quotable quotes on special education

National Conference
in Special Education
A Compilation of Memorable Quotes
from Dr. Edilberto I. Dizon’s Books and Classes
Prepared by
Dr. Edilberto I. Dizon
and Myra Trinidad Timtiman-Tantengco
NOTE: To facilitate citation of references, a code
was used to identify those books. It is as follows:
Dizon, E.I., & Sacris, C.N. (Eds.) (2003).
Therapeutic teaching: Loving, healing and nurturing
children with special needs.
Dizon, E.I., & Sacris, C.N., & Mercado, M.S.A.
(Eds.) (n.d.). From segregation to integration:
Mainstreaming/Inclusion of children with special
needs in the regular classroom.
Dizon, E.I., & Sacris, C.N. (Eds.) (n.d.). Special
education: Pro-Life, Pro-Humanity, Pro-God . The
meaning of serving special children and their
Dizon, E.I. (Ed.) (2000). Teaching Filipino children
with autism.
Dizon, E.I., & Sacris, C.N. (Eds.) (2003).
Individualization of educational content and
Dizon, E.I. (Ed.) (2005). Practical guides and
procedures in individualized educational planning for
learners with special needs.
Dizon, E.I. (2008). Shadow teaching special children
in the regular school: Concepts, guidelines and
The reference code and the page numbers are placed after
the quote in bold letters.
Table of Contents
Art, Dance, Games, Music, and Play in
Therapeutic Teaching
Dr. Dizon’s Words of Wisdom
Compassion and Empathy
Effective Instruction
Table of Contents
Faith, Patience, and Trust
Individualization of Classroom Activities
Loving and Understanding Special Children
Normalization, Mainstreaming and Inclusion
PASS Variables to Maximize Student Success
Table of Contents
Parenting Children with Special Needs
Preparing the Staff for Mainstreaming
and Inclusion
Psychoeducational Assessment
Recovering from Disaster
Special Education
The Shadow Teacher
The Special Education Teacher
Teaching Filipino Children
with Autism
Art, Dance, Games, Music and Play
in Therapeutic Teaching
Therapeutic teaching pertains to the
use of arts and human kinetics: music,
art, play, dance, drama, literature in
books, and others in pedagogy to
address specific therapeutic needs and
concerns of learners with special
- A: 11
Therapeutic teaching springs from
one’s commitment to loving the learner
unconditionally, understanding him
and relating with him sincerely and
genuinely. It is a fact that therapeutic
teaching can never be possible without
the presence of these core conditions of
- A: 12
… Attitude change/behavior
modification, values formation and
development are main concerns of
therapeutic teaching within a
pedagogical context. Thus, the
classroom, not the clinic, remains the
“arena” for helping the learner with
special needs.
- A: 12
Life has been your art. You
have set yourself to music. Your
days are your sonnet.
- Oscar Wilde
quoted in A: 138
Children love to sing, move,
dance, and have fun. As musical
activities are inherently
enjoyable and action-oriented,
children can learn important
lessons through such activities.
- B: 62
Children find a lot of enjoyment
in drawing, painting, and
creative objects they themselves
have made. Such activities
allow them to express
themselves openly and without
- B: 62
Games are fun-filled activities that
can be easily incorporated in teaching
or reinforcing academic concepts
learned. Make up questions about
certain topics … Let the children
answer the questions verbally, or by
writing it on the board, or by flashing
the right answer written on strips of
paper. Games will bring life to an
otherwise sleepy day.
- B: 62
Dance movements promote healing in
a number of ways. On the physical
level, it provides the benefits of
exercise, a cardiovascular workout as
well as improvement of one’s
coordination and muscle tone. It eases
muscle rigidity and increases one’s
- A: 139
On the socio-emotional level, [dance]
helps people feel more joyful and
confident. It diminishes anxiety and
allows them to confront issues such as
anger, frustration and loss that may be
difficult for them to express verbally.
Also, moving as a group diminishes
feelings of isolation and creates
powerful social and emotional bonds.
- A: 139
Mentally, dance movements seek
to enhance the individual’s
cognitive skills, motivation, and
memory. It also encourages selfexpression and opens up new
ways of thinking and doing.
- A: 139
Play is the highest development
in childhood, for it alone is the
free expression of what is in the
child’s soul … Children’s play is
not mere sport. It is full of
meaning and import.
- Froebel, quoted in A: 129
Play, in child therapy, is a ‘natural
medium for self-expression, facilitates
a child’s communication, is conducive
to a cathartic release of feeling, can be
renewing and constructive, and allows
the adult a window through which to
observe the child’s world.
- Gil, 1994, cited in A: 129
Dr. Dizon’s Words of Wisdom
With Insights
Andrea B. Martinez-Gacos
“Teachers can make or unmake
children in the classroom.”
It is beyond doubt that teachers are
semi-gods and goddesses in the classroom.
That is why I owe it very much to the
teachers of my child her improvement in
her behavior. However, others who were
impatient with her were also culprits of her
former misdemeanors.
“Children’s lives
are all about play.”
So why not take every opportunity
to play with kids when they could still enjoy
their childhood and are not yet bothered
by life’s harsh realities. My child seems to
grow so fast that every moment not spent
with her is like missing out on an
opportunity to witness
her childhood years.
“Don’t be so rigid with children.
Just be consistent.”
It was like a sharp knife directly pointed at me
because I must admit I had been very rigid
with my child – expecting and demanding her
to conform to my standards of behavior,
and punishing her for non-compliance.
“Be cautious with people you deal with.”
Being so trusting is one limitation I have
that has brought me
into so many unfortunate circumstances
because of betrayal and treachery.
“Do not pass on burdens to others.”
I used to displace all my stress on my daughter,
thinking she was the main source of my burden.
Only to realize later that she is a blessing
and not God’s curse.
“Get easy on people;
let them be themselves.”
Was I mean with my daughter
as well as with my students?
Was there a time I became a hindrance,
instead of assistance, in her self-discovery?
“Let go of little things.”
This, I must admit, is still a challenge to me.
I think I need a mountain of patience
before I can master
the art of letting go of small things.
“If I tell you who I am,
will you still accept me?”
Had I fully accepted my child’s disabilities
and shortcomings?
I am beginning the “new journey” now…
“Don’t suffer in silence.
Help is something sought for.”
Indeed, being a single parent for a special child
can cause so much distress, frustrations, and
disappointments. But others are willing to help,
if we only let them know we need them.
I thought I was a “superwoman”,
only to contradict myself with the realization
that I equally need other’s help.
“I can’t be responsible
for what others think about me.”
Perhaps, people may judge me
for the way I brought up my child –
because I chose the comfort of being a single parent
than the agony of living
with the father of my child.
“All of us have hills and valleys in life.”
My journey with my daughter has just
started – and I intend to finish it by bringing
her along with me. Even at times when I
bump into the many hills in my life, I
believe I can always find rest
in the valleys of my family,
friends and loved ones.
“Life is short –
we only have the space
between having been born
and the certainty of death.”
But though life is short,
we could live it meaningfully
if it is a life devoted to a cause.
Thanks to this realization, I firmly devote
my life to tread on the journey with my
The outstanding rule about love
is to be helpful, not hurtful.
At a time when the world seems not to care,
I always have the love of my daughter
to help me through.
Every one of us is unique,
Every one of us is special,
And that we should never lose the
child in us.
- Bonifacio-Ramolete,
quoted in A: 79
Hold childhood in reverence, and do
not be in any hurry to judge it for
good or ill. Give nature time to work
before you take over her business, lest
you interfere with her dealings.
Childhood is the sleep of reason.
- Rousseau ,in Landerth, 1991,
quoted in A: 129
Tenets for Relating to Children
Adapted from
“Play Therapy: The Art of the Relationship”
by Gary Landreth
1. Children are not miniature adults and the
teacher does not respond to them as if they
2. Children are people. They are capable of
experiencing deep emotional pain and joy.
Tenets for Relating to Children
3. Children are unique and worthy of
respect. The teacher prizes the
uniqueness of each child and respects the
person they are.
4. Children are resilient. Children possess
a tremendous capacity to overcome.
Tenets for Relating to Children (cont.)
5. Children have inherent growth toward
growth and maturity. They possess an
inner intuitive of wisdom.
6. Children are capable of positive direction.
They are capable of dealing with their world
of creative ways.
Tenets for Relating to Children (cont.)
7. Children’s natural language is play and
this is the medium of self-expression with
which they are most comfortable.
8. Children have the right to remain silent.
The teacher respects a child’s decision
not to talk.
Tenets for Relating to Children (cont.)
9. Children will take the therapeutic
experience to where they need to be.
The teacher does not determine when
or how the child should play.
10. Children’s growth cannot be speeded
up. The teacher recognizes this and is
patient with the child’s developmental
Your Self-Worth
Antonio Stravidari was a seventeenth century violinmaker whose name in
its Latin form, Stravidarius, has become synonymous with excellence. He once
said that to make a violin less than his best would be to rob God, Who could not
make Antonio Stravidari’s violins without Antonio.
He was right. God could not make Stravidarius violins without Antonio
Stravidari. Certain gifts were given to that craftsman that no other violinmaker
In the same vein, there are certain things you can do that no one else can.
Perhaps it is parenting, or constructing houses, or encouraging the discouraged.
There are things that only you can do, and you are alive to do them.
In the great orchestra we call life, you have an instrument and a song, and
you owe it to God to play them both sublimely.
- Harold Sala, quoted in C: 112
Few joys are comparable to that of living a life that
nourishes our soul as well as feeds others as we
tread along life. In our roles as professionals,
parents, caregivers and friends of children with
special needs, we have to remember this:
“God doesn’t care what particular task we do. God
does not care whether we are up in the stands
watching or down the field playing our heart out.
The question that is most important is, ‘Are we
doing what we are doing as unto the Lord?’”
- Dr. Josefina S. Malibiran and Ms. Charina Joyce Kanoy
in C:78
Compassion and Empathy
God Loves You “As Is”
People come in all shapes, sizes – and personalities …
One of the most comforting truths of the Bible
is that God knows and loves us just as we are.
