Planning Differentiated Instruction

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Planning
Differentiated
Instruction
Michael C. McKenna
University of Virginia
Sharon Walpole
University of Delaware
Choose your clock partners!
12
9
3
6
Stage models of reading
Oral Language
Fluency
Alphabetic
Principle
Phonemic
Awareness
When children are acquiring
literacy – developing the
skills necessary for
reading comprehension –
they tend to move through
stages in which their focus
is very different. All along,
during each stage, they
are developing oral
language skills.
Work with your 12:00 clock partner.
12
9
3
6
Start thinking . . .



If you were trapped on a desert island until
you could come up with an ideal reading
program for your school, what would it
include?
To what extent does your current program
include these things?
If there are missing elements, why don’t
you think the designers included them?
Overview
Define differentiation
 Propose instructional diets and groupings
 Introduce a planning process

“At its most basic level, differentiation consists of the
efforts of teachers to respond to variance among
learners in the classroom. Whenever a teacher
reaches out to an individual or small group to vary
his or her teaching in order to create the best
learning experience possible, that teacher is
differentiating instruction.”
Carol Ann Tomlinson, Differentiation of Instruction in the
Elementary Grades. ERIC Digest.
http://www.ericdigests.org/2001-2/elementary.html
Defining Differentiation
(adapted from Tomlinson)
Content
What a student needs to learn
Process
Activities and instruction to
accomplish that learning
Product
Evidence to demonstrate that
learning
Learning
Environment
Procedures and opportunities for
support and collaboration
Let’s think it through

You’ve read aloud a piece of children’s
literature to develop vocabulary and
comprehension.


How could you differentiate for students on or
above grade level, just below grade level, and
well below grade level?
Would you choose to differentiate content,
process, product, and/or learning environment?
Why?
Let’s think it through

Make it more complex. You have a class of 20
students and a well-designed core reading
program. Your goal is to develop at least gradelevel competence in decoding, fluency, and
comprehension.


How could you differentiate for students on or above
grade level, just below grade level, and well below grade
level?
Would you choose to differentiate content, process,
product, and/or learning environment? Why?
Researchers have long tried to
focus differentiation for reading
“Balanced reading” was a critical concept in literacy
history. It curricularized differentiation as one part
of reading instruction. Teachers read aloud from
children’s literature, engaged in shared reading
from big books and posters, formed flexible
groups for guided reading of little books and
leveled books, and finally provided time for
independent reading from a wide range of
materials.
Guided reading …
“takes advantage of social support and allows the teacher
to operate efficiently, to work with the tension between
ease and challenge that is necessary to support
readers’ moving forward in their learning.” (p. 6)
Fountas, I. C., & Pinnell, G. S. (1996). Guided reading: Good
first teaching for all children. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Defining Differentiation
(Fountas and Pinnell)
Planning Form groups based on fluency.
Choose a text for each group.
Before
Reading
Introduce the text.
Conduct a picture walk to develop comprehension.
During
Reading
Listen and take notes about strategy use.
Discuss the story.
Confirm and support problem-solving for words.
After
Reading
Discuss, respond to the story.
Assess understanding.
Let’s think it through

You have first graders, 12 of whom have been
identified as at-risk in the area of decoding by your
screening assessment.
 How would a guided reading format support their
development?
 What would you gain by planning guided reading for
all of them?
 What would you lose by planning guided reading for
all of them?
Approaches to Differentiation
 By
instructional level
 By fluency level
 By assessed needs
This text was dedicated
specifically to coaches
and teachers in
Reading First schools.
It is derived from
challenges and
lessons in
implementing Reading
First.
Differentiation is
“instruction that helps [children] accomplish
challenging tasks that are just out of their reach”
“instruction that targets a particular group of
children’s needs directly and temporarily”
“instruction that applies a developmental model”
Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2007). Differentiated reading
instruction: Strategies for the primary grades. New York:
Guilford Press.
Stage models of reading
Oral Language
Fluency
Alphabetic
Principle
Phonemic
Awareness
When children are acquiring
literacy – developing the
skills necessary for
reading comprehension –
they tend to move through
stages in which their focus
is very different. All along,
during each stage, they
are developing oral
language skills.
Work with your 3:00 clock partner.
12
9
3
6
Take Five
Think about your most successful
grade level.
How are you managing whole-group,
small-group, and intervention
instruction?
Discuss your progress with a partner.
Think about last year’s instruction.
How well did your strongest students do?
 How well did your middle group do?
 How well did your struggling students do?

It may be hard to accept, but the results
you’re getting are the results you’re
supposed to be getting. In other words,
whatever you are doing right now is
bringing you the results you are getting
right now . . . Change what you are doing
and you can change your results. Pretty
simple really.
Vitale, J. (2006). Life's missing instruction manual :
The guidebook you should have been given at birth.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
I define insanity as doing the same
thing over and over and expecting to
get different results.
– Einstein
Our school visits in Virginia and
other states indicate that
differentiated instruction is not yet
fully realized.
Setting the stage for
differentiation
requires careful
analysis of the core.
Decide what to teach when.
We are more likely to achieve improvements
in vocabulary and comprehension for K and
1st grade during whole-group read-alouds,
using both core selections and children’s
literature.
We can introduce and practice phonemic
awareness and phonics concepts during
whole group, but we’re more likely to
achieve mastery during small-group time.
Decide what to teach when.
We are more likely to achieve improvements
in fluency and comprehension in 2nd and
3rd grade if we introduce them in wholegroup and practice in small-group time.
We can introduce word recognition concepts
during whole-group time, but we will likely
achieve mastery only during small-group
time.
What do we have to do to
accomplish this?
Make more time for small groups.

Reading coaches and grade-level teams
must determine exactly how to use the core
program


Sort core instructional components from
extension and enrichment activities
Moderate and control instructional pacing so that
early introductions and reviews are fast
What do we have to do to
accomplish this?
Make a very simple stations
rotation.





Look for materials already in the core.
Consider daily paired readings and rereadings.
Consider a daily activity linked directly to your read-aloud.
Your children can write in response to that text every day.
Make your stations coherent! They are not babysitting
stations but tools to reinforce and extend what you teach.
Consider a daily activity linked directly to your small-group
instruction. Your children can practice the things you’ve
introduced.
What do we have to do to
accomplish this?
Considerations for K stations

Strategic and intensive children are
struggling with letter naming



Computer station?
Letters for distributed practice at home?
Some of the children are not on firm
footing with phonological awareness


Picture sorts
Pictures to say and spell
Considerations for 1st-grade stations

Fluency:



Phonics:



Paired rereading of old stories
Paired reading of additional texts (benchmark)
Picture sorts, word sorts
Spelling for sounds
Vocabulary/Comprehension:

Listening station
Considerations for 2nd-grade stations

Fluency:




Phonics:




Assisted fluency work for intensive
Paired rereading of old stories for strategic
Paired reading of additional texts for benchmark
First-grade materials?
Intervention materials?
Practice with core vocabulary
Vocabulary/Comprehension:


Listening station with retelling sheet (intensive)
Leveled books and expository texts with retelling
sheets (strategic and benchmark)
Considerations for 3rd-grade stations

Fluency:




Phonics:




Assisted fluency work for intensive
Paired rereading of old stories for strategic
Paired reading of additional texts for benchmark
First-grade materials?
Intervention materials?
Practice with core vocabulary
Vocabulary/Comprehension:


Listening station with retelling sheet (intensive)
Leveled books and expository texts with retelling sheets
(strategic and benchmark)
Now you have set the stage for
differentiated reading instruction.
It’s time to plan.
1. Gather your resources.
2. Consider your children’s needs.
3. Try it out.
A Basic Template
Whole-Group Instruction
Needs-based
Station
Station
Station or
Intervention
Needs-based
Station
Station
Needs-based
Station
Whole-Group Instruction
A Basic Template
Whole-Group Instruction
Needs-based
Station
Station
Station or
Intervention
Needs-based
Station
Station
Needs-based
Station
Whole-Group Instruction
A three-week cycle
for differentiated
instruction
Phonemic
Awareness and Word Recognition
Word Recognition and Fluency
Fluency and Comprehension
Vocabulary and Comprehension
Differentiating Instruction for
Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, and Word
Recognition
Questions




Who needs this type of instruction?
What data must be gathered?
What planning decisions must be
made?
What are some tricks of the trade?
We are combining
ideas from
Chapters 3 and 4
What are we trying to teach?



These children still need to work on learning letter
names and sounds, and they are not yet able to
segment phonemes automatically.
They will work on coordinated activities to
manipulate phonemes, learn new letters and
sounds, and review letters previously taught.
They will work with letters and words during smallgroup time.
How will we know when we’ve
accomplished our goal?


When children are able to segment and blend sounds
easily, we should change our focus to word recognition and
fluency. In that group, we will continue to work with word
recognition, but we will be using phonics-controlled text for
practice.
Remember that our goal is to make each of our groupings
temporary and targeted.
A Stairway to Proficiency
Vocabulary & Comprehension
Fluency and Comprehension
Word Recognition and Fluency
PA and Word Recognition
Who is likely to need
this type of
differentiated
instruction?
Letter naming and phonological
awareness data suggest problems

We KNOW: These children are not on
track for achieving the spring first-grade
fluency goals

We NEED to know: Which letter names
they need and whether they have been
taught
Let’s find out



Give a letter-name inventory (in random
order) to see which letters they need.
Use your phonics scope and sequence to
see whether they’ve had an opportunity to
learn those letters yet!
(For early emergent readers, find out
whether they can sing, say, and finger-point
the alphabet with an alphabet strip.)
Ability to segment words into
phonemes is weak

We KNOW: These children are not on
track for achieving the spring-first grade
fluency goals.

We can FIGURE OUT: Whether they can
segment to onset-rime or phoneme-byphoneme.
Let’s find out

For children with extremely low scores, use
an informal phonological awareness
screening to see whether they can respond
to syllables or onsets and rimes.
Phonics data suggest a problem

We KNOW: These children are not on
track for achieving the spring first-grade
fluency goals

We NEED to know: What letter sounds
letter patterns they need to learn and
whether they can blend sounds.
Let’s find out


Give a letter-sound inventory (in random
order) to see which sounds they need
Use your phonics scope and sequence to
see whether they’ve had an opportunity to
learn those sounds yet!
Let’s find out

Use your scope and sequence documents
to identify all of the words that you’ve
taught already

Give a high-frequency word inventory only
for those words.
And one more thing


Find out whether these children have
concept of word (the ability to finger-point
while pretending to read a memorized text).
You can do this with any poem or text that
you’ve already used often enough that the
children have memorized it, but it must
have at least some two-syllable words.
It was raining.
It was raining.
Teacher: You can push these cards
together so that the words are covered up.
Watch!
It was raining.
Teacher: You can push these cards
together so that the words are covered up.
Watch!
It was raining.
Teacher: Now you push them together so
that just one word is covered.
It was raining.
Now you’re ready!




Do you have one group or two?
There may be one small group of extremely
weak students, without any real alphabet
knowledge.
Generally, it will be difficult to work with
more than 5 students at a time
Combine all of the items that they don’t
know into one list.
Assessment Data (grouped for all)
PA Level
ABC Level
Syllable
Sing ABCs
Onset-rime
Say ABCs
Phoneme
Track ABCs
Unknown
Letters
Unknown
Sounds
HighFrequency
Words
Combining these results will provide you a
collection of known and unknown items for
each child; their needs will probably not be
exactly the same.
To make your plan, start with the
letter names and sounds


Divide them into sets of two (and then you
can add a review letter each day to make
three)
Now choose your Phonemic Awareness
strategy. Read pages 36-47. Think about
whether you have pictures and
manipulatives to use.
Initial Sound Sorting Script

Today we are going to work with words that have
different beginning sounds. Some of our words
will sound like /b/ bag, /b/ bag, /b/ bag. Say that
with me. /b/ bag. Others will sound like /m/ mit,
/m/ mit, /m/ mit. Say that sound with me. /m/ mit.
The rest of the words we will work with sound like
/r/ rat, /r/ rat, /r/ rat. Say that one with me. /r/ rat.”
Then introduce the first additional picture for the
day. Say, “Does mop start like bag or like mit or
like rat?” (pp. 38-39)
Segmenting and Blending Script


I’ll say the sounds in a word slowly, then you
say them fast. ffff/iiii/zzzz. Say them fast. Fizz.
mmmm/aaaa/nnnn. Say them fast. Man.
p/iiii/nnnn. Say them fast. Pin.
Let’s say the sounds in the word fizz slowly. /ffff/
/iiii/ /zzzz/. I hear three sounds in fizz. Let’s say
the sounds in man. /mmmm/ /aaaa/ /nnnn/. I
hear three sounds in man. Say the sounds in
pin. /p/ /iiii/ /nnnn/. I hear three sounds in pin. (p.
41)
You can use a slinky to demonstrate sound stretching!
Say-it-and-move-it Script

Line up your markers on your arrow, and get your finger
ready to say it and move it. I’ll say a word. You say my
word slowly. Then you say it and move it.
Say-it-and-move-it Script
ffffffffff
Say-it-and-move-it Script
iiiiiiiiiii
Say-it-and-move-it Script
zzzzzzz
Move to Word Recognition
Instruction


For your very weakest children, you’ll need
to teach letter names and sounds; read
pages 56-58.
You can also teach them high-frequency
words.
Choose your Strategies

Read pages 58 to 67. Sounding and
blending is appropriate for students who
know at least a few letter sounds (including
at least one vowel). Letter patterns are for
students who can already sound and blend.
Decoding by analogy is too hard for this
group!
Letter-Name and Letter-Sound Script
“The name of this letter is ___. What name?” (Students
respond chorally.) “The sound of this letter is ____. What
sound?” (Students respond chorally.) For new letters,
some additional instruction might be useful. “Here is a
new letter. Watch me write it.” The teacher demonstrates,
verbalizing the strokes. “Now you write it with me” (in the
air or on dry-erase boards). “The name of this letter is
____. What name?” (Students respond chorally.) “The
sound of this letter is ____. What sound?” (Students
respond chorally.) (p. 58)
Sounding and Blending Script

We are going to start today by sounding and
blending some words. The way that you do that
is to look at each letter, say each sound out loud
and then say them fast to make a word. Listen
to me. /p/ /i/ /g/ pig. Now you try: /p/ /i/ /g/ pig.
When you come to a word that you don’t know
you can sound and blend it. (p. 61)

You can use Elkonin boxes to teach letter sounds as
well as phonemes.
p
i
g
Letter Patterns Script


Today we will work on reading and spelling three vowel
patterns. The /at/ pattern is the sound at the end of the
word cat. It is spelled a-t. The /et/ pattern is the sound at
the end of the word pet. It is spelled e-t. The /it/ pattern
is the sound at the end of the word sit. It is spelled i-t.”
“First I want you to listen to words and tell me whether
they sound like cat, pet, or sit.”
“Let’s look at the spellings for all of the words that sound
like cat. Notice that words with the /at/ sound have the
a-t pattern. You can use that pattern when you read or
spell a-t words.”
High-Frequency Word Script
Today we are going to learn to read and spell some
really useful words. The first word is from. Say
that word. Now watch me count the sounds in
from. /f/ /r/ /u/ /m/. We hear four sounds. Say the
sounds with me. Now watch me spell the word
from. The first sound we hear in from is /f/, and it
is spelled with the letter f. The second sound we
hear in from is /r/, and it is spelled with the letter r.
The third sound we hear in from is /u/, and it is
spelled with the letter o. The last sound we hear
in from is /m/, and it is spelled with the letter m.
High-Frequency Word Script (cont.)
Three of the letters and sounds in from are
easy to remember. The only one that is
tricky is the o. Remember that in the word
from, the /u/ sound is spelled with the
letter o. If you remember that, you can
easily read and spell from. (p. 66)
Gather all of your materials



Word lists, word cards, Elkonin boxes,
teaching scripts, white boards, notebooks –
everything you need
(Use books with word lists in them; it’s
faster)
Remember that our goal is that you plan for
three weeks at a time
The very weakest group*
4 minutes
4 minutes
Sing, say, and track the alphabet with
an alphabet strip
Initial sound picture sorting for S, R
4 minutes
Letter names and sounds: S, R, A
4 minutes
High-frequency words: the, an
4 minutes
Finger-point a memorized text
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
A more typical group*
7 minutes
Say-it-and-move-it
7 minutes
Sounding and blending
6 minutes
High-frequency words
Use the
same words
for both
activities!
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
A more advanced group*
5 minutes
Segmenting and Blending
9 minutes
Letter Patterns
6 minutes
High-frequency words
Use the
same words
for both
activities!
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
Try it out!


Remember that we are hoping for a cycle,
with teacher reflection. Your goal is to
move this group into a word recognition
and fluency group, but you’ve got to be
successful here first.
At the end of the three weeks, you can use
data collected as part of the instruction to
inform your next moves.
Work with your 6:00 clock partner.
12
9
3
6
Divide the tasks.




First partner reads pp. 36-46, three key PA
strategies.
Second partner reads pp. 56-67, four key
word recognition strategies.
Take turns presenting the strategies to
each other.
Recap key points, but also add critical
commentary.
A three-week cycle
for differentiated
instruction
Phonemic
Awareness and Word Recognition
Word Recognition and Fluency
Fluency and Comprehension
Vocabulary and Comprehension
Differentiating Instruction for
Word Recognition and Fluency
Questions




Who needs this type of instruction?
What data must be gathered?
What planning decisions must be
made?
What are some tricks of the trade?
We are combining
ideas from
Chapters 4 and 5
What are we trying to teach?



These children still need to work on decoding, but they can
segment and blend phonemes to read some words.
They will work on coordinated activities to learn new letter
patterns and review patterns previously taught.
They will work with words and with phonics-focused texts
during small-group time.
How will we know when we’ve
accomplished our goal?


When children’s initial readings of their phonics-focused
texts are accurate, we can redirect our small-group time to
fluency and comprehension.
Remember that our goal is to make each of our groupings
temporary and targeted.
A Stairway to Proficiency
Vocabulary & Comprehension
Fluency and Comprehension
Word Recognition and Fluency
PA and Word Recognition
Who is likely to need
this type of
differentiated
instruction?
In K, data show adequate phonological
awareness but deficient phonics

We KNOW: These children are not quite
on track for achieving the spring first-grade
fluency goals.

We NEED to know: Which letter sounds
and patterns they need and whether they
have been taught.
Let’s find out


Give a phonics inventory or a spelling
inventory to see which sounds and patterns
they need.
Use your phonics scope and sequence to
see whether they’ve had an opportunity to
learn them yet!
1st grade data show good phonological
awareness but poor phonics

We KNOW: These children are not on track for
achieving the spring first-grade fluency goals.

We NEED to know: Which letter sounds and
patterns they need and whether they have been
taught.
Let’s find out


Give a phonics inventory or a spelling
inventory to see which sounds and patterns
they need.
Use your phonics scope and sequence to
see whether they’ve had an opportunity to
learn them yet!
2nd-grade data show weak fluency

We KNOW: These children are not on
track for achieving end-of-third-grade goals.

We NEED to know: Whether it is strictly a
fluency problem, or whether there are
underlying word recognition problems.
Let’s find out
Give a phonics or spelling inventory to see
which patterns they need.
 Do a high-frequency word inventory to see
which words they need to learn.
 If these data are adequate, then you will
know that you need to focus on fluency and
comprehension rather than word
recognition and fluency.

Now you’re ready!




Do you have one group or two?
Think about the word recognition data; group
children with similar specific needs (e.g., consonant
blends, or short vowels, or r-controlled vowels).
Think about how low their oral reading fluency is.
Will you be able to use any of the grade-level
materials, or will you have to use materials
designed for an earlier grade level?
Combine all of the items that they don’t know onto
one list.
Assessment Data (grouped for all)
Unknown Letters
Unknown Sounds
Unknown Patterns
High-Frequency
Words
Text Level
Phonics
controlled?
Below grade level
On grade level
Combining these results will provide you a collection of
known and unknown items for each child; their needs
will probably not be exactly the same. However, group
so that unknown patterns are as similar as possible.
To make your plan, start with the
patterns


Rank order them according to the order in which
they were taught in the scope and sequence, so
that we teach the simpler ones first.
Link them into like sets of two (and then you can
add a review pattern each day to make three).




For example, you could link two specific initial consonant
blends (bl-, cr-).
For example, you could link short a and short e.
For example, you could link -or and -ar.
For example, you could link -ai and -ea.
Now find your texts


Gather all of the phonics-controlled texts
that come with your core or supplemental
materials. Work with your coach and your
team to find specific titles that are the best
match to the phonics items that you need to
teach. Consider texts for your grade level
and also for the grade below yours.
Let the phonics items you have selected
provide the order for the texts you will use.
Now choose your strategies


Read pages 58 to 69. Letter names and
sounds (earlier in the chapter) should be
too simple for this group. Choose sounding
and blending if the phonics data show
intensive needs. Choose letter patterns or
teaching by analogy if the needs are
isolated to vowel patterns.
All children are likely to benefit from the
high-frequency word strategy.
Vary how your students respond


Remember that there are many ways for
students to respond to instruction in small
groups. Build in variety to increase
engagement.
In addition to oral responses, children can


spell words
signal their answers in an “every pupil response”
format (e.g., holding up one finger or two against
the chest).
Sounding and Blending Script



We are going to start today by sounding and
blending some words. The way that you do that
is to look at each letter, say each sound out loud
and then say them fast to make a word.
Listen to me. /p/ /i/ /g/ pig. Now you try: /p/ /i/
/g/ pig.
When you come to a word that you don’t know
you can sound and blend it.
Letter Patterns Script



Today we will work on reading and spelling three vowel
patterns. The /at/ pattern is the sound at the end of the
word cat. It is spelled a-t. The /et/ pattern is the sound at
the end of the word pet. It is spelled e-t. The /it/ pattern
is the sound at the end of the word sit. It is spelled i-t.
First I want you to listen to words and tell me whether
they sound like cat, pet, or sit.
Let’s look at the spellings for all of the words that sound
like cat. Notice that words with the /at/ sound have the
a-t pattern. You can use that pattern when you read or
spell a-t words.
Decoding by Analogy Script

When I don’t know a word, I look for the first
spelling pattern (the vowel and what comes
after). I think about my clue words and find a
word with the same pattern. The clue word
might be located on the word wall under the
vowel letter. I tell myself that if I know this clue
word, the new word must sound like it. Then I
look for the next spelling pattern. When I’ve
come to the end, I blend the syllables together
and check to see that my word makes sense.
Linnea Ehri’s Decoding Phases
Pre-Alphabetic
Just guessing, 1st letter
at most
Partial Alphabetic
Some letter-sound
knowledge is used
Full Alphabetic
Left-to-right letter-byletter decoding
Consolidated
Alphabetic
Onset-rime, other letter
patterns
zat
Example of a Decoding-by-Analogy Word Wall
Child
encounters:
shrill
High-Frequency Word Script
Today we are going to learn to read and spell some really
useful words. The first word is from. Say that word.
Now watch me count the sounds in from. /f/ /r/ /u/ /m/.
We hear four sounds. Say the sounds with me. Now
watch me spell the word from. The first sound we hear in
from is /f/, and it is spelled with the letter f. The second
sound we hear in from is /r/, and it is spelled with the
letter r. The third sound we hear in from is /u/, and it is
spelled with the letter o. The last sound we hear in from
is /m/, and it is spelled with the letter m.
High-Frequency Word Script (cont.)
Three of the letters and sounds in from are
easy to remember. The only one that is
tricky is the o. Remember that in the word
from, the /u/ sound is spelled with the
letter o. If you remember that, you can
easily read and spell from.
Now think about fluency
procedures


Read pages 70-79. You will need to
consider several things: your level of
support and strategies for organizing
repeated readings.
Remember that your goal is to allow the
children to practice using the phonics
patterns that they are learning; these texts
will not likely lend themselves to
discussion.
Most support
Echo The teacher reads a sentence and
reading then the group rereads it aloud.
Choral The teacher leads the entire group
reading reading aloud in unison.
Partner Pairs of readers alternate reading
reading aloud by following a specific turntaking procedure.
Whisper Each child reads aloud (but not in
reading unison) in a quiet voice.
Least support
Since your goal is to allow the children a chance to practice
decoding, try to start at the bottom, with whisper reading.
Gather or make all of your
materials



Word lists, word cards, phonics-controlled
books, teaching scripts, white boards,
notebooks – everything you need
(Hint: Use books with word lists in them;
it’s faster.)
Remember that our goal is that you plan for
three weeks at a time
The very weakest group*
4 minutes
Whisper read the previous day’s text
4 minutes
Sounding and blending
4 minutes
High-frequency words
4 minutes
Whisper read a new book
4 minutes
Partner read the new book
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
A more typical group*
6 minutes
Letter patterns
5 minutes
High-frequency words
9 minutes
Whisper read, then partner read
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
A more advanced group*
6 minutes
Decoding by analogy
4 minutes
High-frequency words
10 minutes Whisper read, then partner read
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
Try it out!



Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these
children into a fluency and comprehension group,
but you’ve got to be successful here first.
You may need to repeat a particular lesson for
two days. That’s fine. You also may need to step
in with echo or choral reading. That’s fine too.
At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
collected as part of the instruction to inform your
next moves.
Work with your 9:00 clock partner.
12
9
3
6
Divide the tasks.




First partner reads pp. 67-69, decoding by
analogy.
Second partner reads pp. 78-79, choral
partner reading.
Take turns presenting the strategies to
each other.
Recap key points, but also add critical
commentary.
A three-week cycle
for differentiated
instruction
Phonemic
Awareness and Word Recognition
Word Recognition and Fluency
Fluency and Comprehension
Vocabulary and Comprehension
Differentiating Instruction for
Fluency and Comprehension
Questions




Who needs this type of instruction?
What data must be gathered?
What planning decisions must be
made?
What are some tricks of the trade?
We are combining
ideas from
Chapters 5 and 7
What are we trying to teach?




These children possess relatively strong decoding skills,
but they lack adequate automaticity for fluent reading.
They will work to build fluency in texts that are at or slightly
below grade level during small-group time.
They will build comprehension through the same texts.
Limited word-recognition instruction may be provided.
How will we know when we’ve
accomplished our goal?


When children’s fluency is adequate, we can redirect our
small-group time to vocabulary and comprehension.
Remember that our goal is to make each of our groupings
temporary and targeted.
A Stairway to Proficiency
Vocabulary & Comprehension
Fluency and Comprehension
Word Recognition and Fluency
PA and Word Recognition
Who is likely to need
this type of
differentiated
instruction?
In grade 2, fluency data suggest they are at risk,
but they have acquired nearly all basic decoding skills


We KNOW: These children have mastered short
vowel patterns but may need work in more
advanced orthographic patterns.
We NEED to know: Which orthographic patterns
they still need help with and which high-frequency
words they need to learn.
In grade 3, fluency data suggest they are at risk, but
they have nearly all basic decoding skills. Informal
phonics data reveal mastery of most vowel patterns.


We KNOW: These children have mastered
short vowel patterns but may need work in
more advanced patterns.
We NEED to know: Which orthographic
patterns they still need help with and which
high-frequency words they need to learn.
Let’s find out
Give a phonics or spelling inventory to see which
patterns they need.
 Do a high-frequency word inventory to see which
sight words they need.
 Given their decoding foundation, a limited amount
of targeted instruction may be planned around the
deficits identified; if the needs here are great,
students should be served in a phonics and
fluency group.

What about comprehension?




Do not attempt to identify comprehension
deficits.
Using texts that are at or slightly below
grade level will provide many opportunities
to reinforce comprehension.
Children will differ in their ability to apply
comprehension strategies, but assessing
this ability is not necessary.
Now you’re ready!



Do you have one group or two?
Think about the word recognition data; if possible
group children with similar specific needs so that
you can address them quickly.
Think about how slow their oral reading rate is.
Will you be able to use grade-level texts, or will
you have to use texts slightly below grade level?
Assessment Data (grouped for all)
Unknown
Patterns
HighFrequency
Words
Reading Rate
(WCPM)
Text Level
Below
grade level
On grade level
Combining these results will provide you with
a collection of known and unknown items for
each child; their needs will probably not be
exactly the same.
To make your plan, start with
words and patterns
Set aside some time at the beginning of
small-group work to address them.
 Do not worry that the patterns may be
more familiar to some group members
than to others. Those who are more
familiar will benefit from the review.
 Do not limit yourself to
one-syllable words

Now find your texts

Do not use phonics-controlled texts. You
are looking for texts that



are at or slightly below grade level,
are rich in content, and
represent both fiction and nonfiction.
Some of these texts may already
be provided in your core program!
Now find your texts


Try to find enough texts that children are
reading a new text or a new section of text
each day; part of increasing fluency is
increasing reading volume.
This will allow you to choose longer texts;
you can read them over consecutive
sessions.
Now choose your strategies


Since word recognition needs will be
minimal, we will not review the methods
here. See pp. 62-64 for strategies that
target patterns and 64-67 for strategies that
target high-frequency words.
Planning should focus mainly on fluency
and comprehension; we propose a very
simple framework.
Now think about fluency
procedures


Read pages 70-84. You will need to
consider several things: your level of
support and strategies for organizing
repeated readings.
All effective fluency procedures have
certain things in common: teacher support
and repetition.
Remember: the goal is to build fluency. During
each session, you must plan for both repetition for
the children and support from the teacher.
Most support
Echo The teacher reads a sentence and
reading then the group rereads it aloud.
Choral The teacher leads the entire group
reading reading aloud in unison.
Partner Pairs of readers alternate reading
reading aloud by following a specific turntaking procedure.
Whisper Each child reads aloud (but not in
reading unison) in a quiet voice.
Least support
Remember that fluency
is more than rate!
Consider that “reading faster” is not the
goal of fluency building. Fluency includes
accuracy, rate, and prosody.
Students need teacher modeling of
appropriate rate and phrasing.
Consider motivational techniques
Students may benefit from timing
themselves and one another; incorporate
such procedures if they serve your main
goal – using your small-group time to
build fluency through repeated (and
assisted) practice.
Now think about comprehension
methods


Read pages 104-107.
In order to preserve time for the students in
this group to actually read repeatedly, we
have chosen one high-utility
comprehension strategy that should be
useful for most any text.
Information Text
Summary What is the most important
Questions information so far?
Give me a summary of the
the most important parts of
the section on _____?
Inference Describe some additional
Questions examples of that idea.
Explain why these things
are similar.
What would happen if . . .
Narrative Text
What are the most
important details so far?
What were the main
events in this
chapter/part?
How did the
chapter/story end?
Describe the feelings of
the characters at the
end of the story.
Why did they feel that
way?
Critical
Judgments
“Reading beyond the lines”
Inferential
Implicitly stated facts
“Reading between the lines”
Literal
Explicitly stated facts
“Reading the lines”
Critical
Judgments
“Reading beyond the lines”
Inferential
Implicitly stated facts
“Reading between the lines”
Literal
Explicitly stated facts
“Reading the lines”
Critical
Judgments
“Reading beyond the lines”
Inferential
Implicitly stated facts
“Reading between the lines”
Literal
Explicitly stated facts
“Reading the lines”
Pluto
The planet Pluto is currently the furthest of
the nine planets from the sun. It consists of frozen
methane and ammonia so that some scientists
have described it as a “snowball in space.”
Pluto has a surface temperature of –395ºF.
It has no gaseous atmosphere. Pluto is a dark
place, so distant that the sun appears to be no
more than a bright star.
Like earth, Pluto has one moon (Charon).
Pluto is much smaller than earth, however, and
has only a tenth of earth’s gravitational pull.
Questions about Pluto
How cold is Pluto?
Is there life on Pluto?
Should we send people to Pluto?
If Goofy can talk, why can’t Pluto?
Questions about Pluto
How cold is Pluto?
Is there life on Pluto?
Should we send people to Pluto?
If Goofy can talk, why can’t Pluto?
Questions about Pluto
How cold is Pluto?
Is there life on Pluto?
Should we send people to Pluto?
If Goofy can talk, why can’t Pluto?
Questions about Pluto
How cold is Pluto?
Is there life on Pluto?
Should we send people to Pluto?
If Goofy can talk, why can’t Pluto?
Questions about Pluto
How cold is Pluto?
Is there life on Pluto?
Should we send people to Pluto?
If Goofy can talk, why can’t Pluto?
Remember to be strategic!
Your goal is fluency first, and then
comprehension. You will not be discussing
the text at the end of each page; rather,
you will be targeting your questioning at
strategic spots, and using repetitive,
generic language that students may
eventually generalize to other texts.
Gather or make all of your
materials




Word lists, books, question scripts, timer, recording
sheets, notebooks – everything you need.
Texts could be selections from the previous year’s core
anthology if multiple copies are available.
They could also include texts used in recent whole-class
read-alouds or trade books, if you have multiple copies.
Remember that our goal is that you plan for three weeks
of wide, repeated, assisted reading at a time.
A typical group*
4 minutes
Letter or syllable patterns; highfrequency words
10 minutes Choral or partner read, then whisper
read. Time and chart if appropriate
6 minutes
Ask inference or summary questions
If you can extend the time for this
group, add minutes to the
children’s reading time.
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 20-minute session.
Try it out!



Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these
children into a vocabulary and comprehension
group, but you’ve got to be successful here first.
You may need to repeat a particular lesson for
two days. That’s fine. You also may need to step
in with echo or choral reading. That’s fine too.
At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
collected as part of the instruction to inform your
next moves.
A three-week cycle
for differentiated
instruction
Phonemic
Awareness and Word Recognition
Word Recognition and Fluency
Fluency and Comprehension
Vocabulary and Comprehension
Differentiating Instruction for
Vocabulary and Comprehension
We are combining
ideas from
Chapters 6 and 7
What are we trying to teach?



These children are performing at benchmark.
They will work to build their vocabularies and
comprehension proficiency.
The texts may include core selections used in
FORI, the day’s read-aloud, or sets of trade
books that are not phonics-controlled.
How will we know when we’ve
accomplished our goal?


Our goal will never be achieved. We must
continue to build vocabulary and
comprehension.
Temporary and targeted instruction in the other
areas allows new children to enter this group.
Who is likely to need
this type of
differentiated
instruction?
In Kindergarten, PA and Phonics data are good
In First Grade, Phonics and sight words are good


We KNOW: These children are at
benchmark in alphabet skills, but can still
build their vocabulary and comprehension.
We NEED to know: What specific texts,
when read aloud to them, will best advance
their vocabulary and comprehension.
Second-Grade fluency is at grade level
Third-Grade fluency is at grade level

We KNOW: These children are fluent.

We NEED to know: What specific texts will
best advance their vocabulary and
comprehension.
Let’s find out
 Even though all are at benchmark, it is still
important to consider text difficulty; think about
texts that provide a reasonable challenge and
maximize interest and engagement.
 This is true both for texts that your second and
third graders will read in small groups and that
your kindergartners and first graders will hear.
 Optimal text selection for this group will require
some trial and error; be flexible.
What about comprehension?

 Do not attempt to identify comprehension
deficits.
 Using multiple challenging texts will provide
many opportunities to reinforce strategy
instruction.
 Children will differ in their ability to apply
these strategies, but assessing this ability
is not necessary.
What about vocabulary?

 Do not attempt to pretest word meanings.
 Stick to Tier 2 words (and content area
words for nonfiction texts) that are useful
for comprehending the text. Do not worry
that you may be introducing a word for
some and reviewing it for others.
Now you’re ready!
We recommend that there be only one
group, even though their reading levels
may vary slightly.
This will allow you to spend more time with
strugglers in other groups.
Find your texts
 Do not use phonics-controlled texts.
 You could use core selections, class readalouds, or sets of trade books.
 In any case, you are looking for texts that
 are interesting and engaging,
 are rich in content, and
 represent both fiction and nonfiction.
Now choose your strategies
 For this group, word recognition needs are not an
issue. (The second and third graders can read the
the texts you will be using, and you will read them
to the kindergartners and first graders.)
 Planning should focus entirely on vocabulary and
comprehension.
 You will need to strike a balance between these
areas and vary the instructional techniques you
use.
Think about vocabulary methods
 Read pages 91-102. You will need to be
selective since you will not have time to
apply all of these approaches in a single
session. Vary them across the three weeks.
 Remember that your choices will depend in
part on the text you will use and whether it
will be read aloud to the children. Some
methods will be more appropriate than
others for certain texts.
Key SBRR Approaches
Tier Two
Words
Texts
Words
Script
Concept of
Definition
Texts
Words
Word Maps
Semantic
Feature
Analysis
Texts
Related
Words
Feature
Chart
Concept
Sorting
Texts
Word Cards
Technique
Target Words
When
Tier Two Words
High utility
After reading
Concept of
Definition
One central
concept
Before or after
reading
Feature Analysis
Compare and
contrast
After reading
Concept Sorting
Compare and
contrast
After reading
Teaching Tier Two Words
1. We are going to learn the word _____.
Say the word _____.
2. In our story, the author used the word
______ to mean ______.
3. The word _____ means ______.
4. (Provide other examples.)
5. (Children provide examples.)
6. Remember that our word is _____.
Concept of Definition
Category
Description
Description
Concept
Example
Example
Example
Feature Analysis
Category
Member
1
Member
2
Member
3
Feature
1
Feature
2
Feature
3
Feature
4
Now think about comprehension
methods
 Read pages 110-123. You will need to be
selective since you will not have time to
apply all of these approaches in a single
session. Vary them across the three weeks.
 Remember that your texts provide
opportunities to build comprehension skills
and strategies. This means that many of
the instructional approaches should work.
Key SBRR Approaches
QARs
Story
Mapping
Texts
Stories
QAR Chart Map
Questions
Text
Structure
Info Texts
Graphic
organizers
Direct
Explanation
Summarization
Texts
Texts
Strategy
Summary
descriptions procedure
QAR Chart
Right There
The answer to the question
can be found in one
sentence in the text.
Author and You
The answer to the question
combines information from
the text and from your
experience.
Think and Search
The answer to the question
can be found by combining
information across
sentences.
On Your Own
The theme is in the text, but
the answer comes from your
experience.
Story Mapping
Setting
Characters
Problem
Resolution
Theme
Text Structure Instruction
Contrast
Compare
Contrast
Text Structure Instruction
Text Structure Instruction
Event 1
Cause
Problem
Event 2
Effect
Solution
Direct Explanation
Predicting
Good readers predict before and during
reading. Here I see a picture of a ____. I
know that _____. Because of both what I
see and what I know, I predict that this
story will be about _____.
Monitoring,
questioning,
and
repredicting
I predicted that ____. So far, that might be
right because the text says _____.
I predicted that _____. That must not be
true because the text says _____. My new
prediction is _____.
Direct Explanation
Visualizing Good readers make pictures in their minds
Inferring
to help them understand. I know that this
story takes place _____. I know that
setting would have _____. The author uses
the words _____ and _____. In my mind, I
am visualizing _____.
The author tells us that this character is
_____. Because of my own experience, I
know that _____. Therefore, I think the
character is _____.
Direct Explanation
Using fix-up Wait. I thought that the text said _____.
strategies Here it says that _____. That doesn’t make
sense to me. I need to read ahead and
see if the author tells me how both _____
and _____ could be true.
Finding the The author has given me a whole lot of
main idea facts about _____ and about _____.
Some of them are the same and some are
different. I think that the main idea here is
that ____ are similar to ____ in some
ways, and different in other ways.
Direct Explanation
Retelling a
story
I can use what I know about stories to retell this one
very simply. I don’t tell everything. I think about
what the author usually does in the beginning, the
middle, and the end. This story is set ____. The
main characters are _____. The problem in the
story is _____. The characters solved the problem
by _____.
Synthesizing
When I want to think about two stories at once, I
have to decide how they were alike and different. I
first think about how they were alike. Our stories
are alike because _____. Then I think about how
they were different. Our stories were different
because _____. Together, then, I can put
information from the stories together to say _____.
Summarization
1.
2.
3.
4.
Make sure you understand.
Reread to check your understanding, marking
important parts.
Rethink, making sure that you can say the main idea
of each paragraph. Write the main idea as a note to
yourself.
Write your summary, checking to make sure that you
have avoided lists, included or created topic
sentences, gotten rid of unnecessary details, and
combined paragraphs. Check your summary, and edit
it so that it sounds natural.
Gather or make all of your
materials
 Texts, pictures, word cards, blank story maps,
graphic organizers, QAR chart, questions,
notebooks – everything you need.
 Texts could be selections from the previous year’s
core anthology if multiple copies are available.
 They could also include texts used in recent
whole-class read-alouds.
 Remember that our goal is that you plan for three
weeks at a time.
A typical group*
2 minutes
2 minutes
7 minutes
4 minutes
Introduce text (preteach content area
words if the text is nonfiction)
Review a comprehension strategy
Grades 2-3: Whisper read
Grades K-1: Read aloud to them
Introduce/review vocabulary words.
Return to key points in text to focus on
comprehension strategy
*Minute allocations are simply an example based on a 15-minute session.
Try it out!
 Remember that we are hoping for a cycle, with
teacher reflection. Your goal is to move these
children into more challenging texts.
 You may need to repeat a particular lesson for
two days. That’s fine. You also may need to step
in with echo or choral reading in grades two and
three. That’s fine too.
 At the end of the three weeks, you can use data
collected as part of the instruction to inform your
next moves.
Work with your 12:00 clock partner.
12
9
3
6
Divide the tasks.




First partner reads pp. 91-102 (but skip 9394), vocabulary approaches.
Second partner reads pp. 113-123,
comprehension approaches.
Take turns presenting the strategies to
each other.
Recap key points, but also add critical
commentary.
[email protected]
http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/reading/projects/garf
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