1st Workshop on “Maritime Affairs in the Adriatic Ionian Macro-Region” Roundtable on “A safer and more secure Adriatic Ionian space” 14/2/2012 - Athens Maritime Safety in the Adriatic-Ionian Region Prof. Ernestos Tzannatos Department of Maritime Studies University of Piraeus – Greece e-mail: [email protected] Safety Risk in Shipping In everyday use, risk is considered to be the complement of safety, as whatever is not safe is at risk. Safety risk in shipping is a situation or circumstance that includes the possibility of harm (i.e. loss of life/injury to someone or of damage to natural environment or to man-made environment (property), due to a shipping accident. Risk is a combination of accident likelihood (L) and its consequences (C), i.e. RISK = L x C Shipping-related environmental risk in the Adriatic-Ionian region “The intensive maritime transport in the Adriatic Sea basin (and I add the Adriatic-Ionian region) implies a significant risk of accidents and consequently a potentially strong impact on the marine environment. .................... the impact of a single accident – even though accidents are rare – can be highly disastrous.” Source: “The potential of Maritime Spatial Planning in the Mediterranean Sea- Case study report: The Adriatic Sea”, prepared by PRC for the European Commission, DG for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, January 2011. The Adriatic is a “closed” narrow sea for all ship traffic and the Ionian is an open sea for deep-sea ships with “closed” sea regions for coastal passenger and cargo ships sailing within its internal restricted waters. Restricted waters of Adriatic and Ionian are associated with a highly sensitive natural environment. Around 7,000 oil tankers sail within the Adriatic-Ionian region every year. Shipping-related commercial/industrial risk in the Adriatic-Ionian region International Trade The Mediterranean Sea hosts some 30% of global maritime trade developed through two major patterns: transit only or calling at a Mediterranean port. The Adriatic-Ionian sea region offers the quickest access to central Europe on the East-West international sea trade flow. Most international shipping involves calling at some Adriatic port only. An important share of that traffic is further transported on-land to central (and central-eastern) European countries, several of them land-locked. For example, Austria and the Bavaria region receive 75% and 100% of their oil imports through the Adriatic, respectively. Inter- and trans-regional Ro-Pax and Ro-Ro Transport An intense network of SSS (Ro-Pax and Ro-Ro) connections between bordering countries (inc. the Adriatic MoS, as an integral part of EastMed MoS Trans-European Transport Network). Local passenger and car ferry connections Marine Industries • tourism (cruising/sailing and coastal resorts) • aquaculture and fishing • offshore oil/gas production Shipping-related safety risk asymmetries within the Adriatic region Maritime traffic and trade: Italian ports - 75-80% of ship traffic and trade volume Croatian ports - 10% of ship traffic and trade volume (with growth tendency). Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (through the Croatian port of Ploce), Montenegro and Albania - 15% of ship traffic and 10% of trade volume. Coastline exposure: Adriatic - 8,300 km. Eastern Adriatic - 7,000 km (85% of total) Croatia - 6,200 km (75% of total) Italy - 1,300 km (15% of total) Slovenia - 45 km, Albania - 400 km, Montenegro -290 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina - 20 km In conclusion, although the coastline lengths of individual countries are contrasted with their maritime use of the seas, the risk is equally significant on both opposite sides of the Adriatic Sea. Maritime safety record in the Adriatic-Ionian region Ro-Ro UND Adriyatik (Fire, Total Loss, 2008) Source: ITOPF Handbook, 2004/2005. Kater I Rades (Collision, 83 dead immigrants, 1997) A recent shipping disaster • Ship: The Turkish Ro-Ro vessel UND Adriyatik carrying 200 trucks and 11 tons of hazardous material in addition to about 150 tons of ship fuel caught fire. • Location: Some 15 nm from the northern Croatian resort of Rovinj in the Adriatic Sea. • Day and time: 6th of February 2008, at 5:04 a.m. • Threatened resources: Human life, environment and property. • Outcome: Total loss. All passengers and crew, 31 of them, were evacuated at 7:06 a.m. by the crew of the Greek ship Ikarus