With Him we do not have to play games,
pretend to be confident and “on top of things”
when we’re really down and fearful of what may happen…
God made you just as you are and His love for you
is unchanging and unqualified.
-Harold Sala in C:124
You may be thinking,
“There are a lot of hurting people out there, I
cannot help them all!”
If, however, one hurting person crossed your
path and reached out to you in need,
could you stop long enough to hear what
he or she hears, to feel what he or she feels,
and to be there in his or her time of need?
This is where compassion begins.
-Harold Sala, quoted in C:122
Empathic understanding is putting
oneself in the place of the helpee. It
covers such questions as:
“What is the helpee feeling right now?” ;
“How does he view his problems?”; and
“What does he see in his world?”
- A: 7
I see the world through the eyes of others;
I understand others because I can get inside
the skin of others; I listen well to all cues
both verbal and nonverbal that the other
emits, and I respond to these cues.
- A: 7
There are three aspects or stages of empathy:
a) listening to the helpee and facilitating his
communication of his perceptions;
b) understanding the helpee’s world; and
c) communicating his understanding to the helpee.
Empathy enhances emotional proximity, creates an
atmosphere of closeness, generates warmth, and
contributes to a sense of self-acceptance
- A: 8
Empathic understanding (EU) is the
greatest compliment a helper can
give a helpee. By listening with full
attention and understanding to what
the helpee wants to say, the helper
shows that the helpee is important
and worth his time.
- A: 8
Effective Instruction
May Cabutihan in G
Effective instruction is student-centered.
Each special child is unique. They differ
in abilities, strengths, learning styles and
experiences they connect their learning
with. Instruction that is student-centered
takes into consideration such factors and
makes accommodations based on these.
Effective instruction
is anchored on assessment.
Assessment gives us a realistic view of
what the child can and cannot do. It determines
the learner’s cognitive abilities,
maturational/achievement levels, and
behavioral patterns and concerns. Effective
instruction takes place when the teachers makes
use of these data, along with their daily
observations of the learner, in crafting
instruction to maximize the student’s potentials
and talents, and addresses their lags; thus,
avoiding setting standards and goals way
beyond the child’s capacity
Effective instruction is differentiated
in content, process, and product.
A teacher who differentiates instruction
• Provides appropriately-challenging learning
• Uses a variety of teaching strategies that will
engage the students further and engage their
• Allows students to use their interest areas and areas
of strength to show and demonstrate what they
have learned from a given topic.
Effective instruction is proactive.
Instruction is most effective when teachers
are able to plan and carry out learning goals,
teaching strategies, and even behavioral
techniques to ensure that the learner will be
able to make the most out of the learning
opportunities provided in the classroom. It
includes being able to anticipate the
learner’s needs and difficulties, and
preparing for such situations.
Effective instruction is qualitative
rather than quantitative.
What is essential is not the number of
topics covered within a year’s time,
but how well the topics were covered
and how much learning the student
has gained from these topics.
Effective instruction is positive
and strives to motivate.
Instruction is effective when teachers are
cheerful, encouraging, and passionate in
teaching. This creates a positive atmosphere in
the classroom and students tend to imitate
these modeled actions and attitudes. The
classroom becomes a productive learning
environment where students are motivated to
learn and to achieve.
1. Facilitative Dimension
Teaching children with special needs
requires the exercise of core conditions:
unconditional positive regard, emphatic
understanding and congruence
- B: 11
2. Artistic Dimension
Teaching CSN involves the use of techniques
and instructional materials designed and
conducted in varied formats (e.g., puppetry,
simultaneous, games) to elicit interest and
active participation. It also promotes the
exercise of imaginative thinking and creativity
through individual and group activities.
- B: 11
3. Compensatory Dimension
Teaching CSN adheres
to compensatory education:
accentuating the child’s positive
points/qualities to offset his limitations.
- B: 11
4. Experiential Dimension
Teaching CSN provides further training in
and plenty of opportunities applying
learned skills/concepts in practical
situations. Practical skill application is the
strongest indicator of learning mastery.
- B: 11
5. Therapeutic Dimension
Teaching CSN provides relaxation,
enjoyment and socialization; facilitates
self-expression; and targets behavior
growth using music, play, art, dance,
poetry, drama, etc. as vehicles.
- B: 11
6. Scientific Dimension
Teaching CSN is based on a body of knowledge anchored
in philosophical, psychological, legal, pedagogical, sociocultural foundations. Structures and systems based on
scientific foundations are necessary in teaching-learning
processes. Classroom management, objective formulation,
curriculum selection, instructional planning,
implementation and evaluation, networking and designing
a support system, among others, rely on sound educational
concepts, principles and guidelines.
- B: 11
Faith, Patience and Trust
When the storms of life rage, you need four anchors:
faith in God,
faith in yourself,
faith in your family, and
faith in your friends.
But there are times when your friends fail you, when your family
lets you down, when you can hardly believe in yourself.
Only the anchor of faith in God endures when everything else
- Harold Sala in C: 127
like birds in winter
you fed me;
knowing the ground was frozen,
i shall never come to your hand,
you did not need my gratitude.
like snow falling on snow,
softly, not to frighten me,
you threw your crumbs on the ground
and walked away,
- Margaret Weist,
quoted in A:54
I will not doubt, though all my ships at sea
Come drifting home with broken masts and sails;
I will believe the hand that never fails,
From seeming evil works too good for me.
And though I weep because those sails are tattered:
“I will trust in Thee.”
I will not doubt though all my prayers return
Unanswered from the still, white realm above;
I will believe it is an all-wise love
That has refused these things for which I year;
Yet the pure passion of my fixed believing
Undimmed will burn.
I will not doubt, though sorrow falls like rain.
And troubles swarm like bees about a hive.
I will believe the heights for which I strive
Are only reached by anguish and by pain;
And though I groan and writhe beneath my crosses,
Yet I will see through my severest loss
The greater gain.
I will not doubt. Well anchored in this faith,
Like some staunch ship, my soul braves every gale;
So strong its courage that it will not fail
To face the mighty unknown sea of death.
Oh, may I cry, though body leaves the spirit’
“I do not doubt,” so listening words may hear it,
With my last breath.
To rescue our children we will have to let them
save us from the power we embody: we will have
to trust the very difference that they forever
And we will have to allow them the choice,
without fear of death: that they may come and do
likewise or that they may come and that we will
follow them, that a little child will lead us back to
the child we will always be, vulnerable and
wanting and hurting for love and for beauty.
- June Jordan, quoted in A: 62
Unwelcome Surprises
… How do you handle the unwelcome surprises of life?
Psychologists call it “coping.” Some think of is as “rolling with
the punches.” Others say with resignation, “That’s life!” But
when tragedies come our way, we respond in either one of two
ways: We fight them and become bitter or we reach out for the
grace of God and become better through what we have
endured… When unwelcome surprises confront you, learn about
grace, God’s grace, and you will also find strength to cope.
- Harold Sala in C:124
Brammer (1987; 57) emphasizes the following
guidelines for the helper:
It is not easy to receive help.
It is difficult to commit oneself to change.
It is difficult to submit to the influence of a helper; help
is a threat to one’s self-esteem, integrity and
It is not easy to trust a stranger and to be open to him.
It is not easy to see one’s problem clearly at first.
Sometimes, problems seem too large, too overwhelming,
or too unique to share them easily.
Leave It With Him
By L.B. Cowman, quoted in C:1
Yes, leave it with Him,
The lilies all do,
And they grow –
They grow in the rain,
And they grow in the dew –
Yes, they grow:
They grow in the darkness, all hid in the night –
They grow in the sunshine, revealed by the light –
Still they grow.
Yes, leave it with Him,
It’s more dear to His heart, you will know,
Than the lilies that bloom,
Or the flowers that start
‘Neath the snow:
Whatever you need, if you seek it in prayer,
You can leave it with Him – for you are His care.
You, you know.
Trusting God More
by Harold Sala
Faith means unconditional obedience and commitment. Yet
sometimes we do not like God’s direction so we seek an
alternative. Here are five guidelines to help you trust God:
Guideline 1: Learn about God.
You will never live long enough to meet a person who can
honestly say, “God let me down; He disappointed me!”
Guideline 2: Become a student of the book.
In the Bible you will learn about the nature and character of our
Guideline 3: commit yourself to God’s will to your life.
Until you come to know God’s goodness, you will not entrust
your future to Him.
Guideline 4: Realize that the walk of obedience is one step at a
When I was young, a friend of mine gave me good counsel
when he said, “God’s will is like a flashlight in a dungeon: it
doesn’t shine around corners or illuminate the next cave – it
only gives you light for the next step.
Guideline 5: Realize that with God’s demand for obedience comes
His commitment to protect and provide for you.
With such assurance, how can we ask for more?
Faith is the belief that God is real and that God is good…
It is a choice to believe that the one who made it all has not left it all,
and that He still sends light into the shadows and responds to gestures
of faith.
Faith is the belief that God will do what is right.
God says that …
the more hopeless your circumstances, the more likely your
the greater your cares, the more genuine your prayers
the darker the room, the greater the need for light.
God’s help is near and always available, but it is only given to those
who seek it.
- Max Lucado in C: 108
Worry by Max Lucado
Worry … makes you forget Who’s in charge.
And then you focus on yourself – you worry.
You become anxious about many things. You worry that your co-workers
won’t appreciate you, your leaders will overwork you, your superintendent
won’t understand you, or your congregation won’t support you.
With time, your agenda becomes more important than God’s.
You’re more concerned about presenting self than pleasing Him. And you
might even find yourself doubting God’s judgment ...
God has gifted you with talents.
He has done the same with your neighbor. If you concern yourself with your
neighbor’s talents, you will neglect yours. But if you concern yourself with
yours, you could inspire both.
- quoted in C: 108
Have you prayed and prayed, and waited
and waited, and still you see no evidence
of an answer? Are you tired of seeing no
movement? Are you at the point of giving
up? Then perhaps you have not waited in
the right way, which removes you from the
right place – the place where the Lord can
meet you.
