Code-mixing & Code-switching

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“A structural analysis review”
Lecture 6
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Prefered terms by experts
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Typology of Code-switching
Equivalence
constraint
Free morpheme
constraint
Shana Poplack (1980)
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Equivalence Constraint (EC)”
Code-switches tend to occur at points where
the juxtaposition of L1 and L2 items does not
‘violate a syntactic rule of either language’
Apa yang dia claim?
what does he claim?
 The Equivalence Constraint claims that there
is linear order and structural hierarchy in
code-switched utterances.
No problem, ke mana dia pergi.
No problem, where does she go

08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Free Morpheme Constraint (FMC)
 The
Free Morpheme Constraint proposes
that code-switches will not occur within a
word such as between two affixes, and a
stem and an affix.
* saya yang meng-organize-kan ini 
- siapa yang meng-order buku ini ? 
- ada yang ber-honeymoon di pulau itu 
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
FMC

The Free Morpheme Constraint suggests that
switching is possible anywhere except between
a bound morpheme and a stem
- dia kelihatan ill-feel
- biasanya hari minggu adiknya off
- You kelihatan loyo, take a rest saja hari ini
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Typology of Code-mixing
Insertion
Alternation
Congruent Lexicalization
Pieter Muysken (2000)
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Insertional CM”
Structural characteristics of insertions
proposed by Muysken (2000) are that they
are usually single, content words (such as
nouns and adjectives)
 The word order of the sentence displays a
nested a b a structure. This means that the
elements preceding and following the
insertion are grammatically related.

08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Example of Insertion CM”
A = L1
B = L2
A
B
…a… …b…
A
…a…
Amir sudah dua step ketinggalan di
belakang
 Tak banyak anggota yang posting tulisan

08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Alternational CM”
Alternation occurs when several constituents
are mixed in a sequence. Discourse particles
and adverbs are analyzed as alternations.
 Alternation is observed to display a nonnested A...B...A structure, which means that
the elements preceding and following the
‘switched string’ are not ‘structurally’ related.
 In alternation, a sentence begins with
language A and ends in language B or the
way round.

08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Example of Alternation CM”
A
B
…a…
…b…
For you know, kami selalu konsisten.
 Jangan sampai terlambat, Okay?
 Apapun tindakannya, it must be crime.

08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Congruent Lexicalization”
Considerable contact between typologically
not-so-distant language pairs may lead to
‘congruent lexicalization’ (CL).
 The theory of CL characterizes the
convergence of two grammatical systems
into one that can take place.
 In CL, the grammar of the sentence is
shared either fully or in part by the two
languages.

08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
“Example of CL”
A/B
…a…
…b…
…a…
…b…
Bahasa has no CL with English because both
are not a language in one family..
This may happen for a non-distant language
pairs.
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Conclusion

Poplack proposed two constraints of
Code-switching: free morpheme
constraint and equivalent constraint.

Muysken proposed three types of Codemixing: Insertion, Alternation, and
Congruent Lexicalization.
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Thank you
08 April 2013
By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
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