Lincoln-Douglas Debate

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Lincoln-Douglas Debate
An Examination of Values
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OBJECTIVES: The student will
1. Demonstrate understanding of the concepts that underlie Lincoln-Douglas
Debate.
2. Write at least one Lincoln-Douglas affirmative or negative case.
3. Demonstrate understanding of the procedures used in Lincoln-Douglas
Debate.
MEETING OBJECTIVE 1: Demonstrate understanding of the concepts that underlie
Lincoln-Douglas Debate. The student will
A. Participate in class discussions of the following concepts: debate,
affirmative, negative, proposition of fact, proposition of value, proposition of policy,
core value, value criteria, burden of proof, refutation, clash, constructive speech,
rebuttal speech, cross examination, contention, observation, Lincoln-Douglas debate
format, flowing a debate.
B. Construct propositions of fact, value, and policy.
C. Take a written quiz about the concepts in “A” above.
D. Flow at least one Lincoln-Douglas debate.
MEETING OBJECTIVE 2: Write at least one Lincoln-Douglas affirmative or negative
case. The student will
A. Conduct research on the current national Lincoln-Douglas debate topic.
B. Write either an affirmative or negative case for the current national LincolnDouglas debate topic.
MEETING OBJECTIVE 3: Demonstrate understanding of the procedures used in
Lincoln-Douglas Debate. The student will
A. Participate in at least one Lincoln-Douglas debate.
B. Complete an evaluation form for at least one Lincoln-Douglas debate.
• Key Terms and Concepts for Unit Two
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debate
refutation
Affirmative
clash
Negative
constructive speech
proposition of fact
rebuttal speech
proposition of value
cross examination
proposition of policy
contention
core value
observation
value criteria
flowing a debate
burden of proof
Lincoln-Douglas debate format
OBJECTIVE 1:
General Background
• Debate=”a regulated discussion of a
proposition by two matched sides.”
• Proposition=”an agreed upon topic of
discussion, open to interpretation, for
which reasonable people may accept
arguments on either side.”
• The Affirmative always supports/upholds
the proposition.
• -The Negative always opposes the
proposition.
General Background
• Proof in a debate can be either evidence or logical
reasoning. Evidence is the preferred form of proof.
• The Judge is a person or panel that evaluates a debate
and decides who wins.
• Lincoln-Douglas debate is an academic debate event
that features the clash of two speakers over the truth or
falsity of a value proposition.
• Value propositions invite argument that is more
philosophical [than policy debate]; the foundation of the
debate is often some moral or ethical premise.
Lincoln-Douglas debate is more conceptual as a result.
Its anecdotal (or narrative) evidence is often persuasive
but hardly conclusive, real-life examples may illustrate
some philosophical truth, but do not prove it.
• Core Value
• In Lincoln-Douglas the selected standard
of judgment is the Core Value.
Value Criterion
• In L-D the Value Criterion is the test that
must be met in order to have the core
value. The answers to the question “How
do you know you have the core value?”
are the value criteria.
2 types of value propositions:
1. Propositions that make some declaration
of value or importance about a single
entity.
Example: Laws which protect citizens
form themselves are justified.
2. Judgments of comparison between two
entities.
Example: An oppressive government is
more desirable than no government at all.
Burden of Proof
• Whoever initiates a particular argument has the
burden of proving the truth of the premises and
the validity of the argument.
• In academic debate, it is not enough to assert
something as true and demand that the
opponent prove the assertion false.
• The debater who initiates the argument has the
responsibility of providing proof in support of the
argument. If no proof is provided, the opponent
can defeat the argument by labeling it a mere
assertion or unsupported statement without
merit in the debate.
• Each argument in the debate carries with it this
same obligation of support.
Burden of Proof
• In L-D the Affirmative’s job is to argue that the
proposition is reasonable for anyone to believe.
• The Affirmative has the burden of proving the
reasonableness of the proposition.
• The Negative has the burden of proving the proposition
false or unreasonable.
• In other words, both sides share the burden of proof
equally. Neither side is assumed to be true at the
beginning of the debate.
• The Affirmative or the Negative may claim that the
opponent has not met his burden of proof, but that alone
will not win the debate. The side making the claim must
have met its burden of proof. In other words, you don’t
win just because the other side did not do its job; you
must meet your burden of proof to win.
Burden of Rejoinder
• Burden of Rejoinder or Refutation simply
means the obligation to respond.