- L.B. Cowman, quoted in C:116
“Wait for it patiently” (Rom. 8:25). Patience
eliminates worry. The Lord said He would come,
and His promise is equal to His presence. Patience
eliminates weeping. Why feel sad and discouraged?
He knows your needs better than you do, and His
purpose in waiting is to receive more glory through
it. Patience eliminates self-works. “The work of
God is this: to believe” (John 6:29), and once you
believe, you may know all is well. Patience
eliminates all want. Perhaps your desire to receive
what you want is stronger than your desire for the
will of God to be fulfilled.
- L.B. Cowman, quoted in C:116
Praying for Others
Prayer is the recognition that if God had not engaged Himself in our
problems, we would still be lost in the blackness. It is by His mercy
that we have been lifted up.
Prayer is that whole process that reminds us of Who God is and
who we are.
I believe there is great power in prayer.
I believe God heals the wounded, and that He can raise the dead. But I
don’t believe we tell God what to do and when to do it.
God knows that we, with our limited vision, don’t even know that
for which we should pray. When we entrust our requests to Him,
we trust Him to honor our prayers with holy judgment.
- Max Lucado, quoted in C:109
God Cares for Us
The shepherd knows his sheep. He calls them by name.
When we see a crowd, we see exactly that, a crowd … We see
people, not persons, but people. A herd of human. A flock of faces.
That’s what we see.
But not so with the Shepherd. To Him, every face is different.
Every face is a story. Every face is a child. Every child has a
The shepherd knows his sheep. He knows each by name. The
shepherd knows you. He knows your name.
And He will never forget it.
- Max Lucado, quoted in C: 111
The strongest trees are not in the thick shelter
of the forest but out in the open, where winds
from every direction bear down upon them.
The fierce winds bend and twist them until
they become giant in stature. These are the
tress that toolmakers seek for handles for
their tools, because of the wood’s great
- L.B. Cowman, quoted in C: 114
It is the same in the spiritual world. Remember,
when you see a person of great spiritual stature,
the road you must travel to walk with him is not
one where the sun always shines and wildflowers
always bloom. Instead, the way is a steep, rocky,
and narrow path, where the winds of hell will try
to knock you off your feet, and where sharp rocks
will cut you, prickly thorns will scratch your face,
and poisonous snakes will slither and hiss all
around you.
- L.B. Cowman, quoted in C: 114
(Helping professionals and non-professionals,
parents, SPED teacher, psychologist, social worker,
physical therapist, speech therapist, occupational
therapist, caregiver, and guidance counselor)
The young do not want to have an ideal image
of human perfection presented to them by
adults. They expect, rather, adults to show
them how one copes with the manifold tasks of
modern life without having to suppress
ascetically the basic human needs, or to
succumb frivolously to the seductive
attractions of manipulative influence.
- Hauke, 1980: 84, quoted in A
How the helper manifests and projects his
personality in the interaction with the
helpee determines the success or failure of
the relationship. The personality of the
helper is the basic ingredient in helping
and that academic training or information
has little, if any, influence on this
personality. Changes in the helpee depend
much upon the attitude of the helper rather
than primarily upon his knowledge,
theories and techniques.
- A: 6
Many believe that personal
commitment to the significance of
helping relationships may be a more
pertinent variable than experiences
per se. This commitment is called
authentic therapeutic care which is
an attitude of unshakable respect and
love for the unique, independent
source of initiative or the helpee.
- A: 6
Such care excludes everything
that stifles the free actualization of
the helpee such as dominating,
controlling and directing his life
according to the plan of the
- A: 6
If the helper is to help the helpee, he
must feel for him, love him in the
sense of agape. It is perhaps a basic
fact of human relationships that you
can’t really help a person without
becoming involved with him, without
caring for him or liking him.
- Patterson, 1974: 89-90,
quoted in A: 6
Helpees of helpers who offer high levels of
core, facilitative, and action-oriented
conditions improve while those of helpers who
offer low levels of these conditions deteriorate.
Understanding and respecting the helpee and
having faith in his ability to solve his problems
precede helping.
- A: 7
Helper-offered empathic
understanding, congruence and
unconditional positive regard
constitute the therapeutic
relationship which is the basic and
central helping condition in any
helper-helpee relationship …
- A: 8
I know I Need to be In Love
Catherine Gajelonia
I was trained to have high standards in the care for
persons with disabilities , to have them back on
their own feet and lives in a matter of a few
weeks, ideally. There’s a kind of rush, a sense of
fulfillment, when you finally discharge a patient.
That is was through your professional help – your
planning, direction, and handling – that this
temporary health crisis was overcome. Labels did
not scare me; they did not matter. When you treat
the symptoms right, then slowly but surely the
person is healed. His gratitude lifts you up to the
This is not the case when children with special needs
are in your care. Many symptoms are long-term, and most
difficulties are life-long. You begin to doubt your ability to
be of help, to fulfill your professional pride, to validate
your personal worth. This is an important lesson to be
learned first; the helper must again become a student for
something she did not learn from the books.
Let me tell you of this child – let’s call her Paula. She
is my first love. She was one of the first children put under
my care when I was starting my pediatric physical therapy
practice. Paula had severe delays, and I aimed at
vanquishing them. But for the longest time, our goals were
not being met, and her progress was close to nothing. I felt
so defeated after every session. I was frustrated, tired, and
angry with her (which made me feel even worse because I
knew I should not be blaming her).
I was ranting about Paula one afternoon when an older
colleague of mine asked if I was alright. I hesitated at first
because I did not like talking to this person. I was not a fan
of his sense of humor and knack for snide comments. But I
needed to talk to somebody and so, with exasperation, I
answered, “Whatever should I do with Paula?”
He smiled and nodded knowingly. To my surprise, he
put his hand on my shoulder and simply said, “Love her.”
He winked and walked away, leaving me stunned. Then,
finally I cried.
I let go of the tears, the anger, the frustration, and the
goals that will never be met. No, not by Paula, but by me. I
felt washed over, freed from the chains of my own
inhibitions – things should not have been all about me. As I
look back now, I realized I was somehow healed by
somebody I least expected. Do not judge a book by its
When I saw Paula next, she smiled at me as she
always did. “Love her”, the voice that I did not dislike
anymore echoed in my mind. I sat next to her and hugged
“How are you today, darling?,” I said as I kissed her
cheeks and forehead many times. I told her I loved her and
I really meant it deep in my heart. You know it when you
mean things, you feel a certain warmth in your heart. Your
eyes close for a moment and you feel light, peaceful. And
you let out a happy sigh. It was genuine love.
It was the start of many smooth sessions afterwards.
What she could not really do, I did not insist anymore. I
found ways to let her feel successful with what skills she
had. How foolish of me to think I could somehow trick
nature. I was made aware by real life example that I could
only do as much as her condition allowed me to. That
however I push, pull, twist, or turn things inside out, I
could not fix things for her for my own intentions. Some
things take time to be fixed; yet some are not meant to be
fixed at all. With appropriate help, children like Paula
could live comfortable and happy lives, too. They have a
place in the world just the way they are. They become
healed when they are nurtured and loved first. This is how
to help children with special needs.
And so I loved the rest of the children. Opened my
arms each time to receive them in hugs. I widened my
smile and twinkled my eyes for them. I spoke caring words
amidst misbehaviors. I was not their mother but I
understood when an underperformance meant they were
tired, bored or sleepy. I racked my brain to make every
activity pleasurable. I offered the best healing touch I
could give. I became attuned to their feelings and attempts
to communicate. I found myself happy every time we
ended our sessions, never mind my aching back.
How do I feel now? I feel inspired … exhilarated …
revved up! Love does that to a person, they say. And they
are right. I feel like an eternal fountain, I have so much
love to give the children. These emotions called me to
become even more educated, for me to better and further
help them the best that I could. I believe special education
has been therapeutic for me as well. I feel even more
validated as a helping professional. I feel that I am helping
and healing children better now. It feels wonderful that my
love helps heal each child who is led my way, and opening
my mind and heart is therapeutic not just to the child, but
to his family as well. Indeed, the power to heal comes from
one’s ability to love. In that case, to be of service to
humankind, I know to be in love.
Helpers must be helped to become persons
who are approachable, who can help others
make choices in their lives, who can facilitate
thinking and talking about problems young
people face. Somehow, students should be able
to come into contact with persons who are
capable of and permitted to form I-Thou
relationships, and who do not use tests, grades
and interview form sheets as barriers to real
- Offman, 1967: 934,
quoted in A: 8-9
Words of Healing
by Jolivette M. Yao
My family and I have been going to Mass every Sunday for
about as long as I can remember. My mother always made it
a point to never miss this weekly ritual. There were times
when I even felt obligated to do so. But there was one
particular Sunday that changed my life forever. It was all
because of one special child with Down syndrome.
I always saw this child hearing noon Mass every Sunday
with his parents. However, there was one instance when they
were seated right behind us. I actually did not notice this
until I heard him singing, with all his heart, every song that
was sung during the Mass. It surprised me that he actually
knew all the songs! But it also made me feel guilty because I
knew the words of the song but did not join in the singing.
As we knelt down for Consecration, the priest said the
usual words before Holy Communion, “This is the Lamb
of God who takes away the sins of the world. Happy are
those who are called to His supper.”
The child behind us then replied with all his passion,
I was stunned beyond words. Before I knew it, tears
were falling uncontrollably down my cheeks. I have never
felt more unworthy of God’s love until I heard those words
coming from this child.
Those words had tremendous power. I never realized how
much impact a few words can have on someone until I felt
it. With words, you can heal and build up. A word spoken
at just the right time can encourage another to reach further
toward his potential. A word spoken at just the right time
can soothe the grieving, console the frightened, and set the
stray one on the right path. A word spoken at just the
right time can mend a broken relationship. A word spoken
at just the right time can encourage another to accept
Christ into her heart and life. A word spoken at just the
right time can push someone to take bold steps in faith.
When I heard those words from that special child, I
experienced them all.
