BasalAngios

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““Basal” “Dicots””
Amborellales
Nymphaeales
Austrobaileyales
Modern angiosperm relationships
Basal Lineages
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4
Monocots
Eudicots
First branch - Amborella
• One speices, Amborella trichopoda
• Endemic to New Caledonia
• Functionally dioecious
• Fruit an aggregate of drupes
• Wood lacks vessels
Second branch - Nymphaeales
• 70(4) species mostly in Nymphaea
• Includes ornamental water lily
• Widespread distribution
• Aquatic, rhizomatous herbs
Nymphaea odorata
Nymphaeales
• Flowers bisexual, radial, with a long pedicel
• Petals usually 8 to numerous
• Stamens 3 to numerous
• Seeds usually operculate (opening by a cap)
• Hairs simple usually producing mucilage (slime)
Austrobaileyales (~100 species)
Illiciaceae
• 37 species all in Illicium
• Trees or shrubs
• Source of star anise
Austrobaileyales (~100 species)
Illiciaceae
• Inflorescences only 1-3 flowers
• Flowers with tepals
• Filaments poorly differentiated from the anthers
• Carples 7 to numerous
• Fruit a starlike aggregate of 1-seeded follicles
Magnoliids
Modern angiosperm relationships
Basal Lineages
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2
3
4
Monocots
Eudicots
Phylogeny
magnoliids
Eudicots
“Basal lineages”
Magnoliids
• Flower parts often in 3’s or many
• One pollen aperture
• Two cotyledons
• Oil cells with ethereal oils
• Flowers born spirally on an elongate axis
Oil cells with ethereal oils (ether-containing)
Flowers born spirally on an elongate axis
• Magnoliaceae - spiral
• Ranunculaceae - whorl
Magnoliid Complex
• ~ 20 families
• Woody magnoliids - large robust, bisexual flowers,
many free parts, spirally on an elongate axis
• Paleoherbs - few flower parts, herbs, often
unisexual, fused carpels
Fossil - Archaeanthus
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3 outer and 6-9 inner perianth
100 - 130 carpel
numerous stamens,
Kansas, mid-Cretaceous
Major groups
• Magnoliales
– Trees or shrubs, large showy flowers
– 6 families
• Laurales
– Trees or shrubs, smaller bisexual or unisexual flowers
– 7 families
• Canellales
– Trees or shrubs, flowers 5-merous to many
– 2 families
• Piperales
– Herbs or small shrubs, reduced often 3-merous flowers
– 5 families
Laurales
Magnoliales
Piperales
Canellales
Qiu et al 2000
Magnoliales
• Magnoliaceae
Magnoliaceae
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2 genera and 220 species
Tropical and temperate
Trees or shrubs
Cultivation - tulip tree and many Magnolia
Magnoliaceae
• Synapomorphy: Stipules present, fruit an aggregate of follicles
• Leaves usually alternate, entire with stipules
• Flowers bisexual, radial, solitary, distinct
– 9-15 tepals in whorls of 3
– Numerous stamens, on elongate receptacle
– Carpels usually numerous, on elongate receptacle
• Fruit an aggregate of follicles
• Two genera: Magnolia and Liriodendron
Magnolia
Liriodendron tulipifera
Laurales
• Lauraceae
• Calycanthaceae
Laurales
Magnoliales
Piperales
Canellales
Qiu et al 2000
Lauraceae
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50 genera and 2500 species
Widespread in tropics and subtropics
Trees or shrubs, or twining parasitic vine
Source of many spices:
– bay leaves, cinnamon, camphor, sassafras
– And fruits: avocado
Lauraceae
• Synapomorphy: Fruit a drupe, endosperm lacking
• Leaves usually alternate and spiral, entire, without stipules
– Leaves usually very aromatic (ethereal oils)
• Flowers bisexual or unisexual, radial
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6 tepals, in 2 whorls usually free, small green, yellow or white
+/- 12 stamens in whorls of 3, sometimes staminodia
1 carpel, with single ovule
Short hypanthium
• Fruit usually a drupe with large embryo, endosperm lacking
Sassafras
Lauraceae
Cinnamomum
Laurus nobilis
Lauraceae
embryo
hypanthium
NOT Lauraceae
Lauraceae
A parasitic Hawaiian native
Cassytha filiformis
Calycanthaceae
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Deciduous shrubs
Leaves opposite without stipules
Flowers bisexual with hypanthium
15-30 tepals, spiral
Grown ornamentally
Calycanthus occidentalis
Laurales
Magnoliales
Piperales
Canellales
Qiu et al 2000
Piperales
• Aristolochiaceae
• Piperaceae
Aristolochiaceae
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7 genera and 460 species
Widespread in Tropical and temperate regions
Herbs or lianas
Wild ginger and Dutchman’s pipe cultivated
ornamentals
Aristolochiaceae
• Synapomorphy: aristolochic acids (bitter, yellow, nitrogenous
compounds)
• Leaves alternate and spiral, sometimes lobed, palmate venation
• Flowers bisexual
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3 sepals connate
Petals often lacking
6-12 stamens, adnate (fusion of different parts) to style
4-6 carpels
Flowers often trap insects
• Fruit a capsule
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia
Asarum
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia
Aristolochiaceae
Fly pollination - stigma and
flower withers and flies can leave
Aristolochia
Piperaceae
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6 genera and 2020 species
Widely distributed in tropics and subtropics
Herbs to small trees, or epiphytic
Black, white pepper and betel nut source
Piperaceae
• Synapomorphy: vascular bundles of more than 1 ring,
Inflorescences densely covered in minute flowers
• Leaves usually alternate and spiral, entire
• Flowers bisexual or unisexual
– No parianth
– 1-10 stamens
– 1-4 carpels
• Fruit a drupe
Piperaceae
Piperaceae
Modern angiosperm relationships
Basal Lineages
Monocots Eudicots
Characters differing between monocots and eudicots
Monocots
Single cotyledon
Radicle aborting early in growth with root system adventitious
Scattered vascular bundles usually lacking secondary growth
Leaves with parallel venation
Flowers 3-merous
Pollen grains usually monosulcate
Eudicots
Two cotyledons
Radicle does not abort
Vascular bundles in a ring, often with secondary growth
Leaves with net veination: pinnate to palmate pattern
Flowers 4 or 5-merous
Pollen grains usually tricolpate or modified
Monocot
Eudicot
Monocot
Eudicot
Zea
Ranunculus
Leaf venation
Flower parts
Pollen aperatures
Poaceae (grass) - monoporate
Quercus (oak) - tricolpate
Modern angiosperm relationships
Basal Lineages
Monocots Eudicots
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