• Once an argument is made by one side,
the argument demands response from the
other side. If the opposing side does not
respond, the initiator of the argument can
claim victory by default.
• Since both sides have burdens of proof,
both sides have burdens of rejoinder.
• Since the Affirmative initiates the debate,
the negative has the initial burden of
rejoinder.
Clash
• Clash is specific interactive argument that
happens during the debate.
• Clash is the essence of debate.
• Pattern of Clash:
1. Initial Argument
2. Opposition Attacks Initial Argument
3. Initiator Responds to Attack
4. Opposition Attacks the Response
5. Initiator Repairs Damage Done to
Response
Format for Lincoln-Douglas Debate
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1. Affirmative Constructive Speech
2. Cross Examination of Aff by Negative
3. Negative Constructive Speech
4. Cross Examination of Neg by Affirmative
5. Initial Affirmative Rebuttal
6. Negative Rebuttal
7. Final Affirmative Rebuttal
6 minutes
3 minutes
7 minutes
3 minutes
4 minutes
6 minutes
3 minutes
• Notice that both sides have an equal amount of speaking
time (13 minutes) and cross-examination time (3
minutes).
• Each side is usually allowed 3 minutes of Preparation
Time. This can be used before a speech. Once it is
used up, no additional preparation time is allowed.
Lincoln-Douglas Basic Case
Organization
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The following case outline can be used by both the affirmative and negative.
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I. Introduction
A. Attention Grabber
B. Statement of the Affirmative/Negative position
C. Statement of the Proposition
II. Definition of Terms
III. Core Value
A. Statement of Core Value
B. Evidence in support of Core Value
C. Explanation of evidence
IV. Value Criterion
A. Statement of Value Criterion
B. Evidence in support of Value Criterion
C. Explanation of evidence
• V. Contention #1
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A. Statement of Contention #1
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B. Evidence in support of contention
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C. Explanation of evidence
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Follow this same pattern for each contention and/or
for each subpoint you develop within a contention.
• VI. Conclusion
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A. Summary the Affirmative/Negative position
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B. Restate the Core Value
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C. Restate the Value Criterion
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D. Restate the proposition
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E. Ask for an Affirmative/Negative ballot in the
debate.
Speaker Duties
• Constructive Speeches are those speeches
during which debaters present those arguments
upon which they hope to win the debate.
• Any argument is considered legitimate to
present during a constructive speech.
• The purpose of Rebuttals is to attack the
opponent’s case or to defend your case from the
opponent’s attacks. No new arguments may
be presented during rebuttals, but additional
evidence may be presented in support of initial
arguments.
Affirmative Constructive (6 minutes)
1. Introduction
2. Define terms and/or explain limits of the
proposition
3. Establish Core Value (Observation 1)
4. Establish Value Criterion (Observation 2)
5. Give 2-3 reasons (Contentions) why the
upholding the proposition is critical to
maintaining the core value.
Negative Constructive (7 minutes. Use 4-5
minutes to build case and 2-3 minutes to attack
Affirmative case)
1. Introduction
2. Define terms and/or explain limits of the
proposition
3. Establish Core Value (Observation 1)
4. Establish Value Criterion (Observation 2)
5. Give 2-3 reasons (Contentions) why opposing
the proposition is critical to maintaining the core
value.
6. Begin attacks on the Affirmative case.
NOTE:
Remember, no new arguments are
permitted in Rebuttals. You cannot
change your case or add additional
contentions.
First Affirmative Rebuttal (4 minutes)
1. Respond specifically to the negative case
(2 minutes)
2. Respond to attacks made by the negative
during his constructive speech (2 minutes)
Negative Rebuttal (6 minutes)
1. Defend your case against the affirmative’s
attacks from affirmative rebuttal
2. Extend your attacks against the
affirmative, and point out any attacks by
you that the affirmative did not answer.
3. Summarize the most important reasons
why you think the negative should win the
debate.
Second Affirmative Rebuttal (3 minutes)
1. Defend your case against the attacks by
the negative and point out any attacks by
the affirmative that were not responded to
by the negative.
2. Extend your attacks against the negative.
3. Summarize the most important reasons
why you think the affirmative should win
the debate.
Cross-Examinations (3 minutes)
1. Ask questions to have your opponent
clarify anything about his case that you did
not understand.
2. Ask questions that will set up your
grounds for attacking his case.
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