Since have never been the same since that fateful
Sunday. I finally decided to push through with my plans of
earning a master’s degree in Special Education. I believe it
was God’s way of telling me that I was on the right track.
What better way to get the message across than by being
touched by a special child. It was a life-defining moment
that gave me a reason for being. It made my life complete
and worth living. I finally walk with purpose.
I look upon that experience as a healing one. It
restored balance and dignity to my life. It was an encounter
that was a great source of growth and learning; a learning
that encompassed my personal life, my work life, my
social life, and my spiritual life.
Some say that the greatest healers were also the greatest
teachers … a teacher of life. That special child was my
greatest teacher. He had nothing to give but his words. Yet
his words were more valuable than any gift imaginable.
His words healed me.
The context in which the exceptional child lives
is an important factor that should be seriously
considered in decision-making with respect to
his/her education. This means looking into the
complex and unique nature of the exceptional
child’s environment. After all, how one adapts
to his situation is, to a great extent, influenced
by both his environment as well as his
- Baldo, quoted in B: 3
The move to include special children in
regular education has come about because of
the need and right of all children to be
educated in the mainstream, provide them with
appropriate and challenging educational
programs geared to his capabilities and needs
as well as any support and assistance they
and/or their teachers may need to succeed in
the mainstream.
- B: 7
An inclusive school is a place
where everyone belongs, is
accepted, supports and is
supported by members of the
school community in the cause of
having his educational needs met.
-B: 7
All learners whether regular or special need
to be taught appropriate values, attitudes
and habits, human relationships,
occupational information and the
acquisition of job and daily living skills as
part of basic education. This will enable
them to survive and succeed in the
competitive world of work.
- B: 7
As special educators who are working or
will be working with regular education
teachers in INCLUSION, we have as one of
our primary goals to provide a challenging
and motivational atmosphere in the regular
primary classroom to keep students with
special needs, who are sometimes left out of
learning opportunities
- Barbara E. David, in B: 22
The teacher does not have to forego
instructional time for the regular class in
providing for the needs of our special
students. Instead, there will be times when
the curriculum must be individualized to
allow for one or more learners to
experience success or to have their
learning and social needs met.
- Barbara E. David, in B: 22
The goal of curriculum/instructional adaptation
and modification is to set in line the cognitive,
affective, communicative, and physical/health
demands of the curriculum to the capacities,
strengths and needs of the students. The
curriculum is individualized if it allows students
some choice in what they learn, how they go
about learning it, what materials they use, and
how they demonstrate their new knowledge and
skills or apply them to solve problems.
- Barbara E. David, in B:22
The outcomes we hope to achieve and the
content we present to achieve those
outcomes constitute the “curriculum” of
schools. In fact, the purpose of a planned
curriculum is to assist learners in
achieving school outcomes.
- Barbara E. David, in B: 22
The ways in which the content is presented
or the methods used to achieve those outcomes
constitute “instruction.” In the strictest sense
of the word, we could say that it is not the
curriculum that is being modified or adapted
but the instruction, since the child follows the
same curriculum content like the other regular
children but differs only on how the
curriculum is delivered depending on the needs
and characteristics of the child.
- Barbara E. David, in B: 22
The Institute on Disability at the University of New
Hampshire (1990) identified seven types of learning
opportunities to students in the general classroom:
Academic skills
Learning to interact in small-group tasks
Organizational and process skills (for example, initiating,
preparing materials, socializing, communicating, and
terminating actions)
• Special interests (for instance, the development of lifelong
leisure and vocational interests)
• Communication, movement and social skills
• Functional life skills
- Barbara E. David, in B: 22
for Effective Individualization
by Barbara E. David, in B: 22
• Teach diagnostically
• Differentiate instruction for learning style and skill and
performance needs
• Specifically teach necessary skills
• Establish the experiential base for each lesson
• Emphasize and directly teach vocabulary
• Emphasize relevance and authentic performances
• Use appropriate and realistic examples and demonstrations
• Actively involve students
for Effective Individualization (cont.)
• Encourage cooperative learning
• Use questioning effectively
• Integrate skills and concepts throughout an inclusive
• Build interest and enthusiasm
• Guide students to develop self-management and social
• Manage the instructional process efficiently and
• Collaborate and coordinate efforts with others
An attitude that makes it possible to work
with one another
These same components are essential to integration
and inclusion. Successful integration/inclusion does
not happen by chance. It requires a well thought-out
plan with capable people applying themselves to the
- Rosario Margarita A. Aligada in B: 35
No longer is educational programming for
mainstreamed students the sole domain of
the special educator. It is now a shared
responsibility with parents, the regular and
special education teachers and
administrators, medical and allied medical
professionals, paraprofessionals, as well as
the child with special needs, sharing in the
decision-making process
- Rosario Margarita A. Aligada in B:35
of Classroom Activities
Content or Subject Matter
Many of the mainstreamed children need some
modification in the content or subject matter
depending on their functioning levels. Though
there may be children who can cope with the
same exact content and workload as their
regular classmates in certain academic areas,
some children need simplified or enriched
lessons to make it more meaningful to them.
- B: 56
Instructional Materials
With the modifications in the curricular
content, a modification in the instructional
materials naturally follows. Differentiated
worksheets, activities, or materials are
created for the benefit of the child.
Adaptations may be made in the
instruction and content, format and size of
the materials.
- B: 56
Teaching Strategies
How the content is taught, the choice of
activities, or the pacing of instruction must
be considered in the mainstreamed class. A
variety of strategies and activities have to
be employed to ensure learning and
mastery. Creative activities such as music,
arts, and movement or physical education
should be maximized.
- B: 56
Loving and Understanding
Children with Special Needs
Here’s to the kids that are different,
The kids who don’t always get A’s
The kids who have ears the size of their peers,
And noses that go on for days …
Here’s to the kids that are different,
The kids they call crazy or dumb
The kids who don’t fit, with the guts and the grit,
Who dance to a different drum …
Here’s to the kids that are different,
The kids with the mischievous streak,
For when they have grown, as history’s shown,
It’s their difference that makes them unique.
- A: 36
So long as little children are
allowed to suffer, there is no
true love in this world.
- Isador Duncan, A: 68
The Special Child
The child, yet unborn, spoke with the Father, “Lord, how will I
survive in the world? I will not be like other children. My walk
may be slower, my speech hard to understand. I may look
different. What is to become of me?”
The Lord replied to the child, “My precious one, have no fear, I
will give you exceptional parents. They will love you because
you are SPECIAL, inspite of it. Though your path through life
will be difficult, your reward may be greater. You have been
blessed with a SPECIAL ABILITY TO LOVE, and those whose
lives you touch will be blessed because of you.
- A
My Perfect Child
As my children were born, I wanted them to be perfect.
When they were babies, I wanted them to smile and be content
playing with their toys.
I wanted them to be happy and to laugh continually instead of
crying and being demanding.
I wanted them to see the beautiful side of life.
As they grew older, I wanted them to be giving instead of selfish.
I wanted them to skip the terrible twos. I wanted them to stay
innocent forever.
As they became teenagers, I wanted them to be obedient and not
mannerly and not mouthy. I wanted them to be full of love, gentle and
“Oh, God, give me a child like this” was often my prayer.
One day He did.
Some call him handicapped … I call him Perfect!!
What If
What if I don’t have the arms and legs?
Does it mean I can’t play?
What if I don’t have the sight and the voice?
Does it mean I can’t communicate?
What if words come slow in my mind?
Does it mean I can’t learn?
What if I can’t look at you in the eye?
Does it mean I don’t care?
What if I can’t hug you like other children?
Does it mean I am void of all emotions?
How can I tell you what I feel?
If you don’t reach out and accept what I am?
Can you give me a chance?
Can you open your heart?
Can you listen to my plea
and love me like any other child?
Watch a small boy follow his dad through the snow. He stretches to step
where his dad stepped. Not an easy task. His small legs extend as far as they can so
his feet can fall in his father’s prints.
The father, seeing what the son is doing, smiles and begins taking short steps, so
that the son can follow.
It’s a picture of discipleship.
In our faith, we follow in someone’s steps. A parent, a teacher, a hero – none of us
is the first to walk the trail. All of us have someone we follow.
In our faith, we leave footprints to guide others. A child, a friend, a recent convert,
none should be left to walk the trail alone.
It is a picture of discipleship.
- Max Lucado, quoted in C: 113
If I Had My Child to Raise Over Again
If I had my child to raise all over again,
I’d finger paint more, and point the finger less.
I’d do less correcting, and more connecting.
I’d take my eyes off my watch, and watch with my eyes.
I would care to know less, and know to care more.
I’d take more hikes and fly more kites.
I’d stop playing serious and seriously play. I would run through
more fields, and gaze at more stars.
I’d do more hugging, and less tugging.
I’d me firm less often, and affirm much more.
I’d build self-esteem first, and house later.
I’d teach less about the love of power.
And more about the power of love.
- quoted in D
Please Mom and Dad …
My hands are small…
I don’t mean to spill the milk.
My legs are short…
Please slow down so I could keep up.
Don’t slap my hands when I touch something bright and
pretty –
I don’t understand.
Please look at me when I talk to you –
It lets me know you are really listening.
My feelings are tender – don’t nag me all day.
Let me make mistakes without feeling stupid.
Don’t expect the bed I make or the picture I draw
to be perfect.
Just love me for trying.
Remember I am a child, not a small adult,
sometimes I don’t understand what you are saying.
Please love me just for being me and not just for the
things I do.
- A: 10
Having a child with special needs has
taught me about unconditional love. Love
is the driving force that keeps me fiercely
committed to seeing that my son is
nurtured, cared for, and encouraged to be
the best he can be. Love is what gets me
through each day.
- Jeannie H. Castillo, in C: 22
Loving in Slices
By Harold Sala, quoted in C: 123
“I cannot love people in slices,” says King Arthus in
Camelot, “I take the good with the bad.” Maybe that’s why
King Arthur presided successfully over a vast array of
knights – and we preside over relationships gone bad.
