MCE

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MAY 1- SPRING LECTURE DAY
Clear off your desks- no writing required 
Key concepts to remember:
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Remember: Conceptual Accuracy- signing what is
meant, not the sounds
Remember: Circumlocution- “talking around the
concept”
Classifier PPT too
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See classifier PowerPoint for ASL 2
Communication:
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When two or more exchange information in
meaningful ways.
Language: the vehicle that carries communication- it
is living, changing, natural
Hearing: usually spoken, but not always--Spoken, signed, pictorial
Eg. hieroglyphics
Some items to consider…
90% of deaf and hard of hearing children
are born to hearing (mostly non-signing) parents.
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A majority of these hearing parents continue to be advised to
avoid sign language at any cost, until and unless it becomes the
“last resort”
There is a huge battle over oralism vs. manualism in this
country and around the globe.
Deaf and hard of hearing children are left with the fall out of
these battles. More and more, supporters are fighting to
change Deaf education in this country!
Millions of $ for hearing babies to sign; but
signing discouraged for deaf babies?
Oral Communication- “Oralism”
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Alexander Graham Bell, “The
Father of Oral
Communication”/Oralism in this
country (speech/lip reading
only)
Influenced the establishment of
early oral schools in America
Goal: integration into hearing
society at whatever percent it is
possible (“better than nothing”)
However, he believed against
marriage for deaf, etc. (though
married to a deaf woman)
The tragedy of Oralism: Quotes from
the AGB website:
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“Spoken communication skills are rooted in two interdependent categories: speech and language.
Language is first learned through hearing, and speech is an expression of that language.” (AGB assoc.)
--- NOT true! Not all language is [first] learned through hearing!-Dr. Weast
“Regardless of what…your family chooses, the goal will always be to teach the child how to make the best
possible use of hearing and to “learn to listen.” (AGB assoc.)
---Ug, NO!-- the goal should be for the child to be healthy, happy, and a productive member of the
community, finding a life purpose and embracing life through whatever language mode works best
for them! – Dr. Weast
Manualism response:
Lipreading at most reveals 30% of language, and without sound, “listening” cannot be taught!!!
What about written English comprehension? Children need a full language. Research shows
written English skills are best learned through a full language, such as ASL!
***it should not be more important to “say Algebra” than to “learn Algebra”, but that is
what I (Dr. Weast) witnessed first hand years ago, and what Deaf advocates fight to
change. Luckily, it is now changing school by school, and teacher by teacher.
Speech Therapy is a valuable tool, but is just that- and should be treated as an
elective, similar to music lessons. Some prefer it, some do not- it should NOT be
forced on students as the foundation of an education program (such as Oralism),
but instead offered as one of many options for the student.
Manualism-viewsWhatever helps the child learn, live,
and communicate:
Facts, supported by linguistic research:
- “The brain is most receptive to language
acquisition during “sensitive periods”
early in a child’s development.”
Oralism-viewswhatever helps the child
learn to “listen” & “talk”:
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- “Acquiring a complete first language
during early childhood is critical for later
reading comprehension.”
- “Learning two languages [that is,
American Sign Language (ASL) and
English] is advantageous for deaf and hard
of hearing children.”
- “Deaf and hard of hearing children who
receive early [visual language] intervention
services [especially through age 5] have been
found to have better language outcomes.”
-VL2
“Any speech or language
problem is likely to have a
significant effect on the
child's social and academic
skills and behavior. The
earlier a child's speech and
language problems are
identified and treated, the
less likely it is that problems
will persist or get worse.”
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-AGB Association
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http://listeningandspokenlanguage.org/Document.aspx?id=238
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These are assumptions, NOT
facts! - Dr. Weast
http://vl2.gallaudet.edu/educator.php?id=2.11
“A Strong Language
Foundation,
(regardless of the
language or
modality) is
important for
reading success.”
-quote from brief
Dark Ages of Deaf History
1880 to 1970’s/80’s and beyond! – now some are emerging from the fog
Oralism- no signs allowed, Deaf teachers fired, manual schools shut down.
Promise was that students of any hearing loss could “learn to listen”
--- uh, ??????
Average deaf or hard of hearing student graduated high school at a
3rd or 4th grade reading level- NOT their fault! (and these statistics are
generally NOT the outcome for students now, if given full access to ASL)
1960’s proof ASL is a fully developed language
1975 Section 504 (now called IDEA)
1990’s the ADA (American’s with Disabilities Act).
