Introduction To Debate and Building an Effective Argument Argument (argumentation) • To take a side from a proposition-give the audience FACTS. • Intends to provide insight offers a verifiable perspective for the audience • Supports reasoning with valid evidence. • Considers opposing viewpoints. • Provides rationale to clarify/explain relevance and validity of evidence. Persuade: • To try to convince someone-try to change their OPINION. • Based on the writer’s opinion • Attempts to influence the perspective of the audience by appealing to their emotions, sense of right and wrong or to sense of identity. • Selects facts and emotion to support opinion. Are we persuading? • WE ARE NOT WRITING TO PERSUADE!!! • We will be speaking and riting to build effective arguments. What Is Debate? - Debate is a formal academic competition in which students argue both sides of a given topic. - The foundation of debate is speaking. Students deliver speeches based on logic and research, attempting to persuade a judge to endorse their argument. Terminology for Debate and Argumentative Writing • Write these down on your hand-out. Debate: • To argue both sides of a topic Fact: • Something proven to be true. Opinion: • A feeling or belief. Quote: • To write exactly what someone said or wrote. Resolve: • Make a firm decision to do something. Proposition: • A subject to be debated. Evidence: • Facts and examples to prove something. • For on demand writing, quotes from the passage/article. • Give credit to author when you’re writing with direct quotes OR…paraphrasing. Claim/Contention/Thesis: • Claim: One side of an argument derived from a proposition. • Contention: A strong statement to support one side of an argument. Affirmative side: • Side that supports the proposition Negative side: • Side that opposes the proposition. Affirmative vs. Negative - The job of the Affirmative (Aff) is to prove that the topic (resolution) is a good idea. - The job of the Negative (Neg) is to prove that the topic (resolution) is a bad idea. - A judge will evaluate the debate and vote for whichever team does a better job proving their point. - Being an eloquent speaker helps, but debate has much more to do with winning substantive arguments than with oratory. - Debaters use a combination of research, logic, and strategy in order to persuade judges that they have won. Affirmative vs. Negative - The core of debate is refutation. Debaters both make their own arguments and are respsonsible for responding to arguments made by the other team. That is what distinguishes debate from other speaking contests. - In order to adequately respond to the arguments made by the opposing team, debaters need to prove that their own arguments are better reasoned, better evidenced, have historical or empirical support, or have greater significance. Oppose: • To be against something. Counterclaim / Counterargument • An opposing argument or response to your claim/argument of the proposition. Rebuttal: • A response to a counterargument or counterclaim Concede: • To surrender or admit that someone else is right or correct in their argument.