Can we love people in slices, choosing what we like,
rejecting what we dislike? Come to think of it, nobody,
myself included, is completely lovable. In every person,
there is a diversity of attitudes, habits and mannerisms –
some wonderful, and some quite annoying.
Can we just choose those parts in the person that makes me
feel good? Is this love?
Love is more than a warm feeling; it is a
commitment to care, a decision of the heart, which
has nothing to do with the temperature of our
What causes us to love in slices is plain
selfishness. We do not want the pain and sacrifice
involved in loving the whole person. The result is
loneliness and estrangement.
Taking the good with the bad is the only way to
A Challenge or a Handicap
God gifted each of us with abilities that can be
explored to the depths. The real handicaps we
face are lethargy, indifference, and the inability
to shut off the TV and pick up a book and learn
to read. The great handicaps are not the ones
people are born with, but those that restrict
“normal people” to a life of mediocrity and
- Harold Sala in C: 125
The true hallmark of a loving
parent is not how “perfect” our
children are or become, but how
“perfectly we love them” exactly as
they are – gently and faithfully
embracing and nurturing the unique
gifts and talents that each of them
- Jeannie H. Castillo, in C: 22
Healing in a Loving Touch
by Harold Sala, quoted in C: 126
Have you ever considered the impact of a loving touch? There
were times when Jesus healed sickness with a command. But there were
other occasions when He reached out and touched someone.
He touched a leper who went through life crying, “Unclean,
unclean!” and He still touches those who are neglected by society today.
When asked how she became involved in her work with the
mentally-challenged, a woman named Pungaja, who was handicapped
herself, said the missionary Amy Carmichael had changed her life with
one hug. “When she hugged me,” Pungaja said, “all my burdens went
People respond to a loving touch. A family counselor says the
most unwanted teenage pregnancies could have been prevented if a
father only hugged his teenage daughter everyday.
There is healing in the touch of love and faith.
What does normal mean
We all have our individual
strengths, our individual
characteristics, and our
individual struggles as well.
My family life is very “normal”
to me, because it is mine.
- Jeannie H. Castillo, in C: 23
Normalization, Mainstreaming,
and Inclusion
Normalization is a systematic process of
providing children with special needs (CSN)
the needed training and opportunities given
their normal counterparts, enabling them
(CSN) to maximize their potentials, achieve
some degree of independence in leading their
lives, and access and participate in the benefits
of their communities.
-B: 12
Normalization can be viewed not
only from the legal perspective but
also from the philosophical, social,
psychological and pedagogical
- B: 12
Normalization is much more than
just physical placement. It is the
provision of education that does
away with discrimination and
- B: 12
Normalization teaches us the
lessons of unconditional
positive regard, genuineness
and empathy.
- B: 12
Normalization permeates all the
realms of life: education,
vocational pursuits, community
affairs, etc.
- B: 12
Normalization is PROLIFE, PRO-HUMANITY,
- B: 12
Regular teachers play a crucial role in
mainstreaming/inclusion programs.
Their attitude towards the admission
of children with special needs in
regular classrooms is considered one
of the most important factors in the
successful implementation of
Teacher attitudes toward inclusion of students with
disabilities in their regular classes (1958 – 1995):
• There has been little change in teacher attitudes through the
period covered.
• Most teachers were in favor of some degree of inclusion.
• Most teachers were willing to accommodate students with
disabilities in their classrooms
• Teachers were less positive about admitting students with more
severe disabilities.
• Teachers were less likely to agree that the general education or
regular classroom was always the best environment for all
students with disabilities.
- Mastropieri & Scruggs, 1996, cited in B: 15
Most teachers express the need for more
support to make inclusion a success.
Specifically, the support needed were in
the form of (a) more training, (b) more
personnel support, (c) more material
support, (d) more time for planning, and
(e) smaller size.
- B: 15
PASS Variables
to Maximize Student Success
Scruggs & Mastropieri (1995),
Cited in B: 16-17
Prioritize Objectives
This means analyzing all instructional
objectives, determining which are
most important for students in the
inclusive classrooms, and eliminating
those objectives that are irrelevant and
Adapt Instruction, Materials,
or the Learning Environment
As soon as the instructional
objectives have been prioritized,
adaptations have to be done in the
instruction, materials, or learning
environment in order to effectively
meet the needs of the
included/mainstreamed learner.
Systematic Teaching
This refers to the use of effective teacher
presentation variables which are designed to
promote and enhance academic
achievement of the mainstreamed/included
The variables or elements in the systematic
teaching include the following which quite
interestingly fit the acronym SCREAM
• Structure
This means that lessons are well-organized and
systematic. Moreover, it is expected that the
mainstreamed/included learners are aware of the
organization and purpose of the lesson.
• Clarity
This means that the lesson is presented in a very
understandable manner. There are likewise (a)
clarity on the ways the teacher speaks, (b) use of
clear and direct language, (c) careful and correct
enunciation, and (d) provision of concrete
• Redundancy
Redundancy is designed to increase learning as it
emphasizes and reinforces the most important aspects
of the lesson. Moreover, it helps develop familiarity
with new facts, concepts, or terminology.
• Enthusiasm
Learning can be made more fun, enjoyable and
worthwhile when teachers teach enthusiastically .
Children with special needs are poorly motivated to
learn and succeed in school because of academic
failure generally experienced in the past, hence
enthusiastic teaching can be especially helpful and
appropriate for them.
• Appropriate Rate
Learners with special needs can learn more effectively if the
rate of presentation is neither too fast nor too slow.
Enthusiastic teaching coupled with an appropriate rate of
presentation can do wonders in keeping lessons interesting,
motivating, and appealing to mainstreamed. Included learners.
• Maximized Engagement
No matter what the lesson is, mainstreamed/included students
are most likely to learn if they are optimally engaged with the
elements of the lesson. Specifically, this includes:
(a) listening to teacher or student
(b) asking questions
(c) asking notes
(d) solving problems independently or in
small groups
(e) completing class projects
Systematic Evaluation
This refers to frequent
measurement/assessment of students’
progress to find out if the instructional
objectives are being met. In case
students are not progressing
adequately, additional modifications
may have to be done.
Regular and general education
teachers can effectively teach
mainstreamed/included learners if
they have positive attitudes toward
these students, and are open to
adaptations designed to promote
optimum learning in inclusive
Children with Special Needs
As parents of children with special
needs, I believe it is critical for us to
constantly educate ourselves on the
needs of our children and how we can
best help them achieve their potential.
- Jeannie H. Castillo in C: 27
For me, parent education includes being
updated on the latest information regarding
not only our children’s condition, but
parenting in general; finding and working
closely with the right group of doctors,
therapists, teachers and professionals to help
our children; and also, having the strong will
and fortitude to claim our responsibilities as
parents and our ability to affect the lives of
our children for the better.
- Jeannie H. Castillo in C: 27
In my observations as a parent and a teacher,
experiencing success is really like giving our
children the fuel to continue learning, growing,
and succeeding. And being successful in life –
whether it is accomplishing daily tasks of
living independently, achieving extraordinary
goals that allow our children to shine, or just
being able to live life happily – is something I
believe we all want and envision for our
- Jeannie H. Castillo in C: 28
Because of my son, I am a better parent, I am a
better teacher, I am a better person. Without a
doubt, my son has taught, and continues to
teach, me and my family the best and true
meaning of L.I.F.E., and I am truly grateful.
“All is well.”
- Jeannie H. Castillo in C: 26
We as parents need to be the first to
believe in our children, to love them, to
guide them, to teach them. Which leads
me to another dimension of faith that I
believe is also important – belief in the
strength and capacity of out children to
learn, and the role we have to teach
- Jeannie H. Castillo in C: 26
Take Me to the Journey:
Even When the Going Gets Rough…
Andrea B. Martinez-Gacos
Milepost #1: BEING
“What we believe in is the most pivotal in what will become of our special
No one told me it would be a very difficult journey. Nor was I
prepared to take the journey …
I am a single working mother, and a single working mother of a
special child – Karla. She came into my life when I was least prepared for
the responsibility of motherhood. But just like the joys of any mom who
gave birth to a “normal easy baby”, I felt that mine was more than a
double bundle of joy. Her three-hour journey into this world was without
much trouble, and when she was finally tucked into my arms, I
immediately fell in love with that tiny being that seemed to love me as
much. It was indeed a celebration of life!
But the “smooth-sailing journey” was put into a halt
when, at the age of two, Karla succumbed to encephalitis –
a rare disease of the brain that tested all my strengths and
all the faith that I could muster. It was a one-month
torment at the hospital when she was in coma, and I felt
that the anguish, agony and misery this world could give
were put on my shoulders all at once. It was a nightmare,
indeed, which I would relieve many years later on.
At a point when I thought I was losing her, she came
back – but this time, a different “Karla.” From a happy,
easygoing child, she changed into a difficult,
temperamental one who had to go through years of therapy
before she could recover some of her lost functional skills
But I had always been a firm believer in these fourlettered beautiful words: HOPE and LOVE. I hoped
against hope that she would survive – and so she did. And
that the love I had for my daughter would make all odds
even for her. So I set my eyes on a single goal – that I
would take her with me in my journey no matter how
difficult the road may be. It was no mean feat!
Milepost #2: BELONGING
“When and with whom the special child learns and grows
determine significantly what will become of her.”
I thought the most trying times of my life were over
and that the storm had finally subsided – only to realize
later that the most difficult part was yet to come. For the
scar caused by that dreadful disease refused to heal and
even haunted us many years after battling the malady.
As Karla began her schooling, the aftermath of
thetragic disease also started to take its toll. The change in
her personality was obvious then, especially in her socioemotional skills. However, as I was still reeling from the
nightmare of her encephalitis, school reports from her
teachers started pouring in until they piled up:
This is to inform you that your child misbehaved today
– tinusok niya po ng pencil ang classmate niya.
Your child did not finish her writing activity.
Your child did not finish her Periodical exams.
Your child did not take the test.
You child missed her Math lessons – she stayed
outside the whole time.
