Martin Mallet - Atlantic Lobster Sustainability foundation

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Lobster resource enhancement in Atlantic
Canada: The Homarus Inc. experience
By
Martin Mallet, Homarus Inc.
Dounia Daoud, Homarus Inc.
Rémy Haché, CZRI-IRZC
Michel Comeau, DFO-MPO
Introduction
• Lobster industry
Canada’s most lucrative fishery
$495 million dollar industry
56,554 tons landed in 2009
• However, in reaction to decreasing lobster landings
in some areas of the sGSL (2000-01)
• MFU fishermen got interested in lobster
enhancement
Introduction
• Homarus Inc.
– Non-profit R & D company
– MFU initiative/managed (grassroots movement)
– Public and private sector partners (Board)
• Maritime Fishermen’s Union
• Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture
New Brunswick (DAFA)
• Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO)
• Orion Seafood
• Blanchard Group
• Eel River Bar First Nation
Introduction
• Mission statement:
• Develop practical approaches for lobster resource
enhancement/sustainability;
• Increase scientific knowledge of lobster biology, coastal
habitat structure and ecosystem processes;
• Serve as an educational tool to stakeholders.
Homarus Inc.
• Research projects :
–
–
–
–
Hatchery and seeding (CZRI and others)
Artificial reefs (DFO, Blanchard Group)
Larval eco-toxicity (DFO, EC)
Lobster eco-physiology (DFO, UdeM)
• Services:
– Seeding programs (0,25$/larvae)
– Artificial reef installation and monitoring
– Lobster abundance monitoring (SCUBA)
…coming soon….
– Lobster hatchery design and
implementation (Homarus/CZRI)
Experimental hatchery
and seeding project
• Inspired by Maine hatcheries (2001)
• Hatchery and seeding was not a new concept
- Hatcheries existed in the late 1800’s
- Eventually closed - persistent lack of scientific proof
• Homarus initiative
- Cautious approach backed by science
- Necessary to prove cost-effectiveness of lobster seeding
-
Low production cost
Stage IV survival in the wild
Experimental hatchery
and seeding objectives
• Hatchery project
– Produce stage IV larvae for seeding experiments
(extra production for seeding program)
– Develop cost-effective hatchery technology
• Seeding project
– Evaluate effect of stage IV seeding on natural
population (DFO collaboration – M. Comeau)
– Initiate seeding programs with interested fishing
communities
Hatchery project
Why Stage IV for seeding?
• 1st benthic stage – bypass pelagic stages
• Short life cycle in hatchery (12-14 days)
• Most cost effective stage for seeding
Hatchery project
R&D (2002-now)
• Development of rearing technology
(CZRI/Homarus)
(Since 2002)
– Tank design (flow-through…for now)
– Optimal parameters
(ex: temp., light, feeding regime, etc.)
– Alternative feeds to live Artemia
• Larvae quality work (CZRI/Homarus)
– Behaviour (UdeM) – Since 2005
– Health monitoring program (AVCLSC) – Since
2008
– Probiotics (RPC) – Since 2009
– Lobster specific feed (CZRI/UMCS) – Since 2008
Hatchery project
Production and costs
(costs include facilities, labour, feed, electricity and seeding)
Year
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007 *
2008
2009
Total cost
50K
100K
100K
120K
200K
75K
150K
135K
Stage IV
1 500
3 500
60 000
87 000
220 000
100 000
306 000
337 000
$/larvae
33.33
28.57
1.67
1.38
0.91
0.75
0.49
0.40
* Lower production and costs due to reduced work space
** Commercial hatchery production objective
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
200? **
250K
1 000 000
0.25
Seeding Sites
Seeding
Conclusion
• Production of low-cost stage IV is
feasable : ≤ 0,25 $
• Survival of seeded stage IV in the wild is
very good (if larvae are raised and
seeded properly) – comparable to
natural larvae (M. Comeau)
• Cost-benefit analysis (M. Lebreton)
– Good return on investment
Next step…
• Development of a commercial scale
hatchery prototype
– Current installations are for research (200400k production capacity) and not meeting
industry demand (orders over 700k)
– Production objective : 1 million lobsters/year
(Minimum)
– Technology development will be ready for
move in this direction after this Summer
Next step…
• Pursue development of research
collaborations with other research
institutions
• Continue building ties and collaborations
with fishermen communities
Industry partners
Blanchard Group
East Coast Seafood
Gulf of Nova Scotia Fishermen’s Coalition
Maritime Fishermen's Union (MFU)
Orion Seafood International
Governmental partners
Environment Canada (EC)
Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO)
National Research Counsil of Canada (NRC)
National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
New Brunswick Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture (DAFA)
Institutional partners
Atlantic Lobster Sustainability Foundation (ALSF)
AVC Lobster Science Center (AVCLSC)
Coastal Zones Research Institute (CZRI)
EcoTec Consultants
Eel River Bar First Nation
Research and Productivity Council (RPC)
Université de Moncton (U de M)
www.homarus.org
Questions
Martin Mallet
Director
Homarus Inc.
