Second language writers meet first

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Second language writers
meet first-year composition
Margi Wald
Lecturer, College Writing Programs
Director, Summer English Language Institute
UC Berkeley, [email protected]
CATESOL 2011, April 9, Long Beach, CA
WPA framework:
“Habits of mind”
Curiosity – the desire to know more about the world.
Openness – the willingness to consider new ways of being and thinking in
the world.
Engagement – a sense of investment and involvement in learning.
Creativity – the ability to use novel approaches for generating,
investigating, and representing ideas.
Persistence – the ability to sustain interest in and attention to short- and
long-term projects.
Responsibility – the ability to take ownership of one’s actions and
understand the consequences of those actions for oneself and others.
Flexibility – the ability to adapt to situations, expectations, or demands.
Metacognition – the ability to reflect on one’s own thinking as well as on the
individual and cultural processes used to structure knowledge.
Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, Council of Writing Program
Administrators, 2011 <http://wpacouncil.org/framework>
WPA framework:
Reading / writing “experiences”
Rhetorical knowledge – the ability to analyze and act on
understandings of audiences, purposes, and contexts in creating
and comprehending texts;
Critical thinking – the ability to analyze a situation or text and
make thoughtful decisions based on that analysis, through writing,
reading, and research;
Writing processes – multiple strategies to approach and undertake
writing and research;
Knowledge of conventions – the formal and informal guidelines
that define what is considered to be correct and appropriate, or
incorrect and inappropriate, in a piece of writing; and
Abilities to compose in multiple environments – from using
traditional pen and paper to electronic technologies.
Academic literacy
competencies
According to faculty, 1/3 of entering students
are insufficiently prepared for the two most
common writing assignments: “analyzing
information and arguments and synthesizing
information from several sources”
83% of faculty note that students’ “lack of
analytical reading skills contribute to students’
lack of success in courses.”
Academic Literacy: A Statement of Competencies Expected of Students
Entering California’s Public Colleges and Universities
Some assignments from the
College Writing Programs
Rhetorical Analysis: Analyze Bill Clinton’s speech at
the Democratic National Convention. Be sure to begin
with a clear description of the rhetorical situation (Hillary
‘lost’ to Obama; Bill is a well-liked former president) to
ground your analysis of Clinton’s goals and techniques.
Critique: Choose one or more article(s) written to
support or oppose the DREAM Act. Highlight the main
approaches the author(s) use(s) and discuss the
limitations of these arguments. Use outside sources as
necessary to support your critique.
Some assignments from the
College Writing Programs
Analysis/Genre Comparison: Write an argument
which compares and contrasts the approaches used
by Kozol (Savage Inequalities) and Biddle & Berliner
(“What Research Says About Unequal Funding for
Schools in America”) given their differing rhetorical
situations.
Persuasion: Use information from Kozol’s Shame of
the Nation, the video “Making the Grade,” your own
observations, and other sources to support your
position on UC Berkeley’s holistic admissions policy.
Be sure to address your opposition’s potential
concerns.
Some assignments from the
College Writing Programs
Synthesis: In his essay, Rodriguez asks us to ponder
the question “what is a border?” in a globalized,
transnational world. Davis’ essay looks at “third
borders” within US cites that segregate communities
and Mukherjee’s essay presents several metaphors
of immigration. How have these pieces re-defined the
term “border”?
Intertextuality: Use DuBois’ notion of ‘double
consciousness’ to analyze one or more of the
following pieces: Rodriguez’s “Aria,” Anzaldúa’s “How
to Tame a Wild Tongue,” and/or Liu’s “The Accidental
Asian.”
Reading / writing
Understanding of rhetorical situation /
audience
Reading / writing
Understanding of rhetorical situation /
audience
Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking
Reading / writing
Understanding of rhetorical situation /
audience
Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking
Addressing complex topics -- breaking out
of single modes
Reading / writing
Understanding of rhetorical situation /
audience
Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking
Addressing complex topics -- breaking out
of single modes
Borrowing of text -- legitimate and
illegitimate
Reading / writing
Borrowing of text -- legitimate and
illegitimate
Texts assigned
Reading load / length
Texts assigned
Reading load / length
Text types / models
Texts assigned
Reading load / length
Text types / models
Assumed or necessary cultural ‘literacy’
Grammar and vocabulary
Structures and vocabulary prevalent in
spoken vs. written registers
Features of Conversation
Pronouns
Inserts
Sentence fragments
Questions
Attention Getters
Interjections
Repeats
Reduced Forms
Contractions
Colloquialisms
(Bennett, TESOL 2011)
Features of academic writing
Nouns and noun phrases
Definite noun phrase used
in cataphoric expression
Nominalization
Preposition+which
relativizer
Comparative adjs
Passive voice
Modified noun phrases
Relative clauses
(Bennett, TESOL 2011)
Degree modifiers
Single adverbials
Though
Existential there
Coordination tags
Classifiers
That/those + of –phrase
Linking adverbials
Non-finite, verbless
clauses
Subordinate phrases
Same structures /
Different uses
Single adverbial subordinators are used differently in
academic prose than other registers.
95% of uses of since are used for reason in
academic prose, but for time in conversation:
– Since extracting stem cells in embryos ends the
development of the embryo, many believe that embryos are
human life.
– That’s the funniest thing I’ve heard since I moved here.
Same structures /
Different uses
80% of uses of while are used for concession/
contrast in academic prose, but for time in
conversation.
– Alexie’s family was viewed poor by Americans, while still
considered middle-class by American Indians.
– Taking notes is important while listening to a lecture.
(Statistics from Biber, et al., 1999, p. 846;
examples from NAFWiC, 2009; Bennett, 2011).