This is to inform you that your child is not doing her
Math activities. Pinunit po niya ang Math book niya.
Your child shouted back at her Math teacher.
Your child stepped on her art project.
Your child misbehaved again – nanggigil po siya sa
seatmate niya kaya kinagat niya.
Your child had to be sent home because she was
distracting the class. She was wailing the whole period.
In the past five years, Karla had been to five different
schools. The most painful moments were when I was told
all over again by school authorities that they could no
longer accommodate my “difficult child.” Those were the
most distressing moments that any mother would feel
when she could not shield her child from rejection, from
being unwanted and unaccepted. I recalled the pain when I
was told that my child could not join the class field trip
simply because her teachers did not want to be responsible
when she had tantrums … that she could not have her First
Communion because her behavior was still “immature” …
that she needed to find another school which can take a
“special case” like her.
So I took the responsibility of being a mom to a
“special child.” I was at a crossroads of my life when I
decided to shift from my graduate major in Educational
Psychology to take a course on Special Education – with a
single-minded purpose of knowing and understanding what
my child was going through, and with the hope that
somehow and somewhere along the way, I could ease some
of the bumpy roads in her journey. She was later diagnosed
with acquired ADHD by a developmental pediatrician.
Milepost #3: BECOMING
“The future of a special child relies on present provision of
programs and services.”
I felt like a complete failure when I could not provide
for my child’s special needs. She was advised to take
Ritalin – I simply could not afford the price so I backed
off. She was recommended to have a shadow teacher or be
sent to a special school – my salary was not even enough
to make both ends meet. The doctor said she must continue
with her occupational therapy – I could not even shoulder
the consultation fee of her developmental pediatrician. I
was also told she needed counseling, too, especially after
the separation from her father became stressful for her.
I was like going through a labyrinth, only to wind up
on several dead ends …
The Discovery: Enrolling at Therapeutic Teaching Class
Then I enrolled in Therapeutic Teaching class of Dr.
Dizon, and all the theories and concepts I learned from my
previous SpEd courses became like a “looking-glass”
where I could see through my child’s journey.
I felt the lump on my throat when my teacher
discussed his “Helping Creed” – it was like a reminder of
the similar pledge I made with my child after her neardeath illness. I quietly cried when he talked of his special
child, and the difficulties he experienced in raising him – it
was like hearing myself talking through him. I rejoiced
when he talked of how he came to the defense of his
special child when people looked down with disdain on
him – and I scolded myself because at times I could not do
the same for my kid. I think I finally had my much-needed
counseling when he lectured in class and emphasized the
three important dimensions of therapeutic teaching:
unconditional positive regard, congruence or genuineness,
and emphatic understanding.
I felt guilty beyond words when, in the course of the class
discussion, he talked of the characteristics of a SpEd
teacher: supportive, empathic, caring, genuine,
enthusiastic, tolerant, and accepting of children. So I
asked myself and pondered on the following questions:
• Had I been supportive of my child especially when she was coming
to terms with the separation from her dad? Or was I very selfish
that I denied her the much-needed explanation and assistance in
the course of separation?
• Had I been empathic when I got reports of her misbehaviors in
class? Or was I judgmental and easily blamed her for what she
• Had I been caring enough for her? Or was I so absorbed with
finding a niche in my teaching career that I tended to neglect her,
hoping that the material things I was able to provide would fill-in
the gaps of her longing for an “absent parent”?
• Had I been genuine in my emotions for her? Or did I displace on
her my pent-up anguish and frustrations of our situation?
• Had I been tolerant of her disabilities and incapacities, helping her
to improve or compensate for what she lost? Or was I letting her
down by emphasizing and blaming her disabilities for the myriad of
problems we had as mother and daughter?
• Did I accept her for what she was and what she was not? Or was I
still hoping that she would be the “ideal daughter” I once was to
my parents?
I now feel uncertain whether I am capable of
becoming a supportive, empathic, caring, genuine,
enthusiastic, and tolerant SpEd teacher if with my own
child I could not do the same. But then, they say, life goes
on and “late is better than never.”
“It takes a happy child to learn.”
It was only the beginning of the course but I perfectly
understood what therapeutic teaching is – summarized in
my favorite professor’s quote above.
Yes, indeed, it dawned on me that my child needed to
be happy to be able to learn – and to go through her life’s
with little discomfort. I came to know this when I observed
that in the past few months, her “behavior problems”
started to wane. She seemed happy with her new school.
Her new teachers and classmates were more
accommodating, patient and understanding of her situation.
She only had occasional reports of unfinished exams, and
her emotional impulsivity seemed to be much under
control even amidst emotional stress. She talked proudly
of her little accomplishments, and was no longer afraid to
talk about her fears. She started to manifest self-discipline
and responsibility, especially in taking care of herself and
of her school things. These may have seemed trivial but, as
her mother, I considered them “great leaps” on the course
of her development.
In coming to terms with my “future SpEd
profession”, I now keep in mind and heart the
aims of therapeutic teaching for every special
child: relaxation, enjoyment, socialization, selfexpression, self-discipline, self-awareness, skillbuilding, valuing, and decision-making. I now
considered every opportunity of interaction with
my child as a chance to help her feel comfortable
and less tense, and confident and fulfilled of her
accomplishments; engage in purposive activities,
enhance her competence, make intelligent
decisions, and value her potentials.
Therapeutic Teaching class taught me lessons I
would not normally learn in other theory-based
courses. There is one important thing I learned in
this class – the value of helping…
I now believe that I am ready and
steadfast on this journey with my daughter.
I may not know what lies ahead of the road,
but armed with firm commitment and
genuineness, loaded with unconditional love
and positive regard, as well as packed with
empathic understanding, our lives’ journey
would lead us to our final destination – that
in the end, my daughter and I have endured
this journey together.
God’s Love
By Max Lucado
My child’s feelings are hurt … I tell her she is special.
My child is injured … I do whatever it takes to
make her feel better.
My child is afraid … I won’t go to sleep until she is
I am not a hero … I am a parent.
When a child hurts, a parent does what comes
naturally … he helps.
Why don’t I let my Father do for me what I am
more than willing to do for my own children?
I am learning ...
Being a parent is teaching me that when I am
criticized, injured or afraid, there is a father who is
ready to comfort me. There is a Father who will
hold me until I am better, help me until I can live
with the hurt, and who won’t go to sleep when I
am afraid of waking up and seeing the dark.
It is my feeling that having a child with special needs
is actually a greater calling from God to learn and
practice unconditional love, actively and consciously
every day of our lives – a love that surpasses our own
egos, our own ambitions, our own dreams and ideas of
how things “should be” – surrendering to a love that
embraces differences, that is open to learning, one
that celebrates uniqueness, diversity and God’s
greater plans for our lives.
- Jeannie H. Castillo, in C: 22
Pearl Buck once wrote that a retarded child
has a right to happiness and that happiness
is dependent on living where the child can
function. Our special children need to
function as best they can. They need
stimulation and challenge and
reinforcement, but most of all they need
our acceptance and love.
-Madeleine R. de Leon in C: 31
Being a Godly Parent
By Harold Sala
Never underestimate the ponderings of a Christian parent.
Never underestimate the power that comes when a parent pleads with
God on behalf of a child.
Who knows how many prayers are being answered right now because
of the faithful ponderings of a parent ten or twenty years ago?
God listens to thoughtful parents.
Praying for our children is a noble task. If what we are doing in this
fast-paced society, is taking us away from prayer time for our
children, we are doing too much. There is nothing more special, more
precious than time that a parent spends struggling and pondering with
God on behalf of a child
- quoted in C: 110
Preparing the Staff
for Mainstreaming and Inclusion
Child’s Perspective
Study the child’s records and identify his strengths and
developmental differences and delays. Thus, the child must
be assessed in terms of:
(1) his current skills
(2) the conditions under which the child
demonstrates particular skills
(3) the skills the mainstreamed/inclusion program
expects the learner to have before entering
the program.
Family’s Perspective
Families may have to educate staff
in the receiving inclusive program
to the families’ identified
priorities and needs, the nature of
the child’s abilities/disabilities,
culture of the family, and other
family characteristics and beliefs.
Family Characteristics
The staff should have accurate information or answer the
Who makes up the child’s family?
Who are the members of the nuclear and extended family?
Is the child the first in the family to receive special
If not, how was the family’s experience with the previous
How will it affect present circumstances of integrating the
special child?
How many other children are in the family?
What are their feelings towards the special learner? His
integration in a mainstream or included setting?
What are the roles of the family members? Wage earner?
Unemployed? Decision-maker? Caregiver? Housekeeper?
Nature of the Child’s Disability
The staff should have appropriate data on the following:
How has the child’s disability affected his ability to
participate in family activities?
Does the child’s disability interfere with family members’
activities and needs?
Does it cause financial, emotional, and emotional strain on
the family as a whole?
Or only on particular family members?
Does the child’s problems pull the family together, make it
stronger, as family members try to meet the needs of the
special child?
Culture of the Family
• What is the language the family is most conversant?
• If the family finds English difficult, then all written
information on the child and his program should be made
available to the family in their first language.
Questions that need to be addressed are:
• Will the services of an interpreter be acquired for all
meetings and discussions between the school and the
• What is the family’s cultural, ethnic, and socio-economic
• Is there a match between the child’s family‘s culture and
the program the child is entering?
• Will there be conflicts or stresses caused by differences in
family background and school culture?
• In case there are, how will these differences be addressed?
Family Beliefs
The staff should have answers to the following questions:
Do family members talk about their feelings and fears?
Do they focus on the present, past or future?
Do they only deal with the facts of the situation?
What appears to be the self-image of various family members?
What seems to be their view of their lives compared to the views
of others?
Do they face life with a sense of humor, a sense of resignation,
getting even, or a sense of hope?
The success of any planned integration depends partly in
recognizing the diversity that each family brings to the process.
Family Priorities and Needs
Staff should understand that, generally, families are concerned
What services will be available in the integrated setting and how
can they obtain these services?
How will the special learner adjust to the new program both
socially and academically?
