ecology quiz - HIS IB Biology 2011-2013

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ECOLOGY QUIZ
MULTIPLE CHOICE
November 26th
Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Question 4
Question 5
Question 6
Question 7
Question 8
Question 9
Question 10
Question 11
Question 12
Question 13
Question 14
Question 15
Question 16
Question 17
Question 18
SHORT ANSWER
QUESTIONS
Question 1
1. Temperature
2. Water
3. Breeding sites
4. Food supply
5. Territory
(5)
Question 2
Different species needing the same resource
Harmful organism living in or on another
Two species that both benefit from living together
Consumer that feeds on plants
(2)
Question 3
Predation occurs when a consumer kills and eats another consumer.
E. g. The giant anteater is the predator and the ants and termites are the preys
Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship. The parasite gains an advantage to the
cost of the host, which may be killed.
E.g. Parasite: African eye worm, Host: Humans
(2)
Question 4
Explain the significance of the principle of competitive exclusion.
no two species can coexist in same niche;
one is displaced / one survives;
one species has an advantage over
competitor /
species compete with each other;
description of (Gause' s) experiments with
Paramecium;
[3]
(3)
Question 5
Explain what is meant by the niche concept. (2)
Question 6
Define the term gross production.(1)
Question 7
Explain why the gross production of a species in an ecosystem is always
higher than the net production. (2)
net production is gross production minus respiration;
all species respire;
Question 8
Outline the changes in the gross production of an ecosystem during
ecological succession. (2)
gross production rises;
as small plants are replaced by larger plants;
eventually stabilizes;
more stratification as leaf area index increases;
Question 9
The total solar energy received by a grassland is 5 × l05 kJ m–2 y–1.
The net production of the grassland is 5 × 102 kJ m–2 y–1 and its gross
production is 6 × l02 kJ m–2 y–1.
The total energy passed on to primary consumers is 60 kJ m–2 y–1.
Only 10 % of this energy is passed on to the secondary consumers.
(a) Calculate the energy lost by plant respiration.(2)
plant respiration = gross production – net
production /
6 × 102 kJ m–2 y –1 – 5 × 102 kJ m –2 y –1;
= 1 × 102 / 100 kJ m–2 y –1; 2
Units required.
(b) Construct a pyramid of energy for this grassland.(1)
6 kJ m–2 y –1
60 kJ m–2 y –1
600 kJ m –2 y –1
Question 10
Question 11
The cane toad introduced to Australia
It was introduced to control agricultural crop pests on sugar cane.
Its toxic secretion and skin is a threat to other animals and predator, as well as
Human that come in contact.
Question 12
(1)
Question 13
(3)
Question 14
Sympson diversity index determines species richness of ecosystem;
higher the index the greater the diversity;
changes in the index indicate environmental change;
so community B has a higher species richness;
(4)
cheaper than ex situ conservation;
species continues to evolve in the natural environment;
larger populations can be maintained bigger breeding pool /
more genetic variation;
species will be behaving normally in the natural environment /
less stress / injury to animals during capture / transport;
species will not have to adapt to special diets;
species can have large territories/space;
(4)
(3)