Shediac, New Brunswick
[email protected]
www.homarus.org
Michel Comeau
Head, Lobster Section
Department of Fisheries and
Oceans
Gulf Region, Moncton, New
Brunswick
[email protected]
Dounia Daoud
Research coordinator
Homarus Inc.
Shediac, New Brunswick
[email protected]
www.homarus.org
Rémy Haché
Project Leader - Lobster
Aquaculture
Coastal Zones Research Institute
Shippagan, New Brunswick
[email protected]
www.irzc.umcs.ca
Stage IV survival
M. Comeau – DFO/MPO
• Not possible to effectively tag stage IV larvae.
• Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) according to
Underwood 1991, 1992, 1994.
• Underwood (1992): an impact can be detected for a
short-term (pulse) or a long-term (press) by different
patterns of significance in the temporal interactions
between times of sampling (from Before to After it
starts) and locations (between the Impact and Control
locations).
Stage IV survival
Before-After-Control-Impact
• Treatment:
- seeding of 53 thousand larvae in 2004 on
Impact site
- X2 control sites (one near: 200-500 m)
• Sampling by SCUBA (100 m transects)
• H0: A significant difference in the pattern
of mean abundance (statistical interaction)
for:
1-yr old in 2005,
2-yr old in 2006.
Density lobster per 100 m2
Stage IV Survival - 2-year old
7
6
5
4
3
2
Control W e s t
Control N e ar
Impact
Pulse effect (2006)
Period x Impact: P = 0.0028
T(after) x Impact: P = 0.0167
Press effect (2005-2006)
Period x Impact:
P = 0.0017
1
0
2002
2003
M. Comeau – DFO
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Stage IV survival
Results summary
• The release of 53,000 stage IV in 2004 (4.0/100 m2)
significantly influenced the 2005 1-yr density (pulse effect)
- indicative of a good survival over the 1st winter at
temperature of -1.5°C for 4 months.
• The release of stage IV in 2004 significantly influenced the
2005 ( press effect; 2-yr density) and 2006 2-yr density (a 2-yr
pulse effect).
• Results suggest that the enhancement effect is very localized
since the control near a few hundred meters (200-500 m)
from the release sites were not (significantly) influenced by
the stage IV release.
Stage IV Survival – BACI Examples
3 .0
Im p a ct
C o n tr o l N e a r
C o n tr o l W e st
2 .5
2 .0
1 .5
1 .0
0 .5
0 .0
2002
3 .0
2003
Im p a ct
2004
2005
C o n tr o l N e a r
2006
C o n tr o l W e st
2007
2008
I2
2 .5
2 .0
1 .5
1 .0
0 .5
0 .0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Density lobster per 100 m2
Stage IV Survival - 1-year old
7
6
5
4
Im p a ct
Co n tro l Ne a r
Co n tro l W e st
Pulse effect (2005)
Period x Impact: P = 0.0037
T(after) x Impact: P = 0.0052
3
2
1
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Density lobster per 100 m2
Stage IV Survival - 2-year old
7
6
5
4
3
2
Control W e s t
Control N e ar
Impact
Pulse effect (2006)
Period x Impact: P = 0.0028
T(after) x Impact: P = 0.0167
Press effect (2005-2006)
Period x Impact:
P = 0.0017
1
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Density lobster per 100 m2
Stage IV Survival - 3-year old
Impact
7
6
5
Control Near
Control West
No Press effect or
Pulse effect (ns)
4
3
2
1
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Conclusion
 Each seeded larvae (at a cost of $0.25), generates revenues
of between:
- $0.81 - $1.95 for fishermen,
- $1.86 - $2.98 for the economy (GDP)
- $0.48 - $0.52 for governments (tax revenues).
 Good governance, excellent rearing and seeding
techniques and good survival rates result in a good return
on investment for harvesters.
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