Chapter 3 Dutro and Kinsella COE Leads


Tony Mora

Karla Groth

Region 9 COE leads

October 7, 2010






A discussion of the linguistic challenges faced by adolescent English learners

An overview of the diversity among English learners in grades 6-12 & standards-based English proficiency levels

A rationale for instructed ELD in the secondary context

An analysis of common course placements for adolescent English learners & the potential shortcomings of these placements

A model for Instructed ELD in the secondary school context.


Complex linguistic knowledge

(p. 153)

6 Aspects:

 Phonology

 Morphology

 Vocabulary

 Syntax

 Formal & Informal Discourse Styles

 Academic & Social Functions


Academic English

 The ability to apply general word knowledge differently to a variety of subject areas


Gaps in Language Proficiency

 Many English learners develop oral fluency for “face to face communication,” but cannot perform task that require academic language proficiency

Adolescent English Learners come with a range of experiences


Literacy and content knowledge in the primary language


Previous experience in America Schools


English language knowledge

 A “one-size fits all” approach will not work & particular attention needs to be paid to Long

Term EL’s (p. 157)




Adolescent English learners must have a competent second language base if they are to be successful in standards-based course work

To reach grade level standards, EL’s need a comprehensive approach which means “…explicit

English language instruction through out the day.”

Instructional this would include English as its own content (ELD) supported by “…targeted academic English instruction across the subject areas (Dutro & Moran 2003) Content


ELD Instruction


ELD Instruction: Language is in the foreground and content is in the background.


Content Instruction: Content is in the foreground and language is in the background.

(p. 163-164)

Content Instruction ELD Instruction

English Language Arts Instruction Math, SS,

Science, PE, Arts

Instructed ELD Reading



Develop a solid

English language foundation needed to fully engage in academic and real-life situations.



Gain literacy skills needed to accelerate achievement

(for students currently performing below grade level)

Grade-Level ELA


Achieve gradelevel content standards


Achieve gradelevel content standards

Explicit Language Instruction

For Content Learning

Purpose: Teach language needed…

Content: Determined by lesson & student knowledge of English

Teachers Need: tools to plan lang.

&content learning. Support through collaborative planning





English Language Development (ELD)

◦ Many adolescent EL’s do not receive ELD support once they have reached upper intermediate level on the CELDT

Reading Intervention

◦ Often based on CST or placement test without consideration for the English level or primary language skills

Sheltered content area instruction

◦ Focus almost exclusively on access to the core/content.

Language learning often becomes secondary or a nonexistent part of instruction. Opportunity to develop the skills for speaking & writing about the content is lost.

Special Education

◦ IEP’s for English learners need to include language proficiency goals.


Purposeful use of language identified in ELD standards

(language functions)

 To perform Cognitive tasks

 To express thinking orally and in writing

 To inform text structure

 To engage in social and academic conversation

Relevance to EL Instruction:

 Participate in discussion

 Describe, explain, and elaborate

 Predict

 Express action and time relationships

 Draw Conclusions

(Figure 3.3 p. 171)


Language tools needed to accomplish these goals

(brick and mortar words)

 What language tools are needed to communicate for different purposes?

 What language is needed to comprehend text and express thinking orally and in writing?

 Mortar-Functional words and phrases in sentences structures

 Would have liked to

 Are usually/tend to

 Bricks-Topic specific words

 Tree, elbow (basic)

 Debate, government, arid (general)

 War of Independence, incisor, germinate (specialized)

(Figure 3.3 p. 171)


Robust and contextualized instruction that includes many opportunities to engage in language practice

(error free language & language that is easily produced)

 How are language tools introduced, modeled, and practiced using an I/We/You Do It approach?

 What opportunities for structured interaction are provided for students to practice the language they are learning?

 How are students supported in gaining oral and written fluency?

(Figure 3.3 p. 171)