3,35 m
1 YF 75D LOX/LH2
Diameter5 m
2 YF 77 (50t) LOX/LH2
Diameter 3,35 m
2 YF 100 (120t) LOX/kero
Diameteer 2,25 m
1 YF 100 (120t) LOX/kero
and CZ5DY with 6
boosters
(next
chart)
China
Heavy version of the Long March 5
6 boosters LOX/kero each with 2
YF-100 120 thrust engines
5 m diameter LOX/LH2 central core
with 4 YF-77 50 thrust engines
50 t LEO payload
The Long March 5 et the
heavy launcher
China
Two different versions of the heavy launcher
To the left with LOX/kero boosters (YF-650 engines),
LOX/Kero first stage (4x YF-650) and cryo upper
stage (2x YF-220)
To the right solid propellants boosters , cryo first
stage (5 x YF-220) and cryo second stage (1x YF-220)
Heavy chinese launcher engines
Ground thrust
Vacuum thrust
Ground specific
impulse
Vacuum specific
impulse
Chamber pressure
Mixture ratio
Oxydiser
flowrate
Propellant
flowrate
Area
ratio
Heavy chinese launcher engines
LOX/Kero 700 t engine: staged
combustion cycle
LOX/LH 200 t engine: gaz generator
cycle
Chine
Chinese Moon programme: heavy launcher use
European capabilities (1)
LEO payload in tonnes
140
Ariane 5 growth potential for
space exploration
A5 ECB
VULCAIN 2
3EPC
4 MPS1
120
100
80
A5 ECB
VULCAIN 2
4 MPS1
Limit for human Mars missions
A5 ECB
VULCAIN 2
(+rallumage)
A5 ECB
VULCAIN 2
MPS2
A5 ECB
VEDA
MPS2
A5
H Ø 9,8m
5 VULCAIN 2
6 MPS
A5
H620 Ø 8m
5 VULCAIN 2
4 MPS
A5
H620 Ø 8m
5 VULCAIN 2
2 MPS
4 SRB (US)
A5 H920
5 VULCAIN 2
2 MPS
4 SRB(US)
60
Limit for manned moon or NEO asteroids
missions
40
20
Increasing
modifications
A5 ECA
VULCAIN 2
No launch pad modifications
Launch pad
modifs
Production facilities
modifs
International cooperation
European capabilities (2)
Examples of heavy launchers derived
from Ariane 5
For 541C
and 543C:
production
synergy with
the basic
Ariane 5
European capabilities (3)
Examples of heavy launchers derived
from Ariane 5
Ariane 5SH
Till more than 100 t in LEO
Lift off with 4SRB + 5 Vulcain
EAP ignition at SRB shut off
European capabilities (4)
Example of US Europe cooperation
SRB
US
Désignation
Central Core
Boosters
LEO payload
A5L4p
H620
4 EAP
80t
A5L4Pp
H620
2 EAP 2SRB
100t
A5L6Pp
H 620
2 EAP 4SRB
110t
A5L+6Pp
H745
2EAP 4SRB
130t
A5L++6Pp
H920
2EAP 4SRB
140t
European capabilities (5)
Budgetary capabilities
Heavy launchers missions examples
Heavy launches may be linked to
semi heavy launches for example to
launch the crew
• Martian exploration
– 3 launches (Mars Direct) to
– 7 launches (NASA DRA 5)
• Lunar exploration
– 1 launch
• NEO asteroids exploration
– 1 to 2 launches
• Defense against NEO asteroids
– 1 to x launches
• New geostationary missions (antenna farms,
Earth observation more secure than in SSO, solar
power stations,…)
Space X proposals
Questions around Falcon 9 Heavy
- What are the budgetary sources for the launcher
development?
- A 5,2 m diameter fairing is far too small for 50 t
payloads. Space X is now presenting versions with a 8 m
diameter fairing.
- Cross feeding is not so easy to develop (transition for
the central core engines from one tank to an other)
- The 27 engine configuration enables an « engine out »
capability if the monitoring system is very efficient in
detecting anomalies before it is too late which may lead
to a complicated monitoring system.
- In some cases engines present catastrophic failures
(fire, explosion) which propagate to the other engines or
propulsion bay equipments which cannot be dealt with
the engine out capability. This failure mode probability is
no more neglectible in a 27 engines configuration. This
failure rate may be evaluated at 1 or 2 on 1000 which
means 3 to 6 % on a 27 engines configuration to which
other failure modes have to be added
The impressive Falcon 9 Heavy
27 engines propulsion bay
Russian heavy and semi
heavy launchers
Angara family
Russian heavy and semi heavy launchers
Angara family
•
Angara Family Performance Data
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Descriptions
Angara 1.2 (Small-lift)
Lift-off mass,t
171
Payload mass (kg)
Parking orbit
( H circ = 200 km, i = 63 ° )
3.8
Geotransfer ( i = 25 ° ,
H p = 5500 km),
Breeze M/KVSK (com. SC)
-
•
•
GSO ( H circ = 35,786 km, i = 0°),
Breeze M/KVTK (federal SC)
-
Angara 3 (Medium-lift) Angara А5 (Heavy-lift)
481
773
14.6
3.6 (w/KVSK)
2.4 (w/Breeze M)
2.0 (w/KVSK)
1.0 (w/Breeze M)
Angara А7 (Heavy-lift)
1133
24.5
7.5 (w/KVTK )
5.4 (w/Breeze M)
4.6 (w/KVTK)
3.0 (w/Breeze M)
35.0
12.5 (w/KVTK-A7)
7.6 (w/KVTK-A7)
Long March 5 - Engines
CZ-5-540 :10 engines in the lower
stack
Version
Boosters
First stage
CZ-5-200
--
CZ-5-320
2xCZ-5-200, YF120t
CZ-5-200, YF-120t CZ-5-300, YF-120t
CZ-5-504
CZ-5-522
CZ-5-540
4xCZ-5-300, YF120t
2xCZ-5-200 2xCZ5-300, YF-120t
4xCZ-5-200, YF120t
CZ-5-500, 2xYF50t
CZ-5-500, 2xYF50t
CZ-5-500, 2xYF50t
Second stage
CZ-YF-73, YF-73
CZ-5-KO,
CZ-5-HO, 2xYF-75
CZ-5-HO, 2xYF-75
CZ-5-HO, 2xYF-75
Third stage (not
used for LEO)
--
CZ-5-HO, YF-75
--
--
--
Thrust (at ground)
134 Mgf (1.34
MN)
720 Mgf (7.2 MN)
1064 Mgf (10.64
MN)
824 Mgf (8.24
MN)
584 Mgf (5.84
MN)
Launch weight
82 t
420 t
800 t
630 t
470 t
Height (maximal)
33 m
55 m
62 m
58 m
53 m
Payload (LEO 200
km)
1.5 t
10 t
25 t
20 t
10 t
Payload (GTO)
--
6t
14 t
11 t
6t
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards