1. Day 2. Session 30

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INTEGRATED PLANNING:
THE LINKS BETWEEN URBAN WASTE
MANAGEMENT, SANITATION AND
ENERGY
Issues and challenges

Global trend – rapid
increase in volumes
and changing
characteristics of
municipal solid waste


Average annual
increases in China
2000-2006
- Non-industrial waste
water: 6.4 %
- Municipal solid waste:
13 %
E-waste: China
produced 2.3 million
tons in 2011 but 70% of
global e-waste ends up
there
MSW varies by GDP level

Types of MSW produced change according to
the standard of living in the city
Financial, environmental and health
impacts


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
In developing countries, MSW
management costs 20-50 %
of city budget
But often only covers 50 % of
urban population
In low-income countries, MSW
collection alone drains 80-90
% of waste management
budgets
Open dumps and open
burning continue to be the
primary method of MSW
disposal in most developing
countries; hazards to human
health
Conventional urban waste management





Focuses largely on waste
collection, treatment
(composting and incineration)
and disposal (landfills)
Little or no resource value
since no separation of wastes
occurs
No attention to new waste
streams
Landfill leachate pollutes
ground water
Health hazards to waste
workers; child labor
Integrated solid
waste management





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Waste prevention: more
sustainable production processes
Waste minimization: ex. Reduction
of packaging
Waste separation and recycling of
valuable resources (e.g., plastics,
glass, metals, biogas, e-waste)
Re-use (ex. construction waste, also
example of cement plant)
Waste to energy schemes using
high calorific value fraction of
waste (incineration for electricity
production or biogas generation)
Composting of biodegradable
waste for fertilizer
Sanitary disposal: environmentally
designed landfills reduce impacts
Utilization of wastes and by-products in
a cement factory
Automobile
自動車業界
industry
Waste tire, molding sand
廃タイヤ、鋳物砂
Steel
industry
高炉スラグ、製鋼スラグ
steelmaking slag
Paper
製紙業界
industry
製紙汚泥、焼却灰
incineration ash
Sewage sludge,
下水汚泥、浄水汚泥
water
purification sludge
Municipal
waste
都市ごみ焼却灰
incineration ash
塗料残留物
Paint residue
Blast-furnace slag,
鉄鋼業界
Distilled liquor residue,
蒸留酒残渣、廃ガラス
waste
glass
Fly ash
集塵灰
Paper-making sludge,
Cement
factory
Meat
and bone meal,
肉骨粉、プラスチック
plastic
Soil put out in
建設発生土
construction
建設廃材 and
Construction
demolition waste
Local
government
地方自治体
Food
industry
食品業界
Construction
建設業界
industry
Coal ash,
Electricity
電力業界
industry
石炭灰、排煙脱硫石こう
flue-gas gypsum
Waste disposal
廃棄物処理業界
industry
焼却灰、廃プラスチック
waste plastic
Housing
住宅業界
industry
Waste
oil, waste catalyst
廃油、廃触媒
汚泥
Sludge
Incineration ash,
Refining
精錬業界
industry
セメント工場
Waste solvent,
廃溶剤、廃触媒
waste
catalyst
廃プラスチック
Waste
plastic
非鉄鉱さい
Nonferrous slag
Incineration ash,
waste
solvent
焼却灰、廃溶剤
Chemical
化学業界
industry
Printing
industry
印刷業界
廃プラスチック
Waste
plastic
Waste tatami mat
古畳
Petroleum
石油業界
industry
廃プラスチック
Waste
plastic
Agriculture
農業
Policy options for urban waste
management


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Developing meaningful
partnerships with private
sector to take pressure off
public services and financing,
and boost the local economy
Organize informal workers
and communities for effective
implementation of ISWM and
3Rs, particularly to increase
recycling
Reducing MSW and aiming
for “zero waste” (e.g.,
extended producer
responsibility, such as vehicle
tires and batteries)
Policy options (cont.)

Capturing energy from the
waste stream
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Incineration of high calorific
value waste for electricity
generation
Gasification of sewage sludge
Capture and use of landfill
gas
New industrial process:
plastics yield bio-diesel
Increasing the reuse of byproducts and waste by
industry (ex. Re-use of
construction waste)
Key takeaway points



Integrated urban
planning is the key to
sustainability
Engage all city
departments in city
planning, as operations
will be increasingly
linked
Sustainability yields
enormous economic,
social and environmental
benefits
Thank you
Mohan Peck
UN Consultant
[email protected]
Shanghai Manual:
A Guide for Sustainable
Urban Development in
the 21st Century
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