Second language writers meet first-year composition Margi Wald Lecturer, College Writing Programs Director, Summer English Language Institute UC Berkeley, [email protected] CATESOL 2011, April 9, Long Beach, CA WPA framework: “Habits of mind” Curiosity – the desire to know more about the world. Openness – the willingness to consider new ways of being and thinking in the world. Engagement – a sense of investment and involvement in learning. Creativity – the ability to use novel approaches for generating, investigating, and representing ideas. Persistence – the ability to sustain interest in and attention to short- and long-term projects. Responsibility – the ability to take ownership of one’s actions and understand the consequences of those actions for oneself and others. Flexibility – the ability to adapt to situations, expectations, or demands. Metacognition – the ability to reflect on one’s own thinking as well as on the individual and cultural processes used to structure knowledge. Framework for Success in Postsecondary Writing, Council of Writing Program Administrators, 2011 <http://wpacouncil.org/framework> WPA framework: Reading / writing “experiences” Rhetorical knowledge – the ability to analyze and act on understandings of audiences, purposes, and contexts in creating and comprehending texts; Critical thinking – the ability to analyze a situation or text and make thoughtful decisions based on that analysis, through writing, reading, and research; Writing processes – multiple strategies to approach and undertake writing and research; Knowledge of conventions – the formal and informal guidelines that define what is considered to be correct and appropriate, or incorrect and inappropriate, in a piece of writing; and Abilities to compose in multiple environments – from using traditional pen and paper to electronic technologies. Academic literacy competencies According to faculty, 1/3 of entering students are insufficiently prepared for the two most common writing assignments: “analyzing information and arguments and synthesizing information from several sources” 83% of faculty note that students’ “lack of analytical reading skills contribute to students’ lack of success in courses.” Academic Literacy: A Statement of Competencies Expected of Students Entering California’s Public Colleges and Universities Some assignments from the College Writing Programs Rhetorical Analysis: Analyze Bill Clinton’s speech at the Democratic National Convention. Be sure to begin with a clear description of the rhetorical situation (Hillary ‘lost’ to Obama; Bill is a well-liked former president) to ground your analysis of Clinton’s goals and techniques. Critique: Choose one or more article(s) written to support or oppose the DREAM Act. Highlight the main approaches the author(s) use(s) and discuss the limitations of these arguments. Use outside sources as necessary to support your critique. Some assignments from the College Writing Programs Analysis/Genre Comparison: Write an argument which compares and contrasts the approaches used by Kozol (Savage Inequalities) and Biddle & Berliner (“What Research Says About Unequal Funding for Schools in America”) given their differing rhetorical situations. Persuasion: Use information from Kozol’s Shame of the Nation, the video “Making the Grade,” your own observations, and other sources to support your position on UC Berkeley’s holistic admissions policy. Be sure to address your opposition’s potential concerns. Some assignments from the College Writing Programs Synthesis: In his essay, Rodriguez asks us to ponder the question “what is a border?” in a globalized, transnational world. Davis’ essay looks at “third borders” within US cites that segregate communities and Mukherjee’s essay presents several metaphors of immigration. How have these pieces re-defined the term “border”? Intertextuality: Use DuBois’ notion of ‘double consciousness’ to analyze one or more of the following pieces: Rodriguez’s “Aria,” Anzaldúa’s “How to Tame a Wild Tongue,” and/or Liu’s “The Accidental Asian.” Reading / writing Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience Reading / writing Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking Reading / writing Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking Addressing complex topics -- breaking out of single modes Reading / writing Understanding of rhetorical situation / audience Privileging of certain kinds of critical thinking Addressing complex topics -- breaking out of single modes Borrowing of text -- legitimate and illegitimate Reading / writing Borrowing of text -- legitimate and illegitimate Texts assigned Reading load / length Texts assigned Reading load / length Text types / models Texts assigned Reading load / length Text types / models Assumed or necessary cultural ‘literacy’ Grammar and vocabulary Structures and vocabulary prevalent in spoken vs. written registers Features of Conversation Pronouns Inserts Sentence fragments Questions Attention Getters Interjections Repeats Reduced Forms Contractions Colloquialisms (Bennett, TESOL 2011) Features of academic writing Nouns and noun phrases Definite noun phrase used in cataphoric expression Nominalization Preposition+which relativizer Comparative adjs Passive voice Modified noun phrases Relative clauses (Bennett, TESOL 2011) Degree modifiers Single adverbials Though Existential there Coordination tags Classifiers That/those + of –phrase Linking adverbials Non-finite, verbless clauses Subordinate phrases Same structures / Different uses Single adverbial subordinators are used differently in academic prose than other registers. 