How will the new teacher in the inclusive program adjust to the
child and vice-versa?
What changes in daily routine will be required?
Families need adequate time to address these questions if they
are expected to be valued partners in the child’s education and
Johnson et al. (1989)say that parents should be
given the opportunity to:
(1) communicate their preferred role in the
decision making process
(2) exchange information with the staff about the
(3) help select learning goals for the child
(4) help in identifying potential placements
(5) help make decisions based on their child’s
needs and resources available
(6) participate in forming a relationship with the
staff of the inclusive program
Program Perspectives
• To ensure that children and families move smoothly from
sender to receiver program or inclusion without a gap in
services and without unnecessary duplication of
assessments and services, adequate planning is needed.
• Children and families should not have to wait for services
that they need. The services in the inclusive program
should build upon the services that the child and family
received previously, reflecting the child’s developmental
• It may be helpful for agencies who send and/or receive
many special children each year to also develop an
interagency agreement with each other. The agreement
should specify roles and responsibilities of the sending and
receiving inclusive programs to ensure good planning and
communication between programs and their staff.
Best Practices for Staff
in Inclusive and Community Settings
• Focus on discerning the differences between
students with severe disabilities and their ablebodied peers
• Instruction across environments with a variety
of “teachers”
• Structured, sustained interactions
• Participation in a variety of age-appropriate
• A functional life skills curriculum
• Teaching in natural contexts
Best Practices for Staff in Inclusive and
Community Settings (cont.)
• An integrated teaching model, in which teachers,
parents and therapists work together to determine
basic school needs
• A commitment to work and independent living in
the future
• Additional best practices are
Collaboration among teachers
Diversity of all students
Celebration of diversity
Standards success to all students bring together the
goals of general and special education
Psychoeducational Assessment
The psychoeducational assessment of
special learners is indispensible and vital
to intervention planning and
implementation. Many good and sound
educational decisions and practices can be
done if these are based on assessment
information about the child.
- E: 5
Psychoeducational assessment is
developmental. This means that information
about the child is gathered not only during
crises or during the initial identification phase,
but periodically/regularly – throughout the
child’s stay in the school and even after the
child has left school.
- E:7
The SPED teacher, in conducting psychoeducational
assessment, must observe the following ethical
Information/Test results must be held in strictest
confidence. Sharing the results to specialists, parents
and other responsible adults must be strictly for
intervention purposes.
Information/Test results should be properly interpreted.
Clinical terms should be avoided when sharing the
results to laymen who are involved in helping the child.
Information/Test results should have built-in provision
for future actions/ recommendations.
The confidentiality of standard test materials should be
- E:7
Special education subscribes to a
developmental, comprehensive, and
built-in assessment that pervades
the entire scope and range of the
educational program for the special
learner through multidisciplinary
and transdisciplinary strategies.
- E: 8
It is only the SPED teacher, however,
who can assume the highly responsible
but critical role of conducting
psychoeducational assessment that
interweaves with and finds meaning
and relevance in the designing,
implementation, and evaluation of
educational programs and services for
special learners.
- E: 8
Psychoeducational evaluation is an integral
part of individualization. It does not end in the
identification of handicaps and disabilities. It
serves, more specifically, as a guide for
teachers in meeting the special needs of the
exceptional child considering several factors.
These are his abilities, capabilities, and
characteristics; developmental patterns;
learning styles; and other factors affecting him:
his background; opportunities offered him; and
personal and environmental constraints and
- E:9
The evaluation focuses on the
abilities and potentials of the child
rather than on his limitations and
deficiencies. It is built upon what the
child can do rather than what he
cannot do. Comments and
recommendations put stress on where
the child is and what can be done on
the basis of his present conditions
- E: 12-13
The report is characterized by
objectivity to obtain a true and honest
picture of the child. Objectivity in this
context, however, excludes the
irresponsible attachment of labels
which adversely stigmatize and
categorize the child
- E:13
The comments and recommendations are
interrelated and unified rather than
fragmented since the educational program
along which [they] are given can only be
the best seen as a whole. The competent
and concerned evaluator tries as much as
possible to relate the report to all aspects
of the educational program. Such lifespace approach provides for consistency of
priorities, approaches, behavior
management, and cooperative follow-up
- E: 13
An Individualized Educational Plan is a
systematic, purposive and developmental
educational programming of curricular and
instructional priorities and contents
designed to meet the child’s special needs
and aimed at ensuring mastery of learning
of target skills and behaviors
- E:40
Individualizing educational plans enables helpers to:
Identify/Specify the needs of special learners based on his
most recent or current evaluation report.
Target specific objectives that need to be achieved within a
given timeframe.
Determine specific lessons, contents or activities and
methodologies/strategies to actualize the formulated
Specify the materials/resources needed in implementing the
Identify and collaborate with other helpers who provide the
intervention to the special learner
Evaluate gains and progress in relation to objective sets
- E: 5
Recovery from Disaster
From Dr. Harold Sala,
“Just for Today: Guidelines for
Quoted in C: 121
Disasters are a part of life, the result of living in
an imperfect world. Here are some guidelines to
follow when disaster knocks on your door.
Guideline 1: Vent your grief
It is not a sign of weakness to let tears flow. Tears
wash away bitterness from within and purge feelings
of resentment from our hearts. But there is a
difference between releasing bitterness and rehearsing
it. Some people hold on to the memory of disaster, retelling it time and time again.
Guideline 2: Let others minister to you
People who pretend that everything is fine are only
compounding their pain. The family of God is there to
serve as a safety net, a buffer between you and the
Guideline 3: Refuse to be bitter
Disaster result in either bitterness or blessing, but
not both. King David’s life seemed to be an
ongoing series of disasters. Yet he could look back
and say, “Before I was afflicted I went astray, but
now I obey your word” (Psalm 119:67).
Guideline 4: Rely upon the Lord for strength
When disaster comes, you can hold on to the Lord
or foolishly blame Him. You can panic, or you can
Special Education
Special education has helped me to
view special children as productive
individuals and not merely as among the
“least ones.” It showed me that what
really is important is for the spirit to be
whole because the body will always be
temporary; that though the world may see
the special child as the least significant, to
God, he has the first place in heaven.
- Michael A. Sillano in E: 125
A child is like a vessel, and education
serves as the sail which directs it course
through the expedition called life …
Like all boats, shipbuilders construct and
refine them as parents rear their children
from birth to maturity. Sailors navigate
their sea crafts across far and distant
frontiers as educators tap various
boundaries of thought and space.
- Maria Peregrina V. Policarpio in C: 66
Special Education – through its programs
and services – is PRO-LIFE if we:
Believe in the uniqueness and worth of the special child.
Believe in the inherent goodness of the special child.
Love the special child unconditionally.
Express such unconditional love verbally and non-verbally.
Accept and respect the special child despite his disabilities
and limitations
Provide adequate physical care and nourishment.
Protect the special child from danger and diseases.
Provide appropriate education.
Believe that the special child can achieve, and grow in
knowledge, skills and values.
Plan and provide for the special child’s future.
- C: 7
Special Education – through its programs and
services – is PRO-HUMANITY if we:
• Help build a caring community.
• Respect the rights of special people.
• Make community resources accessible to the special child and
his family.
• Prepare the special child for community involvement and
• Help organize and sustain ongoing projects for special people.
• Network with support groups.
• Support advocacy for special people and their families.
• Train helpers and caregivers even at the grassroots level.
• Train special people for employment in collaboration with the
business sector.
• Support in the alleviation of poverty through responsive
- C: 7
Special Education – through its programs and
services – is PRO-GOD if we:
• See God’s image in each special child.
• Accept God’s will for giving us special children to love, heal
and nurture.
• Believe in loving special children as loving God.
• Recognize the important role of prayers.
• Trust in Divine Providence in times of trials and doubts.
• Inspire and spread goodness to those who care for children in
difficult circumstances.
• Experience the spiritual joy of serving others and seeing them
become the best that they can be.
• Exercise the value of giving time, money and effort without
expecting anything in return.
• Growing in spiritual maturity and wisdom through God’s
• Learn more about God’s words through direct service to special
people and their families.
In summary, Special Education as PRO-LIFE values the
presence of a special child and the nurturance of his
family and significant others.
Special Education as PRO-HUMANITY values a
community of concerned individuals who genuinely
facilitate the special child’s growth.
Special Education as PRO-GOD values the presence
of a Divine Being and the power of faith and belief in
His Providence and Intervention.
- C: 8
Pro-Life is doing everything to
preserve and protect life no matter
what. It is a moral duty.
Pro-Life is appreciation of what life
has to bring – all the trajectories, all
the diversities.
- Dr. Elizabeth V. Rey-Matias in C: 9
Pro-Life means providing quality life.
Pro-Life also means we look at these twists in
life as opportunities.
Early intervention is Pro-Life manifested in a
special child’s early years.
- Dr. Elizabeth V. Rey-Matias in C: 9
Pro-Humanity starts with acceptance
of the child as a human being with
basic emotional, economic, physical and
psychosocial needs. It recognizes and
accepts the limitation and capabilities
of the disabled person just like any
other human being.
- Rita Aquino in C: 34
To be Pro-God, Pro-Life and ProHumanity in Special Education Means:
Preparing teachers, administrators and other school staff
to know and understand the special child, accept and
respect him for whatever he is, caring for him
unconditionally, helping him achieve his potential, and
keeping such commitment consistently.