Palace. It drifted to within 5 nm from Brijuni Islands and National Park, before its towage to Trieste on the 17th of February. The cause of the fire on board the 193-metre ship was not immediately known. Neither the Turkish nor Croatian authorities identified promptly the type of hazardous material the ship was carrying. Paris MoU Record for Adriatic-Ionian states Time period: 17/12/11 – 10/2/12 Adriatic-Ionian detentions = 6 Total MoU detentions = 54 MoU port states’ individual contribution in 2010 PORT STATE SHIP CALLS INSPECTION RATIO DETENTION RATIO % INSPECTIONS % DETENTIONS Italy* 6399 3.2 53.8 31.1 1.9 Slovenia 898 3.4 32.1 29.7 3.1 Croatia 1366 3.3 85.4 30.5 1.2 Greece* 3369 3.3 71.7 30.3 1.4 TOTAL-27 80119 3.3 101.4 30.0 1.0 * Do not only involve ports of the Adriatic-Ionian region. Shipping safety challenge in the Adriatic-Ionian region The main shipping safety challenge within the Adriatic-Ionian is highly depended upon the level of situational awareness within the region. To this extent, maritime surveillance is a crucial requirement in order to deal with all safety issues, such as clandestine immigration, smuggling and substandard shipping practices which may lead to operational pollution or shipping accidents. In meeting this challenge, it is vital to push towards the development of interoperable and integrated systems of real-time situational awareness for effective emergency response, building on the capabilities offered by existing systems (terrestrial and spaceborne AIS data, LRIT , ADRIREP and others) and the experience gained through the implementation of various international and EU programs and initiatives (e.g. e-Navigation, SAFEMED I & II, DSS-DC, TOSCA, SafeSeaNet, CleanSeaNet etc). Essential prerequisites in meeting the shipping safety challenge in the Adriatic-Ionian region Removal of legislative barriers which hinder cross-border cooperation (with emphasis on resolving maritime delimitation issues between bordering states of the Adriatic-Ionian region). The eight coastal states involved need to ‘strike a balance’ between the national regulation domain, EU and international law and regional/sub-regional cooperation based on commonalities. Develop common understanding on required data. Address commercial and confidentiality issues. Integrate shipping into the logistic chain (e.g. D2D trucking) throughout the region (inc. port interconnectivity and SafeSeaNet-port connectivity). Promote automatic data retrieval and processing (i.e. reduce manual information workload onboard and ashore). Encourage coordinated actions between EU and non-EU states and European and international agencies (e.g. EMSA, REMPEC, Paris MoU). A DSS for maritime emergency response The proposed DSS is a single-window Web-based integrated data management system that incorporates static base layers along with realtime streams of data (e.g., weather, ship tracking data, etc.) into a fast, user-friendly Geographic Information System (GIS) that is accessible to the Emergency Response Command. The application is based on Open Source software (Google Maps) that ensures compatibility with other commercial and Open Source GIS applications (e.g. ArcIMS by ESRI). By overlaying diverse spatial datasets, the user is able to see the full spectrum of an incident including potential interactions, namely ship traffic, distressed vessel drift, oil spill trajectory, resources at risk (sensitivity mapping) and response resources mapping. Architecture & functionality of emergency DSS DSS throughput and connectivity Conclusion Within the framework of maritime emergency response in high risk seas, such as the Adriatic-Ionian region, quick and reliable decision making is vital for minimising consequences to all coastal states involved and to land-lock states which gravitate in this sea region. However, in a moment of crisis, effective decision making relies on full situational awareness and ultimately on our capacity to retrieve and process real-time data with regard to the development of the risk and our response capabilities. Shipping activity and vulnerabilities in the Adriatic-Ionian region dictate the need for a unified maritime emergency response to which a single-window Web-based DSS acting as an integrator of relevant standardised data may prove to be a powerful tool for application at a local, regional, national and international scale. It’s nice to be close, but it’s risky. Thank you.