Renewables vs. Biodegradability – New Packaging Materials

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Austrian Research Institute for
Codex-UK
´Gebrauchsgegenstände´
Chemistry
Technology - ofi
bearbeiten
www.ofi.atTitelformatand
3. Juni 2008 / BMGFJ
CROPACK 2010
Renewable vs. Biodegradable
New materials for packaging
technology
Michael Pitzl
ofi – Department Packaging
An inconvient truth?
www.ofi.at
2
Source:
www.youtube.com 2010-02-18
Solution – Bioplastics?
www.ofi.at
 Recent headlines:
Coca-Cola Co announced the selective global roll-out of
its new PET bottle made from up to 30 per cent plant
materials such as sugar and molasses.
Bioserie iPhone® Case is really green!
 Advertising slogan:
Packaging without the guilt? Bioplastics
Source:
www.plasticsnews.com 2010-02-17
www.ubergizmo.com 2010-02-22
3
New materials?
www.ofi.at
 Before 1940 approx. 80 % of commercially
available biodegradable plastic and its
monomers were discovered and described
 1938 Polyethylen
 In the 70s:
• Oil crises (1973)
• Set point for further development
 In the 80s:
• Oil crises (1980) – pilot plants for bioplastics
• Oxodegrable products – inhibited the further
development?
Source:
NARAYAN R. et al. 1994
www.n24.de 2010-02-17
4
Definition of Bioplastic
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 Up to now not fixed (CEN/TC 249/WG 17
planed release 2010)
 According to European Bioplastics:
Plastic based on renewable resources
Biodegradable polymers which meet all criteria of
scientifically recognized norms for biodegradability
and compostability of plastics and plastic products
(EU: EN 13432 / EN 14995, US: ASTM D-6400, ISO
17088).
 NOT oxodegradable!
5
Source:
www.european-bioplastics.org 2010-02-17
Definition of Bioplastic
www.ofi.at
Biodegradable
material based
on renewable
ressources
Biodegradable
material based
on
petrochemical
ressources
Non
degradable
material based
on renewable
ressources
Non
degradable
material based
on
petrochemical
ressources
(OXODEG.)
6
www.ofi.at
Development of the market
 Capacity 2009 400.000 t worldwide
 Small market, but high growth rates up to 10 %
7
Source:
www.european-bioplastics.org 2010-02-17
State of development
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Research > Development > Pilot Plant > Commercialization > World-scale Plant > Industrial production
8
Source:
bioplastics Magazine 03/2007
Biodegradable materials
www.ofi.at
 In general 4 materials commercially available
• Starch-based polymers
• Polylactic acid
• Polyhydroxyalkanoates
• Cellulose derivates
Chitosan?
 Polymer blends and
composites
Source:
www.basf.com 2008-09-12
YU L. et al. 2006
9
Starch-based polymers
Mater-Bi®
www.ofi.at
 Maize and/or potatoe starch in blend with
polycaprolactones and other biodegradable
esters
 Europeas most common bioplastic
10
Source:
www.novamont.com 2009-12-01
Starch-based polymers
Others
www.ofi.at
 Plantic®
Starch from maize and hydroxypropyl, Plantic
Technologies (AUS)
 Solanyl®
Starch from potatoes, Rodenburg Biopolymers
(NL)
 Bioplast®
Starch blend, Biotec (DE)
 Biopar®
Starch from potatoes and blends, Biop AG (D)
Similar to PE (converting)
Limited applications!
11
Source:
www.plantic.com.au 2009-04-01
Polylactic acid
www.ofi.at
 Main producer: NatureWorks (US)
 Other Producers: Hycail (FI), Toyota (J) and
Uhde Inventa (D)
 Glucose from maize or lactose from whey
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Source:
LIM L.-T. et al. 2008
Polylactic acid blends
www.ofi.at
 Ecovio®
45 % PLA + Ecoflex®, BASF (D)
 Ecovio® L-Foam
75 % PLA + Ecoflex®, BASF (D)
 Bio-Flex®
PLA + Copolyester, FKuR (D)
Similar to PET and/or PS (converting)
Sensitive to temperature!
Source:
www.basf.com 2008-09-12
YU L. et al. 2006
13
Polyhydroxyalkanoates
www.ofi.at
 Mirel™ Metabolix (US)
 Biomer™ Biomer (D)
PHB, PHV, PHBV, ...
Fermentation of starch, rape, plant residues, etc.
Only Injection Moulding!
14
Source:
www.metabolix.com 2008-09-12
Cellulose derivates
www.ofi.at
NatureFlex™
Innovia (UK)
Barrier coatings!
15
Source:
www.innoviafilms.com 2008-09-12
Comparision
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Thermal properties: Melting temperature
Biopolymers comparable with conventional plastics
16
Source:
WEBER C. J. 2000
Comparision
www.ofi.at
Oxygen transmission rate
Biopolymers in the midfield
17
Source:
WEBER C. J. 2000
Comparision
www.ofi.at
Water vapour transmission rate
Biopolymers in the midfield
18
Source:
WEBER C. J. 2000
Comparision
www.ofi.at
Transmission of UV-light
19
www.ofi.at
Food safety packaging material
 Nearly all starting substances are listed
 Migration values are below legal limits
 No significant difference in microbial growth
on packaging material
 No desintegration during shelf life
 Migrants from PLA are safe
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End of life
www.ofi.at
End of life
Composting?
21
Source:
WEBER C. J. 2000
End of life
www.ofi.at
End of life
Compsoting?
22
Source:
ENDRES H.-J. 2009
THANK YOU!
www.ofi.at
Michael Pitzl
E-Mail: [email protected]
Austrian Research Institute for
Chemistry and Technology - ofi
Brehmstraße 14a
A-1110 Wien
 +43-(0)1-798 16 01 - 597

+43-(0)1-798 16 01 - 480
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