ppt - Aaron Michael Johnson

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Analyzing Anonymity Protocols
1. Analyzing onion-routing security
1. Anonymity Analysis of Onion Routing in the
Universally Composable Framework
in Provable Privacy Workshop 2012
2. A Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a
Black-box Model
in TISSEC (forthcoming)
by Joan Feigenbaum, Aaron Johnson, and Paul
Syverson
2. Analyzing Dissent security
1. Ongoing work with Ewa Syta, Henry CorriganGibbs, Shu-Chun Weng, and Bryan Ford
‹#›
Analyzing Onion-Routing Security
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●
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Abstract (black-box) model of onion routing
Use Universally Composable (UC)
framework
Focus on information leaked
Perform anonymity analysis on model
‹#›
Onion-Routing Ideal Functionality
Upon receiving destination d from user U
x
u with probability b
ø with probability 1-b
y
d with probability b
ø with probability 1-b
Send (x,y) to the adversary.
FOR
‹#›
Black-box Model
●
●
Ideal functionality FOR
Environment assumptions
–
–
●
Each user gets a destination
Destination for user u chosen from distribution pu
Adversary compromises a fraction b of
routers before execution
‹#›
Anonymity Analysis of Black Box
●
●
●
●
Can lower bound expected anonymity with
standard approximation: b2 + (1-b2)pud
Worst case for anonymity is when user acts
exactly unlike or exactly like others
Worst-case anonymity is typically as if √b
routers compromised: b + (1-b)pud
Anonymity in typical situations approaches
lower bound
‹#›
Other ideal functionality
●
●
●
Provably Secure and Practical Onion Routing
by Backes, Kate, Goldberg, and Mohammadi
Computer Security Foundations Symposium 2012
Functional primitive
Shown to UC-emulate FOR
‹#›
Analyzing Dissent security
●
Fully rigorous definitions and proofs
–
–
–
●
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Anonymity
Accountability
Integrity
Standard sequence-of-games anonymity
proofs
Discovered flaws
‹#›
Discovered flaws
1. Adversary can unaccountably duplicate
honest users’ plaintexts.
2. Commitments must be non-malleable.
3. Adversary can submit self-duplicates to
cause failure with no blame.
4. Equivocation during broadcast can cause
inconsistent final state.
5. Some validation checks missing
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
{I1}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I1}3
I2
m2
{I2}1:3
{I1}2:3
{I3}3
I3
m3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I2}3
I1
m1
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
? {I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I2}3
I2
? {I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I3}3
I3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I2}3
I2
Problem 1: Client duplication, no blamed
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
{I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I2}3
I2
{I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I3}3
I3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I2}3
I2
Problem 1: Client duplication, no blamed
Solution: Commit to messages first.
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
{I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I2}3
I2
{I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I3}3
I3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I2}3
I2
Problem 1: Client duplication, no blamed
Solution: Commit to messages first
non-malleably.
‹#›
Discovered flaws
1. Adversary can unaccountably duplicate
honest users’ plaintexts.
2. Commitments must be non-malleable.
3. Adversary can submit self-duplicates to
cause failure with no blame.
4. Equivocation during broadcast can cause
inconsistent final state.
5. Some validation checks missing
‹#›
Discovered flaws
1. Adversary can unaccountably duplicate
honest users’ plaintexts.
2. Commitments must be non-malleable.
3. Adversary can submit self-duplicates to
cause failure with no blame.
4. Equivocation during broadcast can cause
inconsistent final state.
5. Some validation checks missing
‹#›
Discovered flaws
1. Adversary can unaccountably duplicate
honest users’ plaintexts.
2. Commitments must be non-malleable.
3. Adversary can submit self-duplicates to
cause failure with no blame.
4. Equivocation during broadcast can cause
inconsistent final state.
5. Some validation checks missing
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
? {I1}1:3
{I1}2:3
{I1}3
I1
? {I1}1:3
{I1}2:3
{I1}3
I3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I1}3
I1
Problem 3: Self-duplication, no blamed
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
{I1}1:3
{I1}2:3
{I1}3
I1
{I1}1:3
{I1}2:3
{I1}3
I3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I1}3
I1
Problem 3: Self-duplication, no blamed
Solution: Blame duplicate submitters.
‹#›
Discovered flaws
1. Adversary can unaccountably duplicate
honest users’ plaintexts.
2. Commitments must be non-malleable.
3. Adversary can submit self-duplicates to
cause failure with no blame.
4. Equivocation during broadcast can cause
inconsistent final state.
5. Some validation checks missing
‹#›
Discovered flaws
1. Adversary can unaccountably duplicate
honest users’ plaintexts.
2. Commitments must be non-malleable.
3. Adversary can submit self-duplicates to
cause failure with no blame.
4. Equivocation during broadcast can cause
inconsistent final state.
5. Some validation checks missing
‹#›
Modified Dissent
1. Users non-malleably commit to messages
before submission.
2. Duplicate submission punished
3. Explicit reliable broadcasts added
4. Several validation checks added with blame
5. Honest members guaranteed to agree on
who to blame
‹#›
UC Framework
●
●
●
Express security primitive as an ideal
functionality F
Construct a protocol Π that UC emulates F
Running Π can replace using F in any
protocol – security composes
‹#›
Sequence of Games Anonymity Proof
●
●
●
●
Game 0: Original anonymity game
Game 1: Replace encrypted descriptors
during shuffle with encrypted fixed messages
Game 2: Replace encrypted random seeds
after shuffle with encrypted fixed messages
Game 3: Replace pseudorandom sequences
with random sequences
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
{I1}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I2}3
I2
m2
{I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I3}3
I3
m3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I2}3
I2
m2
Problem 0: Shuffle duplication attack
‹#›
Discovered Shuffle Flaws
1
2
3
{I1}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I2}3
I2
{I2}1:3
{I2}2:3
{I3}3
I3
{I3}1:3
{I3}2:3
{I2}3
I2
Problem 0: Shuffle duplication attack
Solution: Duplicates cause NO-GO.
Blame lying shuffle.
‹#›
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