1. The Netherlands

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Orchids Production and Market
in Europe
Professor Chiachung Chen
National ChungHsing University
Taichung Taiwan, 40227
Three stages:
1. Developing: 1997-2007
2. Over supply:
2008 – 2010
3. Stabilizing: since 2011
The major markets
 1. The
Netherlands :50%
 2. Germany
 3. Belgium
 4. Italy
 5. Denmark
 6. Switzerland
 7. UK
The different requirement
1. The Holland: two spikes, all kinds of
flower sizes and colors
2. UK : one spike, long stem, big flower
3. North Europe : two spikes, small flower,
20-30 cm stem.
4. Italy:
northern, big size
southern, small size
How to analyze the orchids
market of Europe
1. The Netherlands: Occupied 50%
2. The tissue culture plantlets production
 : 75 % from the Floricultural and
 Anthura b.v. (Harks)
3. Two auction markets owned 60% sales
quantity : Aalsmeer and Naalswijk
The first stage:
 Miracle
crop!
 Incredible pot flower!
 Quantity increase! Price jump!
The sale quantity of Phalaenopsis
sales from 2003 to 2007 in the Holland
5000
4500
*10000 uni t s
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
2002.5
2003
2003.5
2004
2004.5
2005
2005.5
2006
2006.5
2007
2007.5
The average prices of Phalaenopsis from
2003 to 2007 in the Holland
Average cost: 3.86 Euros
5. 6
5. 4
Pr i ce, E u r o s
5. 2
5
4. 8
4. 6
4. 4
4. 2
4
2002. 5
2003
2003. 5
2004
2004. 5
2005
2005. 5
2006
2006. 5
2007
2007. 5
The change rates in the orchids markets
from 2003 to 2007 in the Holland
Year
Cymbidium
2003
2004
11741
13113
(+11.7%)
13864
(+5.7%)
15557
(+12.2%)
15529
(-0.18%)
2005
2006
2007
Dendrobium
Miltonia
Oncidium
Paphiopedilum
5569
4680
5768
2356
7030
4507
5399
2691
(+26.2%) (-3.7%) (-6.4%) (+14.2%)
8405
4084
4459
2686
(+19.5%) (-9.5%) (-17.4%) (-0.1%)
10342
5119
4767
3383
(+23.1%) (+25.3%) (+6.8%) (+25.9%)
11728
6660
4611
3627
(+13.4%) (+30.1%) (-3.2%) (+7.2%)
Stage II. Over supply
The floods of Phalaenopsis !
Disaster of orchids industry!
The change of the auction price of
Phalaenopsis in Naaldwijk auction market
Year
2008
2007
2006
1-20 Ws
3.859
4.742
5.407
21-25 Ws
2.631
3.489
4.058
26-35 Ws
2.891
4.194
3.931
The supply of Phalaenopsis in
Naaldwijk auction market
Year
2008
2007
2006
1-20Ws 120,997 63,831
36,074
21-25 Ws
26-35 Ws
58,880
49,455
153,684 97,432
152,921 61,346
The typical variety: Anthura Gold
Price)
One
spike
1. Anthura Gold
Two
spikes
branch
2006
2007
2.8
3.6
5.306
4.685
4.305
3.750
2008
2.1
3.505
3.612
Stage II.
1. At lease 15 companies, 25 ha
has withdrawal from the
market!
2. The production has reduced
25 %
Data source: 2008-2010
The average cost in 2009-2010
 1.
less than
1 ha : 4.22 EU$
 2. ranged 1 – 2 ha : 4.025 EU$
 3. More than 2 ha : 3.725 EU$
Supply
2010
2009
2008
450
400
Su p p l y , t h o u san d s
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Week
35
40
45
50
55
Price
Price EU$
2010
2009
2008
6 ,0 0 0
5 ,5 0 0
5 ,0 0 0
Pri ce, EU $
4 ,5 0 0
4 ,0 0 0
3 ,5 0 0
3 ,0 0 0
2 ,5 0 0
2 ,0 0 0
1 ,5 0 0
1 ,0 0 0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Weeks
35
40
45
50
55
The average cost in 2009-2010
 1.
less than
1 ha : 4.22 EU$
 2. ranged 1 – 2 ha : 4.025 EU$
 3. More than 2 ha : 3.725 EU$
Stage III. Recovery
Decrease the quantity of
Phalaenopsis and others
orchids
Supply
400
350
U n i t s, t h o u san d s
300
250
2011 unit
2010 unit
200
150
100
50
0
0
2
4
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
Weeks
Price
6,000
5,000
Pr ice E U$
4,000
price
price
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
0
2
4
6
8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54
Weeks
Stage III.
New era of the orchids industry
 1.
Diversity of the Phalaenopsis
 2. More Orchids were supplied:
 Cymbidium,
 Dendrobium,
 Miltonia
 3. New market: USA
26 Ws
Flask
26 Ws
2 inch
pot
6-10 Ws
4 inch
pot
Spiking
Traditional flowchart for the Phalaenopsis
production in Europe
35-40weeks
26 weeks
2 inch
pots
flasks
26 weeks
4 inch
pots
6-10 weeks
spiking
3 inch pot
9-14 weeks
15-20weeks
2 inch:6cm
3 inch :9-10cm
4 inch :10.5-12cm
5 inch :15cm
6-10 weeks
2" pot
3 inch
pots
6-10 weeks
20-26 weeks
5 inch
pots
6-10 weeks
Total:40-42 weeks
flowchart for the Phalaenopsis production in Europe
Prices and numbers of spiking
Red
two spikes
one spike
6
5
Price, E U$
4
3
2
1
0
0
10
20
30
Weeks
40
50
60
The assortment of
Phalaenopsis in
the Netherlands
The production system
Standardization

Easy to be copied to

other countries
Culture Guide for Floricultural b.v.

Td
Tn
Light
 -------------------------------------------------- Growing: 28ºC
26ºC 4000-6000 lux
 Cooling:
20ºC 18ºC 7000-8000 lux
 Flowering: 23ºC
20ºC 7000-8000 lux
Breeding the varieties
for market!
The selection varieties of
Floricultura b.v.
For sale:
2011-2013
The required variety for the Netherlands
Phalaenopsis
A. Genotype
1. double or more spikes
2. medium size of blossoms, at least 8 cm
3. number of flowers, at least 7 of each stem
4. can be induced to spike within 6-10 weeks
5. bright color
6. compact size, more units per m²
7. others
The required nursery for the Netherlands
B. Plant conditions
1. mature enough
2. virus free
3. no disease, no insect
4. healthy roots
5. others
The requirements for the Netherlands
To meet the greenhouse climate conditions
1. vegetative stage : day temp: 28ºC,
night temp:26ºC
light intensity : 6000~12000 lux
2. cooling stage : Td:20ºC, Tn:18ºC
LI : 8000~15000 lux
3. flowering stage : Td:23ºC, Tn:20ºC
LI : 7000~13000 lux
Opportunity in Europe market
The window of the Europe
market is narrowing for Asia
Opportunity in Europe market
I. Sell products
 1.
2 inch size
 2. Plants with two spikes by
 air freight
Opportunity in Europe market
II. Sell varieties

1. Products of plant tissue culture
 2. 1500-2000 units of one variety in 2 inch

stage for test: numbers of spiking,

branching, numbers of flowers, plant

structure, shelf life and others.


Suggestion!
I. Technique
1. Select the adequate varieties for the
destination market
Suggestion!
II. Build credibility !
Timing, Quality, Quantity
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