Placing a special child in an appropriate placement
program that best responds to his needs, abilities and
capabilities; adopts instructional schemes to
strengthen intervention, and prepares him to be an
active member of the community
- C: 47
To be Pro-God, Pro-Life and ProHumanity in Special Education Means:
Designing and implementing a curricular program that
incorporates the provision of physical necessities and
psychomotor development, cognitive and language
abilities, and emotional, social and civic skills including
relating with God positively through prayers and
constructive deeds
• Planning and implementing instructional methodologies
that draw the best in the special child, sustain his curiosity
and love for learning, harness initiative and creativity, and
ensure mastery learning
- C: 47
To be Pro-God, Pro-Life and ProHumanity in Special Education Means:
Referring to and collaborating with support-service givers
who are equally interested in the special child and imbued
with commitment to his welfare. Such partnership is a
confirmation that teaching the child cannot be a teacher’s
function alone. It requires the help of other professionals –
considering the child’s present needs and concerns
• Working and collaborating with the family and the
different community sectors through programs that inspire
and ensure activity and committed participation, and
provide services that redound to the quality of life of
persons with special needs
- C: 47
To be Pro-God, Pro-Life and ProHumanity in Special Education Means:
Working and collaborating with the family and the
different community sectors through programs that
inspire and ensure activity and committed
participation, and provide services that redound to the
quality of life of persons with special needs
• Providing clean, safe and conducive avenues for
learning: schools, rehabilitation centers, community
day care centers, therapeutic centers, etc. alongside
needed materials, facilities and equipment where
special children can learn and grow happily
- C: 47
To be Pro-God, Pro-Life and ProHumanity in Special Education Means:
Keeping trust in God that His
goodness never fails special
children as we guide them
towards the positive direction and
towards HIS WAY!
The Shadow Teacher
From G
The shadow teacher has five
major duties and functions related
to the education of the CSN.
These functions are curriculum
planning, instruction, behavior
and skills management, and team
working with other supportservice givers.
Functions of the Shadow Teacher
in Curriculum Planning
• Choosing functional, relevant, and meaningful skills related
to the lessons and based on the assessment report
• Requesting in advance for the lesson and topics for at least a
week from the regular teacher
• Simplifying the curricular content
• Organizing and task analyzing (breaking into behavioral
component) for mastery learning
• Reformatting the lessons depending on the child’s needs
• Preparing helpful activity sheets in implementing the
• Differentiating test formats depending on the child’s needs
Functions of the Shadow Teacher
in Instruction
• Working with the student in non-attention getting
• Explaining the lesson further whenever needed
• Using appropriate instructional materials
• Assisting in teaching the child to take notes / copy
board work himself
• Teaching the child to answer activity sheets
• Interspersing light or reward activities into difficult
ones during lessons
• Providing drills during lesson / free time
Functions of the Shadow Teacher
in Behavior Management
• Directing the student’s attention to the classroom
• Assisting in teaching the child to comprehend and
follow school rules
• Assisting in teaching the child to put things in their
proper places after use
• Assisting in teaching the child to complete a task before
moving on to another one.
• Pulling out the child for more focused skill- building
• Pulling out the child to cool him off in times of tantrums
• Physically/Verbally prompting the child to perform in
circle time, class recitations, and other group activities.
Functions of the Shadow Teacher
in Social Skills Management
• Teaching the child social greetings and using simple
polite terms
• Prompting the child to participate in class recitation
• Physically/Verbally prompting the child to play
appropriately with other children
• Physically/verbally prompting the child to join in play
• Assisting the teacher in socializing the child in group
• Using appropriate reinforcers in shaping positive
social skills
• Guiding the child in participating actively in programs
and school organizations
Functions of the Shadow Teacher
in Team Working
• Attending meetings with teachers, parents, and other
professionals to discuss and plan improvement of
child’s performance
• Providing the regular teacher helpful information
about the child
• Conferring with regular teachers, parents and other
professionals about the child’s progress
• Seeking suggestions from teachers and other
professionals regarding the child’s behavior
• Coordinating/collaborating with the family and other
home members regarding important concerns about
the child
• Discussing with the regular teacher about curricular
modifications done
Principles of Shadow Teaching
The shadow teaching scheme is an
assistantship plan. The shadow teacher,
therefore, assists in teaching the special
child, who otherwise, will be directly
handled by the homeroom/subject teacher.
The shadow teacher – whether paid by the
school or the parent – is tasked to perform
the best he can with the child’s welfare
foremost in mind.
The shadow teaching scheme considers the
shadow teacher an official member of the school
staff. Thus, he is expected to work with the highest
levels of proficiency, efficiency and sense of duty
and responsibility. He/She is duty-bound to adhere
to the highest standards of professionalism.
The shadow teaching scheme mandates that the
shadow teacher be accountable for the child’s
development and progress in collaboration with
home and school members and other concerned
The shadow teaching scheme is aimed
at individualizing the CSN’s
intervention program within the
context of a regular school.
The shadow teaching scheme aims to
target priorities and synchronize
contents and strategies as parts of its
individualization concerns.
The shadow teaching scheme does not
compete and compare the CSN’s
performance with that of his regular
classmates. It adopts criterion-referenced
teaching over norm-referenced teaching,
enabling the child to move up the
educational ladder at his/her own rate and
pace of learning.
The shadow teacher considers the
developmental progression of learning with
drill/practice, provision for remediation,
generalization of skills in other situations.
The shadow teaching scheme is highly
partial to organized, systematic and
structured intervention programs and
services to pave way for mastery
learning and effective evaluation of
The shadow teaching scheme recognizes
the significance of collaboration
among all home, school and
community manpower resources.
The Special Education Teacher
A teacher affects eternity; he can
never tell where his influence
- Henry B. Adams,
quoted in A: 106
I have come to a frightening conclusion
That I am the decisive element
in the classroom.
It is my personal approach
that creates the climate.
It is my daily mold that makes the weather.
As a teacher, I possess a
tremendous power
To make a child’s life
Miserable or joyous.
I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.
I can humiliate or humor,
hurt or heal.
In all situations,
it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be
escalated or de-escalated;
and a child
humanized or dehumanized
--Haim Ginott
The educator must above all
understand how to wait;
to reckon all efforts in the light of the
future, not to the present.
- Ellen Key,
quoted in A:118
It is the supreme art of the
teacher to awaken joy in
creative expression and
- Albert Einstein A: 156
Requirements of a Teacher: 4
A – Attention
A – Affection
A – Acceptance
A – Approval
- A: 70
Teaching Attitude
Believe that the child can learn.
Be patient and willing to teach.
Make sure that the teaching situation is conducive to
Teach with ease and fun.
Love teaching.
- A: 70
4 Cs of Teacher’s Behavior
• Caring
• Considerate
• Cooperative
• Consistent
- A: 71
Guiding Principle: FOCUS
(Child Centered)
F – Fix your thoughts, eyes, and goals on his ability, not on
his disability.
O – Observe the child very closely.
C – Concentrate on the child’s behavior toward his playmate.
U – Understand the child.
S – Show sincerity in teaching and playing with the child.
- A:71
Commitment: LOVE
L – isten
O – pen yourself
V – alidate
E – ncourage
- A: 71
Teaching Filipino Children
with Autism
Children with autism manifest atypical
behaviors such as stimulus overselectivity,
diminished motivation, self-stimulatory
responses and unique responses to
reinforcement which distinguish them
from other children. Managing such
behaviors involves the use of behaviormodification techniques which result in
encouraging and positive outcomes
- D: 19
Positive Reinforcement
Use reinforcers such as rewards to motivate the
child to attend and respond to instructions. They
are objects that elicit positive reactions (e.g.,
foods, toys, books, tokens, stickers) or activities
(e.g., hugs, kisses, praises). A reinforcer is also
any object or activity that is reinforcing to a
particular child (e.g., jumping on trampoline,
clothes or wrappers, touching a favorite object).
The reinforcing value of an object is evaluated by
noting if the child reaches for it or manipulates it,
and resists when it is taken.
- D:26
This technique is used when the child
initially does not have the desired skill in
his repertoire of behaviors. Shaping takes
advantage of related responses the child
already has. Reinforce a skill in
successive approximation - step-by-step –
until the desired behavior is achieved.
- D:16
This technique represents an attempt
on the part of the teacher to teach the
behavior by performing the act while
the child observes. The child is then
asked to imitate the demonstrated
- D: 26
Extinction is a strategy used to
decrease maladaptive responses. This
involves the cessation of previously
provided reinforcement – eliminating
whatever reinforcement is thought to
be maintaining the behavior
- D: 26
Physical/Verbal Prompting
Prompting refers to physical or verbal
cueing on the teacher to the child to
facilitate occurrence of a response.
While prompts are necessary in
teaching CWA, they should be faded
as soon as the child is beginning to
show responses independently.
- D:27
Over-stimulation … has two
objectives: (a) to over-correct the
environmental effects of a
maladaptive response, (b) to require
the disrupting child to practice a
correct form of an appropriate
- D:27
This technique is done by physically
prompting a child who refuses to work in
completing his tasks. The technique may
be modified by modeling the specific
task/behavior to the child while ignoring
his deviant behavior
- D: 27
Aversive Conditioning
Painful or obnoxious stimulation
is used in this strategy to decrease
maladaptive responses manifested
by the child (e.g., lemon juice,
sticky but safe substances).
- D:27
The teacher/caregiver and the child specify and
agree on expected behaviors or tasks the child
ought to exhibit/do for self-improvement.
Afterwards, they agree on rewards the child will
get if the tasks/behaviors are exhibited/done, and
also the “punishments” if not. The agreement is
written on paper for both teacher/caregiver and
child to sign. A copy is posted on the board to
serve as a reminder. A punishment may be in the
form of withholding of things the child likes or
depriving him or privileges.
- D:27
Token System
Colored chips (or other objects) with
corresponding point are given
commensurate to the child’s positive
behaviors. Chips are retrievable for
negative behaviors. These earned chips are
convertible to item/s the child likes.
- D: 27
Stimulus Control
This involves presenting a visual or aural cue with
which the child associates stopping or continuing
on with a behavior. Examples of visual cues: (a)
slippers, (b) belt, (c) rope to control a negative
behavior; and (a) nodding and (b) smiling to signal
letting the child go on with a behavior or task.
Examples of aural cues are saying ”NO” or
“STOP” to stop a behavior, and “GO AHEAD” or
“GOOD” to let the child go on with a behavior or
- D:27
Time Out
Time out is pulling the child out of the
group for an unacceptable behavior,
and placing him back when he is
- D:27
Ignoring the Child
Ignoring the child if he resorts to
tantrum or non-positive attentiongetting behavior.
- D: 27
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