Tony Mora Karla Groth Region 9 COE leads October 7, 2010
A discussion of the linguistic challenges faced by adolescent English learners An overview of the in grades 6-12 & standards-based English proficiency levels diversity among English learners A rationale for instructed ELD in the secondary context An analysis of common course placements for adolescent English learners & the potential shortcomings of these placements A model for Instructed ELD in the secondary school context.
Complex linguistic knowledge (p. 153) 6 Aspects: Phonology Morphology Vocabulary Syntax Formal & Informal Discourse Styles Academic & Social Functions
Academic English The ability to apply general word knowledge differently to a variety of subject areas III.
Gaps in Language Proficiency Many English learners develop oral fluency for “face to face communication,” but cannot perform task that require academic language proficiency
Adolescent English Learners come with a range of experiences I.
Literacy and content knowledge in the primary language II.
Previous experience in America Schools III.
English language knowledge A “one-size fits all” approach will not work & particular attention needs to be paid to Long Term EL’s (p. 157)
Adolescent English learners must have a competent second language base if they are to be successful in standards-based course work To reach grade level standards, EL’s need a comprehensive approach which means “…explicit English language instruction through out the day.” Instructional this would include English as its own content (ELD) supported by “…targeted academic English instruction across the subject areas (Dutro & Moran 2003) Content Instruction ELD Instruction
ELD Instruction: Language is in the foreground and content is in the background. V.
Content Instruction: foreground and language is in the background.
(p. 163-164) Content is in the Content Instruction ELD Instruction
English Language Arts Instruction Math, SS, Science, PE, Arts Instructed ELD Goal: Develop a solid English language foundation needed to fully engage in academic and real-life situations.
(p.165) Reading Intervention Goal: Gain literacy skills needed to accelerate achievement (for students currently performing below grade level) Grade-Level ELA Goal: Achieve grade level content standards Goal: Achieve grade level content standards Explicit Language Instruction For Content Learning Purpose: Teach language needed… Content: Determined by lesson & student knowledge of English Teachers Need: tools to plan lang. &content learning. Support through collaborative planning
◦ English Language Development (ELD) Many adolescent EL’s do not receive ELD support once they have reached upper intermediate level on the CELDT Reading Intervention Often based on CST or placement test without consideration for the English level or primary language skills Sheltered content area instruction Focus almost exclusively on access to the core/content. Language learning often becomes secondary or a non existent part of instruction. Opportunity to develop the skills for speaking & writing about the content is lost. Special Education IEP’s for English learners need to include language proficiency goals.
Purposeful use of language identified in ELD standards
To perform Cognitive tasks To express thinking orally and in writing To inform text structure To engage in social and academic conversation Relevance to EL Instruction: Participate in discussion Describe, explain, and elaborate Predict Express action and time relationships Draw Conclusions
Language tools needed to accomplish these goals
What language tools are needed to communicate for different purposes?
What language is needed to comprehend text and express thinking orally and in writing?
Mortar-Functional words and phrases in sentences structures Would have liked to Are usually/tend to Bricks-Topic specific words Tree, elbow (basic) Debate, government, arid (general) War of Independence, incisor, germinate (specialized) (Figure 3.3 p. 171)
Robust and contextualized instruction that includes many opportunities to engage in language practice
How are language tools introduced, modeled, and practiced using an I/We/You Do It approach?
What opportunities for structured interaction are provided for students to practice the language they are learning?
How are students supported in gaining oral and written fluency?