Coordination / Subordination
Expressing Causality
Fossil fuels are harmful to our environment because
they increase global warming and they are not
renewable.
Fossil fuels are harmful to our environment, so
scientists are working to find and develop alternative
energy sources.
Eventually, supplies of fossil fuels will be depleted.
Therefore, scientists are working to find and develop
alternative energy sources.
Expressing Causality
There is much debate surrounding the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear
power plants emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). Given
the low emissions of green house gases, the creation of nuclear
power contributes very little to global warming, unlike fossil fuels, whose
emissions are seen as responsible for climate change. Also, one power
plant can generate a substantial amount electrical energy. With such
high yield, nuclear energy is considered efficient and profitable.
However, any people reject nuclear energy as an option because of
safety concerns. First, nuclear waste can be extremely dangerous and
must be carefully stored over many years, resulting in high costs. Also,
accidents in nuclear power plants can lead to serious consequences for
human and natural life. In light of these potentially devastating
outcomes, many people question the viability of nuclear energy as an
alternative to fossil fuels.
(Sample based on Flowerdew, 1998; Gillett, 2009; Schleppegrell, 2004)
Grammar meets vocabulary
Complexity of using academic words accurately in
writing
Thesaurus errors
– David’s text: callow perspective
– Irene’s text: The immigrant acclimatized his context.
Register
– David’s text: disenfranchised, stressed out
Feedback
– “Awkward” (Hao)
– W/C (others)
What you need to ‘know’
about a word
Nation’s list: collocation, derivatives/word forms,
connotation, grammatical environment
– Researchers are quite interested about the relationship
between socio-economic class and educational success.
(Longman)
– It is important to recognition this relationship. (Longman)
– For my interview project, I interrogated four students, two
US-born immigrants and two born abroad. (Longman)
– Results suggest that Hmong child-rearing practices can
produce well-adjusted, highly happy children. (COCA)
– The high cost of tuition dwindled the student’s savings.
(Longman, COCA).
Investigating vocabulary
Resources -- getting students to investigate
words
– Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
http://www.ldoceonline.com/
– Cambridge http://dictionary.cambridge.org/,
– Cobuild http://www.mycobuild.com/free-search.aspx
– Oxford
http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/?cc=globa
l
– Oxford Collocations http://www.lixiaolai.com/ocd/
– Corpus of Contemporary American English:
http://www.americancorpus.org (advanced students)
Grammar and Vocabulary
Lack of support in class, in teacher
feedback or from student services
(university writing centers)
– need for teaching self-editing strategies
References
Bennett, G. (2011, March). Noticing language features across registers;
Applying academic language in EAP writing [PowerPoint slides]. Paper
presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA.
<http://writing.berkeley.edu/users/mwald/tesol11_panel.html>.
Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999).
Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman.
Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of
English, and Nation Writing Project (2011). Framework for success in
postsecondary writing.
Ferris, D. (2001, March). Expectations & challenges for L2 students in
undergraduate writing programs. [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the
annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA.
Flowerdew, L. (1998). Integrating ‘expert’ and ‘interlanguage’ computer corpora
findings on causality: Discoveries for teachers and students. English for
Specific Purposes, 17, 4. 329-345.
References
Gillett, A. (2009). Rhetorical functions in academic writing: Cause and effect.
Using English for academic purposes: A guide for students in higher
education <http://www.uefap.com/writing/function/causeff.htm>.
Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates. (2002). Academic
Literacy: A Statement of Competencies Expected of Students Entering
California’s Public Colleges and Universities. Sacramento: Academic
Senate for California Community Colleges.
North American Freshman Writing Corpus (NAFWiC). (2009). Compiled by
Gena Bennett at the Department of English, University of Birmingham, UK.
Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schmitt, D. (2011, March). Crossing modalities-From listening to writing.
[PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL
Convention, New Orleans, LA.
<http://writing.berkeley.edu/users/mwald/tesol11_panel.html>.
Classroom Texts
Admissions, Enrolment, and Preperatory Education (AEPE) Committee of the
Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate. (2010). University of California,
Berkeley freshmen selection criteria, fall 2011. Berkeley, CA: AEPE Committee
of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate.
Anzaldúa, G. (1999). How to Tame a Wild Tongue. Borderlands/La frontera: A
new mestiza, 2e. Toronto: Consortium Books.
Bartholomae, D. & Petrosky, A. (2002). Introduction. Ways of reading: An
anthology for writers, 6e. Boston: Bedford / St. Martins. 1-14
Bay Window: Making the Grade. (1999, 23 March) KQED.
Biddle, B. J. & Berliner, D. C. (2002). Unequal School Funding in the United
States. Educational leadership. May 2002. 48-59.
Clinton, W.J. (27 August). Lecture. 2008 Democratic National Convention,
Denver.
Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903). Of Our Spiritual Strivings. The souls of black folk.
Available at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library.
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DubSoul.html.
Classroom Texts
Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates. (2002). Academic literacy: A
statement of competencies expected of students entering California’s public colleges
and universities. Sacramento: Academic Senate for California Community Colleges.
Graff, G & Birkenstein, C. (2005). They say / I say: The moves that matter in
academic writing. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Kozol, J. (1992). Savage inequalities. New York: Harper.
Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation. New York: Three Rivers Press.
Liu, E. (1986). Notes of a Native Speaker. The accidental Asian. New York: Vintage
Books.
Mukherjee, B. (1997). American Dreamer. Mother Jones. Jan/Feb issue. Available
at http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/1997/01/mukherjee.html.
Retrieved 1/14/04.
Rodriguez, R. (1982). Aria. Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez.
Toronto: Bantam Books
Rodriguez, R. (1995, April). Prophets without Papers. Harper’s magazine, 290
(1739). 23.
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