Salvia, Ysseldyke & Bolt: Ch. 1 and 13

Diagnostic Assessment:
Salvia, Ysseldyke & Bolt: Ch. 1
and 13
Dr. Julie Esparza Brown
Sped 512/Fall 2010
Portland State University
What are two major expectations for
schools in the U.S.?
 Excellence
 Equity
Decisions Made from Assessments
Progress monitoring
Instructional planning and monitoring
Eligibility for special education
Program evaluation
Accountability decisions
Quote from Page 9
“Before a student may be declared eligible for
special education services, he or she must
be shown to be exceptional (have a
disability or a gift or talent) and to have
special learning needs.”
 Gifted and Talented Education is NOT a
component of special education and does
not receive funding nor protection under
Assess Instruction
 Why is it important to assess the
learning environment before
assessing a student?
 Is this important within an RTI
Assessment is Broader than Testing
 Testing is _____________.
 Assessment includes:
Recollections (anecdotal information)
Professional judgment
Assessments Have Improved
 Methods of test construction
 Statistical analyses are better
 We assess new skills and abilities based on
latest theories and research.
 Assessment practices have broadened
beyond testing.
 Advances in technology has helped to track
assessment data.
 Federal laws have put a spotlight on
 Generally speaking, who does
language testing in schools?
Language is defined as a code for a conveying ideas. It
includes the following components:
 Phonology: hearing and production of speech sounds
 Semantics: study of word meanings
 Morphology: use of affixes to change the meaning of
words; verb tense
 Syntax: word order to convey meaning
 Pragmatics: social context in which a sentence occurs
 Supralinguistics: second order analysis of meaning of
words or sentences (such as looking for sarcasm,
figurative language)
What is Communication?
 “Communication is the process
participants use to exchange
information and ideas, needs and
desires” (Owens, 2005).
The following slides are taken from a presentation
by Dr. Shelly Chabon, PSU
Methods of Communication
 Success communication requires:
sender of the message
receiver of the message
shared intent to communicate
shared means of communication
Kudor 2008
“Language is a rule governed symbol
system for communicating meaning
through a shared code of arbitrary
Kudor, 2008
American Speech & Hearing
Association (ASHA) Definition of
Language is a complex and dynamic system of conventional
symbols that is used in various modes for thought and
communication. Contemporary views of human
language hold that:
Language evolves within specific historical, social, and
cultural contexts;
Language, as rule-governed behavior, is described by at
least five parameters – phonologic, morphologic, syntactic,
semantic and pragmatic;
Language learning and use are determined by the
interaction of biological, cognitive, psychosocial, and
environmental factors;
Effective use of language for communication requires a
broad understanding of human interaction including such
associated factors as nonverbal cues, motivation, and
sociocultural roles.
 Speech is the oral expression of
 The act of speaking is highly complex
 It includes coordination of:
 Can you have language without
 Can you have speech without
 Can you have communication without
language or speech?
The Components of Language
 Form
 Phonology
 Syntax
 Morphology
 Content
 Semantics
 Use
 Pragmatics skills
Language Form
 Phonology:Rules that govern how
sounds are combined to form words &
 Includes all sounds in a particular
language and the rules for combining
 Phoneme
 sound
Language Form: Two
Components of Grammar
 Syntax
 Organized rules specifying word order,
sentence organization & word relationships
 Arrangement of words to form meaningful
 A collection of rules that specify the order in
which words are combined to form
sentences in a particular langauge
 Morphemes
 Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)
 Analyzing MLU in morphemes is one way to
analyze syntactic aspects of child’s syntax
Language Form
 Morphology
 Aspect of language concerned with rules
governing change in meaning
 Includes rules by which words in a
language are pluralized or inflected
Language Form
 Morpheme
 Smallest unit of meaning
 Cannot be subdivided further
 Used to modify word structures to
change meaning
 Two types of morphemes
 Free
 Bound
Language Content
 Semantics
 Rules governing the meaning or content
of words and word combinations
 Semantic system
 Includes our lexicon
 Lexicon
 One’s mental dictionary
Language Use
 Pragmatics: Rules that govern language
use in social situations
 Use of language in context or as a function
 Where an utterance takes place
 To whom the utterance is directed
 What and who are present
 Knowledge and use of appropriate flow of
 Discourse and how utterances are related
 Narrative and the logical sequence of events
Why Assess Oral and Written
 Individuals need ability to converse
and express thoughts/feelings.
 Language processes and skills
underlie subsequent development
 Written and oral language tests are
administered for special education
eligibility as identified by IDEIA.
Tests for Assessing Written and
Oral Language
 Test of Written Language – Fourth
Ediction (TOWL-4)
 Test of Language Development:
Primary – Fourth Ediction (TOLD-P4)
 Test of Language Development:
Intermediate – Fourth Edition (TOLDI:4)
 Oral and Written Language Scales