Body Systems Notes Slides

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BELL RINGER [3 Minutes]
• Mark K/S/H/D for Body Systems
Vocabulary
• Write 1 sentence using an AWL
Vocabulary Word (Differentiate,
Impact, Evaluate, Criteria)
BELL RINGER [3 Minutes]
• Body Systems Matching
MYP Biology: Human Body Systems
Different cells work together in increasing levels
of organization within the human body
There are more than 200 different types of
cells in the human body
Different cells work together in increasing levels
of organization within the human body
Early cells of the human
embryo are called Stem
Cells. They have the
unique ability to become
any type of human body
cell through a process
called Differentiation.
Different cells work together in increasing levels
of organization within the human body
Groups of similar cells work together to form
tissues. There are four types:
Epithelial tissue is made up protective sheets of
tightly-packed cells. Examples include the skin,
and membranes lining the stomach and lungs
Connective tissue supports and joins together other organs
and tissues. Examples include tendons (muscle-bone joint),
ligaments (bone-bone joint), bone, and cartilage.
Muscle tissue can contract (pull back)
to produce movement
Nervous tissue sends and receives impulses
(electrical signals) in response to stimuli
(something in the surrounding environment)
Different cells work together in increasing levels
of organization within the human body
• Different types of tissues working together make
up units called organs.
• Two or more organs functioning together make
up an organ system.
Major organ systems allow the human
body to maintain homeostasis:
The Nervous System
Major Function:
Processes information and controls the body’s response
to its environment.
Organ / Tissue
Function
Brain
Controls the function of all other organs
through generating muscle responses
and secreting hormones
Spinal cord &
Transmits nerve signals from the brain
peripheral
to the rest of the body.
nerves
How does it help maintain homeostasis?
Signals from electrical
impulses and hormones
control the interrelated
functions of all organ
systems.
Controls response to the
environment / senses
The Respiratory System
Major Function:
Brings oxygen (O2)into the body and releases carbon
dioxide (CO2)
Organ / Tissue
Nose
Function
Takes in and releases air
Trachea
Windpipe; allows passage of air to lungs
Lungs
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to the
bloodstream; exhales carbon dioxide
How does it help maintain homeostasis?
Regulates stable oxygen
and carbon dioxide
levels in blood
Low oxygen and high
carbon dioxide levels
can both cause damage
The Circulatory System
Major Function:
Circulates oxygen, nutrients, and wastes through the
body through bloodstream.
Organ / Tissue
Heart
Arteries
Function
Pumps blood through circulatory system
Vessels that carry blood AWAY from the heart
Veins
Vessels that carry blood TO the heart
Capillaries
Tiny vessels joining veins and arteries
How does it help maintain homeostasis?
Ensures all cells have
a stable level of
oxygen, glucose, and
other nutrients to
keep them alive and
functioning
Heart rate is
consistent
The Digestive System
Major Function:
Breaks-down and absorbs nutrients, water, and salts
from food
Organ / Tissue
Mouth
Esophagus
Stomach
Function
Takes in and begins digestion of food
Allows passage of food from mouth to stomach
Digests food with acids and enzymes
The Digestive System
Organ / Tissue
Function
Small / Large Absorbs nutrients and water from
Intestine
digested food and transfers to blood
Pancreas
Liver
Produces digestive enzymes and
hormones that regulate digestion
Produces bile and hormones that help
with digestion; detoxifies blood
How does it help maintain homeostasis?
Ensures cells have
access to the nutrients
they need to function
Also digests / removes
toxins from the blood
The Immune System
Major Function:
Protects the body from pathogens (things that can
make us sick, ex: bacteria, viruses)
Organ / Tissue
Skin
Function
Barrier and first line of defense against
pathogens
Thymus
Develops white blood cells
Spleen
Produces antibodies (which target and
mark pathogens for destruction)
How does it help maintain homeostasis?
Protects the body from
infection, which disrupts
homeostasis in different
organ systems
The Excretory System
Major Function:
Filters and removes wastes from the body
Organ / Tissue
Function
Kidneys
Filters waste and excess products of metabolism
out of the blood
Bladder
Collects and releases urine filtered from the
kidneys
Large
Intestine
Reabsorbs water from waste to make solid feces
How does it help maintain homeostasis?
Removes solid and
liquid waste from body
Returns extra water
and nutrients back to
the bloodstream
Examples of Human Homeostasis:
Thermoregulation
• Brain regulates responses in skin,
muscles, and blood vessels to
maintain stable internal body
temperature
• 98.6°F in humans
• Shivering / sweating
Examples of Human Homeostasis:
Blood-Glucose Level
• Pancreas and liver produce
hormones that maintain a
constant level of glucose in the
bloodstream
• Diabetes occurs when these
hormones are unable to properly
regulate blood sugar levels
Examples of Human Homeostasis:
Heart Rate / Breathing Rate
• Constant resting heart rate (60-75 BPM) allows
consistent blood supply to major organs / cells
• Heart rate / breathing increases during exercise to
provide more oxygen and nutrients to cells to
process more energy
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