95% of uses of since are used for reason in academic prose, but for time in conversation: – Since extracting stem cells in embryos ends the development of the embryo, many believe that embryos are human life. – That’s the funniest thing I’ve heard since I moved here. Same structures / Different uses 80% of uses of while are used for concession/ contrast in academic prose, but for time in conversation. – Alexie’s family was viewed poor by Americans, while still considered middle-class by American Indians. – Taking notes is important while listening to a lecture. (Statistics from Biber, et al., 1999, p. 846; examples from NAFWiC, 2009; Bennett, 2011). Coordination / Subordination Expressing Causality Fossil fuels are harmful to our environment because they increase global warming and they are not renewable. Fossil fuels are harmful to our environment, so scientists are working to find and develop alternative energy sources. Eventually, supplies of fossil fuels will be depleted. Therefore, scientists are working to find and develop alternative energy sources. Expressing Causality There is much debate surrounding the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear power plants emit relatively low amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). Given the low emissions of green house gases, the creation of nuclear power contributes very little to global warming, unlike fossil fuels, whose emissions are seen as responsible for climate change. Also, one power plant can generate a substantial amount electrical energy. With such high yield, nuclear energy is considered efficient and profitable. However, any people reject nuclear energy as an option because of safety concerns. First, nuclear waste can be extremely dangerous and must be carefully stored over many years, resulting in high costs. Also, accidents in nuclear power plants can lead to serious consequences for human and natural life. In light of these potentially devastating outcomes, many people question the viability of nuclear energy as an alternative to fossil fuels. (Sample based on Flowerdew, 1998; Gillett, 2009; Schleppegrell, 2004) Grammar meets vocabulary Complexity of using academic words accurately in writing Thesaurus errors – David’s text: callow perspective – Irene’s text: The immigrant acclimatized his context. Register – David’s text: disenfranchised, stressed out Feedback – “Awkward” (Hao) – W/C (others) What you need to ‘know’ about a word Nation’s list: collocation, derivatives/word forms, connotation, grammatical environment – Researchers are quite interested about the relationship between socio-economic class and educational success. (Longman) – It is important to recognition this relationship. (Longman) – For my interview project, I interrogated four students, two US-born immigrants and two born abroad. (Longman) – Results suggest that Hmong child-rearing practices can produce well-adjusted, highly happy children. (COCA) – The high cost of tuition dwindled the student’s savings. (Longman, COCA). Investigating vocabulary Resources -- getting students to investigate words – Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English http://www.ldoceonline.com/ – Cambridge http://dictionary.cambridge.org/, – Cobuild http://www.mycobuild.com/free-search.aspx – Oxford http://www.oxfordadvancedlearnersdictionary.com/?cc=globa l – Oxford Collocations http://www.lixiaolai.com/ocd/ – Corpus of Contemporary American English: http://www.americancorpus.org (advanced students) Grammar and Vocabulary Lack of support in class, in teacher feedback or from student services (university writing centers) – need for teaching self-editing strategies References Bennett, G. (2011, March). Noticing language features across registers; Applying academic language in EAP writing [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA. <http://writing.berkeley.edu/users/mwald/tesol11_panel.html>. Biber, D., Johansson, S., Leech, G., Conrad, S., & Finegan, E. (1999). Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman. Council of Writing Program Administrators, National Council of Teachers of English, and Nation Writing Project (2011). Framework for success in postsecondary writing. Ferris, D. (2001, March). Expectations & challenges for L2 students in undergraduate writing programs. [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA. Flowerdew, L. (1998). Integrating ‘expert’ and ‘interlanguage’ computer corpora findings on causality: Discoveries for teachers and students. English for Specific Purposes, 17, 4. 329-345. References Gillett, A. (2009). Rhetorical functions in academic writing: Cause and effect. Using English for academic purposes: A guide for students in higher education <http://www.uefap.com/writing/function/causeff.htm>. Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates. (2002). Academic Literacy: A Statement of Competencies Expected of Students Entering California’s Public Colleges and Universities. Sacramento: Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. North American Freshman Writing Corpus (NAFWiC). (2009). Compiled by Gena Bennett at the Department of English, University of Birmingham, UK. Nation, I.S.P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Schmitt, D. (2011, March). Crossing modalities-From listening to writing. [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual International TESOL Convention, New Orleans, LA. <http://writing.berkeley.edu/users/mwald/tesol11_panel.html>. Classroom Texts Admissions, Enrolment, and Preperatory Education (AEPE) Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate. (2010). University of California, Berkeley freshmen selection criteria, fall 2011. Berkeley, CA: AEPE Committee of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate. Anzaldúa, G. (1999). How to Tame a Wild Tongue. Borderlands/La frontera: A new mestiza, 2e. Toronto: Consortium Books. Bartholomae, D. & Petrosky, A. (2002). Introduction. Ways of reading: An anthology for writers, 6e. Boston: Bedford / St. Martins. 1-14 Bay Window: Making the Grade. (1999, 23 March) KQED. Biddle, B. J. & Berliner, D. C. (2002). Unequal School Funding in the United States. Educational leadership. May 2002. 48-59. Clinton, W.J. (27 August). Lecture. 2008 Democratic National Convention, Denver. Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903). Of Our Spiritual Strivings. The souls of black folk. Available at the Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/DubSoul.html. Classroom Texts Intersegmental Committee of the Academic Senates. (2002). Academic literacy: A statement of competencies expected of students entering California’s public colleges and universities. Sacramento: Academic Senate for California Community Colleges. Graff, G & Birkenstein, C. (2005). They say / I say: The moves that matter in academic writing. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Kozol, J. (1992). Savage inequalities. New York: Harper. Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation. New York: Three Rivers Press. Liu, E. (1986). Notes of a Native Speaker. The accidental Asian. New York: Vintage Books. Mukherjee, B. (1997). American Dreamer. Mother Jones. Jan/Feb issue. Available at http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/1997/01/mukherjee.html. Retrieved 1/14/04. Rodriguez, R. (1982). Aria. Hunger of memory: The education of Richard Rodriguez. Toronto: Bantam Books Rodriguez, R. (1995, April). Prophets without Papers. Harper’s magazine, 290 (1739). 23.