Problems…
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1970’s-80’s-Response to Section 504: Total
Communication – “whatever works”, became signing and
talking at the same time “simcom” (simultaneous
communication), but no ASL- visual English only, if signs
were deemed “necessary”, and they had to use voice
No real improvements in scores….so, beginning in the
1990s, More ASL was allowed in (depending on school),
which led to great research in support of the child and
ASL! But, others fight it despite evidence…
1990’s to now…
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Research shows written English is best acquired through a real
language, such as American Sign Language
1990’s to now: Many ASL bilingual/bicultural/dual language
schools are demonstrating effective Deaf Education and student
success. Many schools, however, still limit access to signs even
for the profoundly deaf child. If that child does not have a family
member to “re-teach” them in their own language ASL, they end
up behind, despite a brilliant mind!
Advocates for change continue to provide new research to support
manual method. Speech therapy is considered an augmentation of a
child’s life, not more important than learning concepts.
It is time for all Deaf children to have equal access to great education!
Cochlear Implant
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Controversy- experimental, parents are often misinformed by medical pratictioners,
some do benefit, but parents should not be scared into surgery.
Change through the years
“If your child receives little to no benefit from hearing aids, has a severe-to-profound
hearing loss and is at least 12 months old, he or she may be a candidate for a
cochlear implant. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends
cochlear implant surgery no younger than 12 months, many children as young as 6
months old are having the surgery with few reports of complications. As with any
surgery performed under general anesthesia, there are always risks parents should
be aware of.” (AGBell Assoc.)
How would you like to be one of those “few complications”? What about the
limitations this surgery imposes for the rest of your life? Also, any residual hearing is
gone once you are implanted- so when it is not attached, you are in a full “silent”
world, regardless. If possible, wait and let the child decide.
Cochlear Implant is serious brain surgery. Parents need to make informed decisions
and weigh the risks/benefits of this surgery, without being misled that their child will
never acquire written English without it- not true!
Also- many parents are choosing Oralism for imlanted children- these children still
need exposure to signs, and teachers who advocate for this.
Communication Methods--
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American Sign Language (ASL)- A full language! 
Systems (not languages), attempting to show “visual
English” Where
you are to associate what is seen to “sounds”, even
though you may have never “heard” them -and no, crazy as
it sounds, I am not making this up! -- see #1-#4 below:
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1.Manually Coded English Systems
 Contact
Signing (CS)
 Total Communication
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2.Rochester Method- a fingerspelling system
3.Oralism (Oral Communication, speech/lipreading only)
4.Cued Speech –a type of sound/sight recognition
ASL: It’s Own Language
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Visual/manual communication system with it’s own
syntax and vocabulary
Signs in conjunction with facial expression and body
language convey concepts
Facial and bodily cues differ from nonverbal cues
used with speech
An interactive language between the signer and the
receiver
Youtube links :
ASL vs. SEE--- The Bank
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M6drv_kpqw8&feat
ure=youtube_gdata_player
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Westwood ASL- Deaf high school teacher-ASL:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0hnOmEWzlN4&fea
ture=related
Click Clack Moo SEE vs. ASL
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zzPDo4PVpg
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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19YXU8QQXhA
Manually Coded English Systems
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Signed English
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Seeing Essential English (SEE I)
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Linguistics of Visual English (L.O.V.E.)
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Signing Exact English (SEE II)
Rochester Method
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1876
Zenas Westervelt, deaf
Rochester School for the Deaf
Summary for MCE
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SEE1: BUTTER + FLY, visual English; BOW has only one
sign (Bow and Arrow, Bow you tie…)
SEE2: spin-off group from SEE1, one-to-one
correspondence (BOW = 4 different signs); adds
many initialized signs
Signed English: 14 markers, sometimes ASL signs to
English word order; includes initialized signs. Often
looks similar to SEE2.
Seeing Essential English
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David Anthony, deaf, Gallaudet College
SEE1
1966
Signing Exact English
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SEE2
1972
Gerilee Gustason (deaf, PhD, Education USC)
LOVE
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Dennis Wamper
1972
Gallaudet community
Robert Cornett
1966
Gallaudet community
Signed English
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Mid 1970’s
Harry Borstein (deaf?)
Gallaudet College
Contact Signing
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Continuum between ASL and English
Sometimes the varieties appear more ASL-like, and
other times more like English (“contact varieties”variations in contact signing)
Often called a “Pidgin”, but linguists generally now
agree it is not a true Pidgin
Manually Coded English –systems
They are not languages, but attempt to show visual English
They include Signed English, SEE1, SEE2,…
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You may see a continuum of signing which ranges from:
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“Pure” ASL -----------------------------------------------------”Pure” MCE system
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“conversational” ASL--------------------------------“Conv. “ Signed English
“Contact varieties”
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“contact” ASL--------- ----------“contact” Signed Eng.
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More Spatial
attempt at “English” on the hands
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Production of
more Linear, try to think in sounds
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meaningful units
Conceptual accuracy
initialized signs,
14 markers
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full language
follow English order
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visually “makes sense”
often use lips, voice
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Note: “contact varieties” used to be called Pidgin Signed English- not anymore
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