New English Language Development and Common Core State Standards Institute Creating Common Core ELD for Long Term English Learners in the Secondary School Grades: Course Design & Instruction and Collaboration Across Disciplines June 28, 2013 Introductions Laurie Olsen, Ph.D. Director of the Sobrato Early Academic Language (SEAL) initiative English Learner Typologies • Newly arrived with adequate schooling (including literacy in L1) • Newly arrived with interrupted formal schooling - “Underschooled” - “SIFE” • English Learners developing normatively (1-5 years) • Long Term English Learner Review: Key elements • Urgency, acceleration and focus on distinct needs • Language development is more than literacy development – LTELs need both • Language development + Academic gaps • Crucial role of home language • Rigor, relevance, relationships • Active engagement • Oral language and Academic language • Writing • Integration Reparable Harm Recommendations • Specialized ELD or LTEL language class (aligned to new ELD standards) • Clustered in heterogeneous classes mainstream academic classes with differentiated SDAIE strategies used • Explicit language/literacy development across the curriculum • Emphasis on engagement, oral language and academic language, study skills, rigor • Native speakers classes (through AP) The Specialized LTEL Class The “LTEL” Course • 52 districts have created/adopted some kind course for LTELs in middle school and/or high school • Variety of “buckets” and intentions: ELD for LTELs; English support classes; academic language; academic intervention/support; SDAIE English for LTELs • Range of materials, programs, approaches drawn upon – and diverse combinations of components Four case studies • Tracy Unified School District: “ALAS” class paired with regular English class • Arroyo Valley High School (San Bernardino): schoolwide approach • Anaheim Union High School District: High school special ELD IV class; middle school support class • Ventura Unified School District: Multiple placement options Essential components • • • • • • • • • • Oral language Student Engagement Academic Language Expository text (reading and writing) plus other genres Consistent routines Goal Setting Empowering pedagogy Rigor Community and Relationships Study Skills Materials/Curriculum • Major challenge • Drawn from existing materials, added supplementary and created additional materials • Needs to be relevant, high interest, age appropriate • Needs to incorporate whole books • Curriculum explicitly provides opportunities for active engagement • Curriculum should touch on all essential components • Materials should align and connect to core academic courses Structural Considerations Smaller class size More fluid pacing guide Dedicated LTEL class just for LTELs Attention to maximizing graduation credits and fulfillment of the A-G • Same teacher for dedicated LTEL class as for core English class (?) • Careful teacher selection/assignment • • • • Language development across the curriculum Language development across the curriculum • Attention to the language demands of academic subjects • Use of language objectives to focus instruction for ELs • Use of “scaffolds” to bolster comprehension and access to content (e.g., visuals, primary language resources, graphic organizers) • SIOP, Constructing Meaning, GLAD, ELLA, SDAIE strategies Native speakers classes Does introducing native language instruction in secondary schools have benefit? The case for Native Language classes • Activates the language system facilitating meta-linguistic benefits • Bolsters English • Can increase college preparation and college-going rates • Develops skill with personal, family, labor market and societal benefits • Addresses identity and culture ELD Interventions Lennox School District • After school ELD intervention • Project based journalism series for “emerging LTELs” (English Learners in grades 3 – 7, been in district at least four years, at CELDT Levels I, II or III) • Project-based, student centered curriculum focusing on speaking/listening, collaborative practices and authentic writing – integrating language learning with content learning • Journalism: focused writing and technology – and genre specific syntax • Community partnerships: real word application/fieldwork • Active engagement • Strong language models • Authentic opportunities to connect language with students communities and social realities • • • • • Eleven week cycle Two days a week for two hours each day Small groups (4-7 students per teacher) Community business/location for fieldwork Culminating project: publication of Lennox Voices newspaper Professional development • ELD Standards • Vocabulary development, oral language development in context of journalism (questioning, interviewing, paraphrasing, synthesizing information, collaborative planning), lesson planning, journalism as a genre • Selecting expository reading materials to support research and inquiry • Differentiating ELD instruction • Use of varied grouping strategies Looking closer at what ELD for LTELs in the Common Core era looks like Dedicated ELD + ELD across all academic areas MATH SCIENCE ELD* LANGUAGE ARTS SOCIAL STUDIES CALIFORNIA NEXT GENERATION ELD STANDARDS aligned to the Common Core ELA LANGUAGE MODES Interacting in Meaningful Ways LANGUAGE PROCESSES Learning How English Works Collaborative Structuring Cohesive Texts Productive Emerging Connecting and Condensing Ideas Interpretive Expanding Using Foundational Literacy Skills Expanding and Enriching Ideas Bridging “SCAFFOLD” • Frayer Vocabulary Model • Begin with Examples (quadrant 1) • Brainstorm related non-examples (quadrant 2) • Essential characteristics (quadrant 3) • Construct a definition (quadrant 4) • Discuss “scaffolds” for English Learners THE ELD STANDARDS…. • Guide for all teachers to support access to academic content and participation in academic classes for diverse ELL students along continuum towards proficiency • Guide for all teachers to focus on academic and discipline specific English – what it is, how it works • Guide for dedicated ELD instruction • Guide for collaboration between ELD and content teachers TRANSITIONING TO NEW ELD Dedicated ELD class Other academic courses Transition Level 1 Continue using current program – try to infuse engagement, oral language; Learn about new standards Teachers use SDAIE strategies to promote access; teach academic vocabulary; learn new ELD standards Transition level 2 Can use existing scope and sequence, ELD routines, but begin to build in academic content from another subject; more focus on key new ELD standards Begin to plan small group scaffolds in assignments, preview/review appropriate to level; Deepen learning about scaffolding Transition level 3 ELD that is connected to and responsive to academic demands and materials – allowing for deeper linguistic focus, practice ELD differentiation is regular feature of classes; focus on academic language development COLLABORATION BETWEEN ELD AND OTHER TEACHERS APPLICATION • Identify language features English Learners need to understand that they encounter in academic text • Construct the LANGUAGE lesson that scaffolds their understanding of that language feature using the ELD standards as guidance Connection/Collaboration • During ELD time, work on the linguistic features ELLs need in order to access academic content – informed by and sometimes using material from the rest of the day • During the rest of the curriculum, teacher awareness of ELD standards and linguistic demands of the content guides the kind of graphic organizers, vocabulary focus, scaffolding, differentiated prompts and activities needed to support ELL access ELA Example: Frederick Douglas excerpt • CCS Grade 7 3.0 Literary Response and Analysis: Students read historically significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history. They clarify the ideas….. 3.3. Analyze characterization through a character’s actions, the narrators description…. • ELD Standard Part II.A.b. “Cohesion” Apply basic understanding of how ideas, events or reasons are linked throughout a text using everyday connecting words or phrases. Heavy scaffold At first, Mistress Hughes was a kind, pious, warm and tender-hearted woman. Later, she treated me as though I were a brute. Her lamblike disposition gave way to one of tigerlike fierceness. Medium scaffold More variety of connecting words and phrases In the beginning, at first, initially….. However, due to… as a result of… as a consequence of…. because of….. In the end, later, over time…… Light scaffold My mistress, who had kindly commenced to instruct me, had, in compliance with the advice and directions of her husband, not only ceased to instruct but had set her face against my being instructed by anyone else.